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1.
Mol Ther ; 30(2): 963-974, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525991

ABSTRACT

Small molecule inhibitors have previously been investigated in different studies as possible therapeutics in the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In the current drug repurposing study, we identified the leukotriene (D4) receptor antagonist montelukast as a novel agent that simultaneously targets two important drug targets of SARS-CoV-2. We initially demonstrated the dual inhibition profile of montelukast through multiscale molecular modeling studies. Next, we characterized its effect on both targets by different in vitro experiments including the enzyme (main protease) inhibition-based assay, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, pseudovirus neutralization on HEK293T/hACE2+TMPRSS2, and virus neutralization assay using xCELLigence MP real-time cell analyzer. Our integrated in silico and in vitro results confirmed the dual potential effect of montelukast both on the main protease enzyme inhibition and virus entry into the host cell (spike/ACE2). The virus neutralization assay results showed that SARS-CoV-2 virus activity was delayed with montelukast for 20 h on the infected cells. The rapid use of new small molecules in the pandemic is very important today. Montelukast, whose pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties are very well characterized and has been widely used in the treatment of asthma since 1998, should urgently be completed in clinical phase studies and, if its effect is proved in clinical phase studies, it should be used against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Acetates/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Quinolines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Sulfides/pharmacology , A549 Cells , Acetates/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cyclopropanes/chemistry , Drug Repositioning , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Neutralization Tests , Protein Conformation , Quinolines/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Sulfides/chemistry , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects
3.
Pharmacology ; 106(9-10): 469-476, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is a serious devastating disease and has posed a global health emergency. So far, there is not any specific therapy approved till date to control the clinical symptoms of the disease. Remdesivir has been approved by the FDA as an emergency clinical therapy. But it may not be effective alone to control the disease as it can only control the viral replication in the host. SUMMARY: This article summarizes the possible therapeutic potential and benefits of using montelukast, a cysteinyl leukotriene 1 (CysLT1) receptor antagonist, to control COVID-19 pathophysiology. Montelukast has shown anti-inflammatory effects, reduced cytokine production, improvement in post-infection cough production and other lung complications. Key Messages: Recent reports clearly indicate a distinct role of CysLT-regulated cytokines and immunological signaling in COVID-19. Thus, montelukast may have a clinical potential to control lung pathology during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acetates/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Leukotriene Antagonists/pharmacology , Quinolines/pharmacology , Sulfides/pharmacology , Acetates/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use , Humans , Leukotriene Antagonists/therapeutic use , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Receptors, Leukotriene/metabolism , Sulfides/therapeutic use
4.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 571: 26-31, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312941

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has necessitated expedited research efforts towards finding potential antiviral targets and drug development measures. While new drug discovery is time consuming, drug repurposing has been a promising area for elaborate virtual screening and identification of existing FDA approved drugs that could possibly be used for targeting against functions of various proteins of SARS-CoV-2 virus. RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is an important enzyme for the virus that mediates replication of the viral RNA. Inhibition of RdRp could inhibit viral RNA replication and thus new virus particle production. Here, we screened non-nucleoside antivirals and found three out of them to be strongest in binding to RdRp out of which two retained binding even using molecular dynamic simulations. We propose these two drugs as potential RdRp inhibitors which need further in-depth testing.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Amides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Carbamates/pharmacology , Catalytic Domain , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning , Fluorenes/pharmacology , Humans , Lactams, Macrocyclic/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Proline/pharmacology , Protein Conformation , Quinoxalines/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10290, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228274

ABSTRACT

As the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic engulfs millions worldwide, the quest for vaccines or drugs against the virus continues. The helicase protein of SARS-CoV-2 represents an attractive target for drug discovery since inhibition of helicase activity can suppress viral replication. Using in silico approaches, we have identified drugs that interact with SARS-CoV-2 helicase based on the presence of amino acid arrangements matching binding sites of drugs in previously annotated protein structures. The drugs exhibiting an RMSD of ≤ 3.0 Å were further analyzed using molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and post-MD analyses. Using these approaches, we found 12 drugs that showed strong interactions with SARS-CoV-2 helicase amino acids. The analyses were performed using the recently available SARS-CoV-2 helicase structure (PDB ID: 5RL6). Based on the MM-GBSA approach, out of the 12 drugs, two drugs, namely posaconazole and grazoprevir, showed the most favorable binding energy, - 54.8 and - 49.1 kcal/mol, respectively. Furthermore, of the amino acids found conserved among all human coronaviruses, 10/11 and 10/12 were targeted by, respectively, grazoprevir and posaconazole. These residues are part of the crucial DEAD-like helicase C and DEXXQc_Upf1-like/ DEAD-like helicase domains. Strong interactions of posaconazole and grazoprevir with conserved amino acids indicate that the drugs can be potent against SARS-CoV-2. Since the amino acids are conserved among the human coronaviruses, the virus is unlikely to develop resistance mutations against these drugs. Since these drugs are already in use, they may be immediately repurposed for SARS-CoV-2 therapy.


Subject(s)
Amides/pharmacology , Carbamates/pharmacology , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Quinoxalines/pharmacology , RNA Helicases/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Domains/drug effects , RNA Helicases/chemistry , RNA Helicases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7307, 2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164913

ABSTRACT

Outcomes of various clinical studies for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment indicated that the drug acts via inhibition of multiple pathways (targets) is likely to be more successful and promising. Keeping this hypothesis intact, the present study describes for the first-time, Grazoprevir, an FDA approved anti-viral drug primarily approved for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), mediated multiple pathway control via synergistic inhibition of viral entry targeting host cell Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE-2)/transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and viral replication targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). Molecular modeling followed by in-depth structural analysis clearly demonstrated that Grazoprevir interacts with the key residues of these targets. Futher, Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations showed stability and burial of key residues after the complex formation. Finally, Molecular Mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) analysis identified the governing force of drug-receptor interactions and stability. Thus, we believe that Grazoprevir could be an effective therapeutics for the treatment of the COVID-19 pandemic with a promise of unlikely drug resistance owing to multiple inhibitions of eukaryotic and viral proteins, thus warrants further clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Amides/metabolism , Amides/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Carbamates/metabolism , Carbamates/pharmacology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Cyclopropanes/metabolism , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Quinoxalines/metabolism , Quinoxalines/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/metabolism , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
7.
J Comput Chem ; 42(13): 897-907, 2021 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130516

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 belong to the subfamily Coronaviridae and infect humans, they are constituted by four structural proteins: Spike glycoprotein (S), membrane (M), envelope (E) and nucleocapsid (N), and nonstructural proteins, such as Nsp15 protein which is exclusively present on nidoviruses and is absent in other RNA viruses, making it an ideal target in the field of drug design. A virtual screening strategy to search for potential drugs was proposed, using molecular docking to explore a library of approved drugs available in the DrugBank database in order to identify possible NSP15 inhibitors to treat Covid19 disease. We found from the docking analysis that the antiviral drugs: Paritaprevir and Elbasvir, currently both approved for hepatitis C treatment which showed some of the lowest free binding energy values were considered as repositioning drugs to combat SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations of the Apo and Holo-Nsp15 systems were performed in order to get insights about the stability of these protein-ligand complexes.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzofurans/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Endoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Lactams, Macrocyclic/pharmacology , Proline/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/virology , Drug Repositioning , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Proline/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
8.
Antiviral Res ; 185: 104996, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-964516

ABSTRACT

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since its emergence in 2012, nosocomial amplifications have led to its high epidemic potential and mortality rate of 34.5%. To date, there is an unmet need for vaccines and specific therapeutics for this disease. Available treatments are either supportive medications in use for other diseases or those lacking specificity requiring higher doses. The viral infection mode is initiated by the attachment of the viral spike glycoprotein to the human Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP4). Our attempts to screen antivirals against MERS led us to identify montelukast sodium hydrate (MSH), an FDA-approved anti-asthma drug, as an agent attenuating MERS-CoV infection. We showed that MSH directly binds to MERS-CoV-Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) and inhibits its molecular interaction with DPP4 in a dose-dependent manner. Our cell-based inhibition assays using MERS pseudovirions demonstrated that viral infection was significantly inhibited by MSH and was further validated using infectious MERS-CoV culture. Thus, we propose MSH as a potential candidate for therapeutic developments against MERS-CoV infections.


Subject(s)
Acetates/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Quinolines/pharmacology , Sulfides/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/pharmacology , Carrier Proteins/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Inducers/pharmacology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Drug Repositioning , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Leukotriene Antagonists/pharmacology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects
9.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 66: 101978, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947382

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents an extraordinary challenge to identify effective drugs for prevention and treatment. The pathogenesis implicate acute respiratory disorder (ARD) which is attributed to significantly triggered "cytokine storm" and compromised immune system. This article summarizes the likely benefits of roflumilast, a Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) inhibitor as a comprehensive support COVID-19 pathogenesis. Roflumilast, a well-known anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory drug, is protective against respiratory models of chemical and smoke induced lung damage. There is significant data which demonstrate the protective effect of PDE-4 inhibitor in respiratory viral models and is likely to be beneficial in combating COVID-19 pathogenesis. Roflumilast is effective in patients with severe COPD by reducing the rate of exacerbations with the improvement of the lung function, which might further be beneficial for better clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. However, further clinical trials are warranted to examine this conjecture.


Subject(s)
Aminopyridines/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Benzamides/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aminopyridines/adverse effects , Aminopyridines/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Benzamides/adverse effects , Benzamides/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Cyclopropanes/adverse effects , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Pandemics , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/pharmacology
10.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 889: 173615, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808499

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents the most serious inflammatory respiratory disease worldwide. Despite many proposed therapies, no effective medication has yet been approved. Neutrophils appear to be the key mediator for COVID-19-associated inflammatory immunopathologic, thromboembolic and fibrotic complications. Thus, for any therapeutic agent to be effective, it should greatly block the neutrophilic component of COVID-19. One of the effective therapeutic approaches investigated to reduce neutrophil-associated inflammatory lung diseases with few adverse effects was roflumilast. Being a highly selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors (PDE4i), roflumilast acts by enhancing the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), that probably potentiates its anti-inflammatory action via increasing neprilysin (NEP) activity. Because activating NEP was previously reported to mitigate several airway inflammatory ailments; this review thoroughly discusses the proposed NEP-based therapeutic properties of roflumilast, which may be of great importance in curing COVID-19. However, further clinical studies are required to confirm this strategy and to evaluate its in vivo preventive and therapeutic efficacy against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aminopyridines/pharmacology , Aminopyridines/therapeutic use , Benzamides/pharmacology , Benzamides/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Neprilysin/drug effects , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen ; 24(5): 716-728, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721423

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To predict potential drugs for COVID-19 by using molecular docking for virtual screening of drugs approved for other clinical applications. BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is the betacoronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. It was listed as a potential global health threat by the WHO due to high mortality, high basic reproduction number, and lack of clinically approved drugs and vaccines. The genome of the virus responsible for COVID-19 has been sequenced. In addition, the three-dimensional structure of the main protease has been determined experimentally. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential drugs that can be repurposed for treatment of COVID-19 by using molecular docking based virtual screening of all approved drugs. METHODS: A list of drugs approved for clinical use was obtained from the SuperDRUG2 database. The structure of the target in the apo form, as well as structures of several target-ligand complexes, were obtained from RCSB PDB. The structure of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro determined from X-ray diffraction data was used as the target. Data regarding drugs in clinical trials for COVID-19 was obtained from clinicaltrials.org. Input for molecular docking based virtual screening was prepared by using Obabel and customized python, bash, and awk scripts. Molecular docking calculations were carried out with Vina and SMINA, and the docked conformations were analyzed and visualized with PLIP, Pymol, and Rasmol. RESULTS: Among the drugs that are being tested in clinical trials for COVID-19, Danoprevir and Darunavir were predicted to have the highest binding affinity for the Main protease (Mpro) target of SARS-CoV-2. Saquinavir and Beclabuvir were identified as the best novel candidates for COVID-19 therapy by using Virtual Screening of drugs approved for other clinical indications. CONCLUSION: Protease inhibitors approved for treatment of other viral diseases have the potential to be repurposed for treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Benzazepines/chemistry , Benzazepines/pharmacology , Cyclopropanes/chemistry , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Darunavir/chemistry , Darunavir/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Indoles/pharmacology , Isoindoles/chemistry , Isoindoles/pharmacology , Lactams, Macrocyclic/chemistry , Lactams, Macrocyclic/pharmacology , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Proline/chemistry , Proline/pharmacology , Saquinavir/chemistry , Saquinavir/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/chemistry , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
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