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1.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 322(4): C591-C604, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701350

ABSTRACT

Primary airway epithelial cells (pAECs) cultivated at air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions are widely used as surrogates for human in vivo epithelia. To extend the proliferative capacity and to enable serially passaging of pAECs, conditional reprogramming (cr) has been employed in recent years. However, ALI epithelia derived from cr cells often display functional changes with increasing passages. This highlights the need for thorough validation of the ALI cultures for the respective application. In our study, we evaluated the use of serially passaged cr nasal epithelial cells (crNECs) as a model to study SARS-CoV-2 infection and effects on ion and water transport. NECs were obtained from healthy individuals and cultivated as ALI epithelia derived from passages 1, 2, 3, and 5. We compared epithelial differentiation, ion and water transport, and infection with SARS-CoV-2 between passages. Our results show that epithelia maintained major differentiation characteristics and physiological ion and water transport properties through all passages. However, the frequency of ciliated cells, short circuit currents reflecting epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity and expression of aquaporin 3 and 5 decreased gradually over passages. crNECs also expressed SARS-CoV-2 receptors angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serin2 protease 2 (TMPRSS2) across all passages and allowed SARS-CoV-2 replication in all passages. In summary, we provide evidence that passaged crNECs provide an appropriate model to study SARS-CoV-2 infection and also epithelial transport function when considering some limitations that we defined herein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Differentiation , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2
3.
N Engl J Med ; 385(9): 815-825, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor is a small-molecule cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator regimen shown to be efficacious in patients with at least one Phe508del allele, which indicates that this combination can modulate a single Phe508del allele. In patients whose other CFTR allele contains a gating or residual function mutation that is already effectively treated with previous CFTR modulators (ivacaftor or tezacaftor-ivacaftor), the potential for additional benefit from restoring Phe508del CFTR protein function is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled trial involving patients 12 years of age or older with cystic fibrosis and Phe508del-gating or Phe508del-residual function genotypes. After a 4-week run-in period with ivacaftor or tezacaftor-ivacaftor, patients were randomly assigned to receive elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor or active control for 8 weeks. The primary end point was the absolute change in the percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) from baseline through week 8 in the elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor group. RESULTS: After the run-in period, 132 patients received elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor and 126 received active control. Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor resulted in a percentage of predicted FEV1 that was higher by 3.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 4.6) relative to baseline and higher by 3.5 percentage points (95% CI, 2.2 to 4.7) relative to active control and a sweat chloride concentration that was lower by 22.3 mmol per liter (95% CI, 20.2 to 24.5) relative to baseline and lower by 23.1 mmol per liter (95% CI, 20.1 to 26.1) relative to active control (P<0.001 for all comparisons). The change from baseline in the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised respiratory domain score (range, 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better quality of life) with elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor was 10.3 points (95% CI, 8.0 to 12.7) and with active control was 1.6 points (95% CI, -0.8 to 4.1). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups; adverse events led to treatment discontinuation in one patient (elevated aminotransferase level) in the elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor group and in two patients (anxiety or depression and pulmonary exacerbation) in the active control group. CONCLUSIONS: Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor was efficacious and safe in patients with Phe508del-gating or Phe508del-residual function genotypes and conferred additional benefit relative to previous CFTR modulators. (Funded by Vertex Pharmaceuticals; VX18-445-104 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04058353.).


Subject(s)
Aminophenols/therapeutic use , Benzodioxoles/therapeutic use , Chloride Channel Agonists/therapeutic use , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , Indoles/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aminophenols/adverse effects , Benzodioxoles/adverse effects , Child , Chloride Channel Agonists/adverse effects , Chlorides/analysis , Cystic Fibrosis/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Genotype , Humans , Indoles/adverse effects , Male , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridines/adverse effects , Quinolines/adverse effects , Sweat/chemistry
4.
Life Sci ; 268: 118959, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988728

ABSTRACT

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease which involves the mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CF involves in the inflammatory processes and is considered as a multisystem disorder that is not confined to lungs, but it also affects other vital organs that leads to numerous co-morbidities. The respiratory disorder in the CF results in mortality and morbidity which is characterized by series of serious events involving mucus hypersecretion, microbial infections, airways obstruction, inflammation, destruction of epithelium, tissue remodeling and terminal lung diseases. Mucins are the high molecular weight glycoproteins important for the viscoelastic properties of the mucus, play a significant role in the disease mechanisms. Determining the functional association between the CFTR and mucins might help to identify the putative target for specific therapeutic approach. In fact, furin enzyme which helps in the entry of novel COVID-19 virus into the cell, is upregulated in CF and this can also serve as a potential target for CF treatment. Moreover, the use of nano-formulations for CF treatment is an area of research being widely studied as they have also demonstrated promising outcomes. The in-depth knowledge of non-coding RNAs like miRNAs and lncRNAs and their functional association with CFTR gene expression and mutation can provide a different range of opportunity to identify the promising therapeutic approaches for CF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis/physiopathology , Animals , Cystic Fibrosis/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Mucins/metabolism , Mutation , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(1): 194-201, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971875

ABSTRACT

Given the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, investigations into host susceptibility to infectious diseases and downstream sequelae have never been more relevant. Pneumonia is a lung disease that can cause respiratory failure and hypoxia and is a common complication of infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Few genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of host susceptibility and severity of pneumonia have been conducted. We performed GWASs of pneumonia susceptibility and severity in the Vanderbilt University biobank (BioVU) with linked electronic health records (EHRs), including Illumina Expanded Multi-Ethnic Global Array (MEGAEX)-genotyped European ancestry (EA, n= 69,819) and African ancestry (AA, n = 15,603) individuals. Two regions of large effect were identified: the CFTR locus in EA (rs113827944; OR = 1.84, p value = 1.2 × 10-36) and HBB in AA (rs334 [p.Glu7Val]; OR = 1.63, p value = 3.5 × 10-13). Mutations in these genes cause cystic fibrosis (CF) and sickle cell disease (SCD), respectively. After removing individuals diagnosed with CF and SCD, we assessed heterozygosity effects at our lead variants. Further GWASs after removing individuals with CF uncovered an additional association in R3HCC1L (rs10786398; OR = 1.22, p value = 3.5 × 10-8), which was replicated in two independent datasets: UK Biobank (n = 459,741) and 7,985 non-overlapping BioVU subjects, who are genotyped on arrays other than MEGAEX. This variant was also validated in GWASs of COVID-19 hospitalization and lung function. Our results highlight the importance of the host genome in infectious disease susceptibility and severity and offer crucial insight into genetic effects that could potentially influence severity of COVID-19 sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Bronchitis/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Electronic Health Records , Female , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Hemoglobins/genetics , Humans , Inpatients , Linkage Disequilibrium , Male , Outpatients , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Principal Component Analysis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , United Kingdom
7.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(22): 13542-13545, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810864

ABSTRACT

Undoubtedly, the new SARS-CoV-2 virus poses a grave health threat, plaguing the health and socio-economic sectors. COVID-19 disease must be treated quickly and effectively as soon as possible. The main axes in this direction are establishing vaccines, drugs, diagnostic tests, as well as identifying the most vulnerable groups. Probably, there is a correlation between COVID-19 and cystic fibrosis. Our interest is focused on cystic fibrosis carriers that, due to limited tests, remain undetectable. There is an activation of the inflammatory response in the carriers, as well as in cystic fibrosis patients. First of all, a striking similarity lies between the inflammatory response in COVID-19 and cystic fibrosis carriers. Notably, ACE-2 plays the same role in both cases and a similar geographical distribution is observed in both diseases. In conclusion, we suggest that cystic fibrosis mutation carriers are potential members of a certain vulnerable group and the detection of such mutations in the population might be vital for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 virus, and more specifically to limit its serious complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis/virology , Mutation , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vulnerable Populations
8.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 26(6): 696-701, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780547

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review provides an overview of key psychological issues and challenges for the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator era of care. It discusses research from diagnosis and beyond, to patient-team communication with a particular focus on medical trials, adherence and living with CFTR modulators. RECENT FINDINGS: The impact of the diagnosis on parents is immense and the complexity of treatment now and in the future, are a challenge for both parents and teams. Communicating digitally is starting to become daily practice for many in CF care, with coronavirus disease 2019 accelerating this process. Participating in trials has a psychological impact, but most of all the (delayed) access and timing of accessing CFTR modulators is an important theme. Adherence remains of significance, both to 'old' and 'new' treatments. Living with CF in the era of CFTR modulators is beginning to impact on patients' quality of life, including new possibilities, opportunities and challenges. SUMMARY: Psychological care needs to engage and keep pace with the rapid medical changes. Some care priorities remain the same, including psychological screening and assessment, as well as psychoeducation, communication training and psychotherapy. The presence of CF psychologist in the CF clinic remains as important as ever.


Subject(s)
Communication , Coronavirus Infections , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , Cystic Fibrosis/psychology , Medication Adherence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic/psychology , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
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