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2.
Daru ; 30(1): 59-66, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648469

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on calcineurin inhibitors and related prescriptions for community patients in England. METHODS: Data from all primary-care patients who had calcineurin inhibitors prescriptions, dispensed in the community in England were included. Descriptive statistics and interrupted time series analysis over 27 months (15 months before and 12 months after 1st lockdown) was evaluated. RESULTS: Descriptive statistics show that mean values have declined since the pandemic's onset. Over the 27 months: mean Tacrolimus 865,045 doses, standard deviation (SD) 76,147 doses, with 95% CI 834,923, 895,168, (min 567,508, max 1,010,900), ciclosporin 315,496 doses, SD 40,094, 95% CI 299,635, 331,356 (min 191,281, max 382,253) and sirolimus 21,384 doses, SD 2,610, 95% CI 20,352, 22,417 (min 13,022, max 26,156). Analysis of variance between the pre- and post- periods show significant variations in quantities of tacrolimus F 7.432, p = 0.012, ciclosporin F 33.147, p < 0.001 and sirolimus F 18.596, p < 0.001 (1df), mirrored in price analysis. The Interrupted Time Series (ARIMA Modelling) shows declining trends. After the pandemic's onset, a statistically significant downward trend in quantity for tacrolimus p = 0.008 is observed, with an estimated monthly decline of 14,524 doses, ciclosporin p = 0.185, with an estimated decline of 2,161 doses and sirolimus p = 0.002 with an estimated decline of 485 doses, along with declining prices. CONCLUSION: A decrease in prescription medicines use raises concerns for the care of (renal) transplant patients. Patients are encouraged to discuss their planned care with their doctor, secure supplies and remain adherent to their medication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Calcineurin Inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Calcineurin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Prescriptions , Primary Health Care , Sirolimus/therapeutic use , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use
3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0150421, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604818

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started spreading worldwide causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The hyperactivation of the immune system has been proposed to account for disease severity and death in COVID-19 patients. Despite several approaches having been tested, no therapeutic protocol has been approved. Given that Cyclosporine A (CsA) is well-known to exert a strong antiviral activity on several viral strains and an anti-inflammatory role in different organs with relevant benefits in diverse pathological contexts, we tested its effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection of lung cells. We found that treatment with CsA either before or after infection of CaLu3 cells by three SARS-CoV-2 variants: (i) reduces the expression of both viral RNA and proteins in infected cells; (ii) decreases the number of progeny virions released by infected cells; (iii) dampens the virus-triggered synthesis of cytokines (including IL-6, IL-8, IL1α and TNF-α) that are involved in cytokine storm in patients. Altogether, these data provide a rationale for CsA repositioning for the treatment of severe COVID-19 patients. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 is the most recently identified member of the betacoronavirus genus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Repurposing of available drugs has been a "quick and dirty" approach to try to reduce mortality and severe symptoms in affected patients initially, and can still represent an undeniable and valuable approach to face COVID-19 as the continuous appearance and rapid diffusion of more "aggressive"/transmissible variants, capable of eluding antibody neutralization, challenges the effectiveness of some anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Here, we tested a known antiviral and anti-inflammatory drug, Cyclosporine A (CsA), and found that it dampens viral infection and cytokine release from lung cells upon exposure to three different SARS-CoV-2 variants. Knock down of the main intracellular target of CsA, Cyclophilin A, does not phenocopy the drug inhibition of viral infection. Altogether, these findings shed new light on the cellular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide the rationale for CsA repositioning to treat severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Cytokines/immunology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Release/drug effects , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 17(7): 378, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550318
5.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(2): 304-307, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514214

ABSTRACT

A 67-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in March 2020. Mechanical ventilation was initiated 8 days after admission, due to severe respiratory failure. Multiple severe complications such as liver dysfunction, arrhythmia, brain infarction, and venous thromboembolism were also observed. We initially diagnosed Coombs test-positive warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Corticosteroids proved ineffective and anemia worsened with severe erythroid hypoplasia (0.5% erythroblasts in bone marrow), so we diagnosed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). We also identified massive infiltration of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes expressing CD8, granzyme B, and perforin in bone marrow. Systemic cyclosporine was started, with full resolution of anemia and no need for blood transfusions after 4 weeks. We believe that this represents the first report of COVID-19-associated PRCA successfully treated using cyclosporine.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , COVID-19 , Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure , Aged , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 99: 108043, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, potential therapeutic agents are being evaluated almost every day. Ciclosporin, a calcineurin inhibitor, is characterized by beneficial antiviral and immunomodulatory effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ciclosporin in managing COVID-19. METHODS: This study was a prospective non-controlled clinical trial carried out on 20 patients. Confirmed COVID-19 patients received two doses of ciclosporin (10 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg injections) 24 h apart. Mortality rate and the lengths of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays were assessed for all 20 patients. RESULTS: The mortality rate and the need for mechanical ventilation were calculated as 50%. The percentage of ICU admission was 70%. The lengths of ICU and hospital stays were 8.13 ± 6.81 and 14.25 ± 8.55 days, respectively. The levels of ferritin and white blood cells were significantly higher after injecting the second dose of ciclosporin. Seven patients (35%) had radiologically improved lungs after ciclosporin therapy. CONCLUSION: It seems that the protocol of two doses of ciclosporin in combination with favipiravir does not have favorable effects among COVID-19 patients that do not respond to dexamethasone. Controlled trials are needed to confirm the results.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Monitoring , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
11.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(1): 76-83, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300693

ABSTRACT

As of July 9, 2020, there were more than 12 million confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across the globe, with more than 550,000 deaths. Many European countries, including Belgium, the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain, have had the highest numbers of fatalities per capita. This indicates the potential for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus to overwhelm even the most advanced health care systems despite extreme societal interventions. Since its emergence, SARS-CoV-2 has disseminated across the globe, affecting the structure of global societies, infrastructure, and economies. Patients with alopecia are a diverse group who, for various indications, are prescribed a number of antimicrobials and antiandrogen treatments in addition to immunomodulatory therapies such as hydroxychloroquine, oral corticosteroids, and a range of broad immunosuppressants. These drugs are being scrutinized for their capacity to potentially affect SARS-CoV-2 outcomes. We examine these treatments and highlight the critical role that patient registries will play in generating real-world evidence to assess their impact on COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
Alopecia/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Alopecia/classification , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(5): 103200, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284583

ABSTRACT

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is characterized by well-demarcated erythematous plaques with a silver scale. Although many new and emerging therapeutic agents are often sufficient to control the disease, there is still a need for alternative treatment options in challenging cases. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) has been applied to many T-cell-mediated diseases to restore immune homeostasis and treat psoriasis effectively. In this paper, we present a psoriasis patient who did not respond to methotrexate, narrowband ultraviolet B, or acitretin. Because of a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the patient had contraindications for cyclosporine, fumaric acid esters, and biologics but achieved remission with a total of 12 sessions of ECP in two and a half months. Although exacerbation was recorded after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease infection at the end of the first month, scores from the psoriasis area severity index (PASI) and dermatological life quality index (DLQI) were regressed significantly within two and a half months. ECP seems to provide an effective and rapid response for psoriasis and should be considered for psoriasis patients who fail to respond or have contraindications to existing treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/complications , Pandemics , Photopheresis , Psoriasis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Acitretin/therapeutic use , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Combined Modality Therapy , Contraindications, Drug , Cyclosporine/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Nails/pathology , Psoriasis/complications , Psoriasis/pathology , Psoriasis/radiotherapy , Quality of Life , Severity of Illness Index , Ultraviolet Therapy
13.
Lancet ; 397(10286): 1749, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219082
14.
Cell Rep ; 35(1): 108959, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163484

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for antivirals to treat the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To identify new candidates, we screen a repurposing library of ∼3,000 drugs. Screening in Vero cells finds few antivirals, while screening in human Huh7.5 cells validates 23 diverse antiviral drugs. Extending our studies to lung epithelial cells, we find that there are major differences in drug sensitivity and entry pathways used by SARS-CoV-2 in these cells. Entry in lung epithelial Calu-3 cells is pH independent and requires TMPRSS2, while entry in Vero and Huh7.5 cells requires low pH and triggering by acid-dependent endosomal proteases. Moreover, we find nine drugs are antiviral in respiratory cells, seven of which have been used in humans, and three are US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved, including cyclosporine. We find that the antiviral activity of cyclosporine is targeting Cyclophilin rather than calcineurin, revealing essential host targets that have the potential for rapid clinical implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Vero Cells
15.
Drugs ; 81(5): 605-610, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159706

ABSTRACT

Voclosporin (Lupkynis™) is an oral calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressant that is being developed by Aurinia Pharmaceuticals. In January 2021, based on positive results from the pivotal phases II and III trials, oral voclosporin received its first approval in the USA for use in combination with a background immunosuppressive therapy regimen for adults with active lupus nephritis. Voclosporin is also being explored for the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in kidney transplant recipients. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of voclosporin leading to this first approval for lupus nephritis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcineurin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Transplantation , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Calcineurin Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Calcineurin Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cyclosporine/pharmacokinetics , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Drug Approval , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacokinetics , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Lupus Nephritis/drug therapy
16.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211003983, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159169

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) is a highly contagious infection and associated with high mortality rates, primarily in elderly; patients with heart failure; high blood pressure; diabetes mellitus; and those who are smokers. These conditions are associated to increase in the level of the pulmonary epithelium expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), which is a recognized receptor of the S protein of the causative agent SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2). Severe cases are manifested by parenchymal lung involvement with a significant inflammatory response and the development of microvascular thrombosis. Several factors have been involved in developing this prothrombotic state, including the inflammatory reaction itself with the participation of proinflammatory cytokines, endothelial dysfunction/endotheliitis, the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, and possibly the tissue factor (TF) overexpression. ARS-Cov-19 ACE-2 down-regulation has been associated with an increase in angiotensin 2 (AT2). The action of proinflammatory cytokines, the increase in AT2 and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies are known factors for TF activation and overexpression. It is very likely that the overexpression of TF in COVID-19 may be related to the pathogenesis of the disease, hence the importance of knowing the aspects related to this protein and the therapeutic strategies that can be derived. Different therapeutic strategies are being built to curb the expression of TF as a therapeutic target for various prothrombotic events; therefore, analyzing this treatment strategy for COVID-19-associated coagulopathy is rational. Medications such as celecoxib, cyclosporine or colchicine can impact on COVID-19, in addition to its anti-inflammatory effect, through inhibition of TF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Celecoxib/therapeutic use , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2191-2194, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153166

ABSTRACT

December 2019 saw the emergence of a new epidemic of pneumonia of varying severity, called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a newly identified coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). No therapeutic option is available to treat this infection that has already killed > 310 000 people worldwide. This Viewpoint summarizes the strong scientific arguments supporting the use of alisporivir, a nonimmunosuppressive analogue of cyclosporine A with potent cyclophilin inhibition properties that has reached phase 3 clinical development, for the treatment of COVID-19. They include the strong cyclophilin dependency of the life cycle of many coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and preclinical data showing strong antiviral and cytoprotective properties of alisporivir in various models of coronavirus infection, including SARS-CoV-2. Alisporivir should be tested without delay on both virological and clinical endpoints in patients with or at risk of severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclophilins/antagonists & inhibitors , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Rats
18.
CNS Drugs ; 35(3): 317-330, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) target immunity and have the potential to increase the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and alter its clinical course. We assessed these risks in patients with MS (PwMS). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the overall risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, severe disease course, and potential population-level predictors of COVID-19 infection in PwMS, and to provide a context using a cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In addition, the association of different MS DMTs with the incidence and clinical course of COVID-19 was evaluated. Safety data from the Biogen Global Safety Database are also presented on reported cases of COVID-19 in patients treated with Biogen MS therapies. METHODS: The IBM® Explorys electronic health record database of > 72,000,000 patients from US healthcare networks identified patients with MS or SLE, with and without polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19. COVID-19 cumulative incidence, hospitalization, and deaths among DMT classes were compared using logistic regression (adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, and race/ethnicity). As a secondary data source to assess safety data, COVID-19 reports for Biogen MS therapies were extracted and described from Biogen's Global Safety Database. RESULTS: 30,478 PwMS with an open DMT prescription were identified within Explorys; 344 were COVID-19 positive. The most significant risk factors for acquiring COVID-19 were comorbidity score ≥ 1, body mass index ≥ 30, and Black/African ancestry. Similar risk factors were also identified for patients with SLE. Patients with MS were less likely to develop COVID-19 when treated with interferons (0.61%) and glatiramer acetate (0.51%), vs all other MS DMTs (both p < 0.001); anti-CD20 therapy was associated with the highest risk (3.45%; p < 0.0001). In the Biogen Global Safety Database, we identified 1217 patients who were COVID-19 positive treated with intramuscular interferon beta-1a, peginterferon beta-1a, natalizumab, dimethyl fumarate, diroximel fumarate, or fampridine. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidities, obesity, and Black/African ancestry, but not age, were associated with a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in PwMS. Interferons and glatiramer acetate were associated with a reduced COVID-19 risk, whereas anti-CD20 therapies were associated with an increased risk, within the treated MS cohort. COVID-19 safety reports for patients receiving Biogen MS therapies were consistent with the Explorys database and MS literature, illustrating the replicability and power of this approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alemtuzumab/therapeutic use , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Cladribine/therapeutic use , Comorbidity , Crotonates/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Databases, Factual , Dimethyl Fumarate/therapeutic use , Female , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxybutyrates , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Incidence , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Logistic Models , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Male , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Mitoxantrone/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , Nitriles , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Toluidines/therapeutic use , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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