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1.
Drug Ther Bull ; 60(1): 2, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157411
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e938532, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056393

ABSTRACT

One of the most recently described clinical associations with SARS-CoV-2 infection is rebound COVID-19, which occurs between five and eight days following the cessation of antiviral treatment. Most case reports of rebound COVID-19 have been associated with cessation of treatment with the combined oral antiviral agent nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid). On 24 May 2022, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory update for patients, healthcare providers, and public health departments on COVID-19 rebound or recurrence of COVID-19. However, population data from the US showed no significant differences in the risk of developing rebound COVID-19 between patients treated with Paxlovid and Molnupiravir. The mechanisms of rebound COVID-19 remain unclear but may involve the development of resistance to the antiviral drug, impaired immunity to the virus, or insufficient drug dosing. A further explanation may be the persistence of a high viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in individuals who are no longer symptomatic. This Editorial aims to provide an update on what is known about rebound COVID-19 and the current public health implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Lactams , Leucine , Nitriles , Proline , Ritonavir/therapeutic use
3.
Lancet ; 400(10359): 1213-1222, 2022 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the real-world effectiveness of oral antivirals against the SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) variant. We aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness of two oral antiviral drugs among community-dwelling COVID-19 outpatients in Hong Kong. METHODS: In this observational study, we used data from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority to identify an unselected, territory-wide cohort of non-hospitalised patients with an officially registered diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection between Feb 26 and June 26, 2022, during the period in which the omicron subvariant BA.2.2 was dominant in Hong Kong. We used a retrospective cohort design as primary analysis, and a case-control design as sensitivity analysis. We identified patients with COVID-19 who received either molnupiravir (800 mg twice daily for 5 days) or nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir (nirmatrelvir 300 mg and ritonavir 100 mg twice daily for 5 days, or nirmatrelvir 150 mg and ritonavir 100 mg if estimated glomerular filtration rate was 30-59 mL/min per 1·73 m2). Outpatient oral antiviral users were matched with controls using propensity score (1:10) according to age, sex, date of SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and vaccination status. Study outcomes were death, COVID-19-related hospitalisation, and in-hospital disease progression (in-hospital death, invasive mechanical ventilation, or intensive care unit admission). Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression for the primary analysis, and odds ratios in oral antiviral users compared with non-users by logistic regression for the sensitivity analysis. FINDINGS: Among 1 074 856 non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19, 5383 received molnupiravir and 6464 received nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir in the community setting. Patients were followed up for a median of 103 days in the molnupiravir group and 99 days in the nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir group. Compared with nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir users, those on molnupiravir were older (4758 [85·9%] vs 4418 [88.7%] aged >60 years) and less likely to have been fully vaccinated (1850 [33·4%] vs 800 [16·1%]). Molnupiravir use was associated with lower risks of death (HR 0·76 [95% CI 0·61-0·95]) and in-hospital disease progression (0·57 [0·43-0·76]) than non-use was, whereas risk of hospitalisation was similar in both groups (0·98 [0·89-1·06]). Nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir use was associated with lower risks of death (0·34 [0·22-0·52]), hospitalisation (0·76 [0·67-0·86]), and in-hospital disease progression (0·57 [0·38-0·87]) than non-use was. We consistently found reduced risks of mortality and hospitalisation associated with early oral antiviral use among older patients. The findings from the case-control analysis broadly supported those from the primary analysis. INTERPRETATION: During Hong Kong's wave of SARS-CoV-2 omicron subvariant BA.2.2, among non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19, early initiation of novel oral antivirals was associated with reduced risks of mortality and in-hospital disease progression. Nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir use was additionally associated with a reduced risk of hospitalisation. FUNDING: Health and Medical Research Fund, Health Bureau, Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Disease Progression , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Independent Living , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(8): 1126-1134, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the MOVe-OUT trial, molnupiravir showed a clinically meaningful reduction in the risk for hospitalization or death in adults with mild to moderate COVID-19 and risk factors for progression to severe disease. OBJECTIVE: To identify other potential clinical benefits of molnupiravir versus placebo. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 component of MOVe-OUT. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04575597). SETTING: 107 sites globally. PARTICIPANTS: 1433 nonhospitalized adults aged 18 years or older with mild to moderate COVID-19. INTERVENTION: Molnupiravir, 800 mg, or placebo every 12 hours for 5 days. MEASUREMENTS: Changes from baseline in C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration and oxygen saturation (Spo 2), need for respiratory interventions (including invasive mechanical ventilation), and need for medical services in all randomly assigned participants through day 29, and need for respiratory interventions and time to discharge in the subgroup of participants who were hospitalized after randomization. RESULTS: Participants receiving molnupiravir showed faster normalization of CRP and Spo 2, with improvements observed on day 3 of therapy, compared with placebo. Molnupiravir-treated participants had a decreased need for respiratory interventions versus placebo-treated participants (relative risk reduction [RRR], 34.3% [95% CI, 4.3% to 54.9%]), with similar findings in participants who were hospitalized after randomization (RRR, 21.3% [CI, 0.2% to 38.0%]). Hospitalized participants who received molnupiravir were discharged a median of 3 days before those who received placebo. Acute care visits (7.2% vs. 10.6%; RRR, 32.1% [CI, 4.4% to 51.7%]) and COVID-19-related acute care visits (6.6% vs. 10.0%; RRR, 33.8% [CI, 5.6% to 53.6%]) were less frequent in molnupiravir- versus placebo-treated participants. LIMITATIONS: Some analyses were performed post hoc. Longer-term benefits of molnupiravir therapy were not evaluated. Participants were not immunized against SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest there are additional important clinical benefits of molnupiravir beyond reduction in hospitalization or death. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC, a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Biomarkers , COVID-19/therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4416, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967601

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) have triggered infection waves. Oral antivirals such as molnupiravir promise to improve disease management, but efficacy against VOC delta was questioned and potency against omicron is unknown. This study evaluates molnupiravir against VOC in human airway epithelium organoids, ferrets, and a lethal Roborovski dwarf hamster model of severe COVID-19-like lung injury. VOC were equally inhibited by molnupiravir in cells and organoids. Treatment reduced shedding in ferrets and prevented transmission. Pathogenicity in dwarf hamsters was VOC-dependent and highest for delta, gamma, and omicron. All molnupiravir-treated dwarf hamsters survived, showing reduction in lung virus load from one (delta) to four (gamma) orders of magnitude. Treatment effect size varied in individual dwarf hamsters infected with omicron and was significant in males, but not females. The dwarf hamster model recapitulates mixed efficacy of molnupiravir in human trials and alerts that benefit must be reassessed in vivo as VOC evolve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cricetinae , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Ferrets , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Lung , Male
7.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964111

ABSTRACT

Molnupiravir is a ß-d-N4-hydroxycytidine-5'-isopropyl ester (NHC) compound that exerts antiviral activity against various RNA viruses such as influenza, SARS, and Ebola viruses. Thus, the repurposing of Molnupiravir has gained significant attention for combatting infection with SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of COVID-19. Recently, Molnupiravir was granted authorization for the treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in adults. Findings from in vitro experiments, in vivo studies and clinical trials reveal that Molnupiravir is effective against SARS-CoV-2 by inducing viral RNA mutagenesis, thereby giving rise to mutated complementary RNA strands that generate non-functional viruses. To date, the data collectively suggest that Molnupiravir possesses promising antiviral activity as well as favorable prophylactic efficacy, attributed to its effective mutagenic property of disrupting viral replication. This review discusses the mechanisms of action of Molnupiravir and highlights its clinical utility by disabling SARS-CoV-2 replication, thereby ameliorating COVID-19 severity. Despite relatively few short-term adverse effects thus far, further detailed clinical studies and long-term pharmacovigilance are needed in view of its mutagenic effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxylamines , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 58(7): 335-350, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951495

ABSTRACT

Molnupiravir (MK-4482, EIDD-2801) is a promising broad-spectrum experimental antiviral developed by Merck & Co. It is a nucleoside analogue prodrug that undergoes rapid conversion into nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) by intracellular metabolic processes. NTP inhibits viral polymerase by acting as an alternative substrate. Molnupiravir was initially developed to treat influenza and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) infection as it exerts its antiviral activity by inhibiting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Currently, it is being developed for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Molnupiravir has demonstrated potent in vitro antiviral activity against positive-sense RNA viruses including influenza viruses, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV with low cytotoxicity and a high resistance barrier. Molnupiravir has been evaluated in phase I, II and III trials where it has demonstrated good efficacy, dose-dependent pharmacokinetics and a sound safety profile. In an interim analysis of a phase III study, treatment with molnupiravir reduced the risk of hospitalization or death by 50% in patients with COVID-19; in the final analysis, the reduction was 30%. On the basis of positive results in clinical trials, molnupiravir has been authorized for emergency use by the U.K. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in adults with mild to moderate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxylamines , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
9.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(8): e0240421, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949959

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged to cause pandemic respiratory disease in the past 2 years, leading to significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. At the beginning of the pandemic, only nonspecific treatments were available, but recently two oral antivirals have received emergency use authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of mild to moderate coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Molnupiravir targets the viral polymerase and causes lethal mutations within the virus during replication. Nirmatrelvir targets SARS-CoV-2's main protease, and it is combined with ritonavir to delay its metabolism and allow nirmatrelvir to inhibit proteolytic cleavage of viral polyproteins during replication, preventing efficient virus production. Both drugs inhibit in vitro viral replication of all variants tested to date. Each is taken orally twice daily for 5 days. When started in the first 5 days of illness in persons at risk for complications due to COVID-19, molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir significantly decreased severe outcomes (hospitalizations and death) with adjusted relative risk reductions of 30% and 88%, respectively, for the two treatments. Molnupiravir should not be used in children or pregnant persons due to concerns about potential toxicity, and reliable contraception should be used in persons of childbearing potential. Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir may cause significant drug-to-drug interactions that limit its use in persons taking certain medications metabolized by certain cytochrome P450 enzymes. Both treatment regimens are important additions to the management of early COVID-19 in at-risk patients in the outpatient setting.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Med Virol ; 94(11): 5582-5588, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935704

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, several treatments have been proposed to cure coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and prevent it. Molnupiravir is a ribonucleoside prodrug of N-hydroxycytidine with an in vitro and in vivo activity against SARS-CoV-2. We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included all people treated with molnupiravir between January 10, 2022, and March 31, 2022, at the University Hospital of Sassari. Molnupiravir was prescribed, according to the Italian Agency of Drug indications, to patients with recent symptom onset (≤5 days), no need for oxygen supplementation, and with a high risk of disease progression for the presence of chronic diseases. We included 192 people with a mean age of 70.4 ± 15.4 years, with 144 (75%) patients over 60 years. During the follow-up, 20 (10.4%) patients showed a disease progression. At the multivariate analysis, older age, having neurological disease, having dyspnea at the onset of the symptoms, and acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection during hospital admission were associated with an increased risk of progression. In contrast, an early start of treatment was associated with a reduced risk of disease progression. Molnupiravir was also extremely safe since 13 (6.8%) adverse events were reported, with only one interruption. Our study shows that monlupiravir confirmed its efficacy and safety in a real-life cohort that included a high percentage of elderly people with a high comorbidity burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Disease Progression , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
11.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 50(9): 1151-1160, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923099

ABSTRACT

Molnupiravir is one of the two coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) oral drugs that were recently granted the emergency use authorization by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Molnupiravir is an ester and requires hydrolysis to exert antiviral activity. Carboxylesterases constitute a class of hydrolases with high catalytic efficiency. Humans express two major carboxylesterases (CES1 and CES2) that differ in substrate specificity. Based on the structural characteristics of molnupiravir, this study was performed to test the hypothesis that molnupiravir is preferably hydrolyzed by CES2. Several complementary approaches were used to test this hypothesis. As many as 24 individual human liver samples were tested and the hydrolysis of molnupiravir was significantly correlated with the level of CES2 but not CES1. Microsomes from the intestine, kidney, and liver, but not lung, all rapidly hydrolyzed molnupiravir and the magnitude of hydrolysis was related closely to the level of CES2 expression among these organs. Importantly, recombinant CES2 but not CES1 hydrolyzed molnupiravir, collectively establishing that molnupiravir is a CES2-selective substrate. In addition, several CES2 polymorphic variants (e.g., R180H) differed from the wild-type CES2 in the hydrolysis of molnupiravir. Molecular docking revealed that wild-type CES2 and its variant R180H used different sets of amino acids to interact with molnupiravir. Furthermore, molnupiravir hydrolysis was significantly inhibited by remdesivir, the first COVID-19 drug granted the full approval by the FDA. The results presented raise the possibility that CES2 expression and genetic variation may impact therapeutic efficacy in clinical situations and warrants further investigation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: COVID-19 remains a global health crisis, and molnupiravir is one of the two recently approved oral COVID-19 therapeutics. In this study, we have shown that molnupiravir is hydrolytically activated by CES2, a major hydrolase whose activity is impacted by genetic polymorphic variants, disease mediators, and many potentially coadministered medicines. These results presented raise the possibility that CES2 expression and genetic variation may impact therapeutic efficacy in clinical situations and warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carboxylesterase/metabolism , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases/metabolism , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Interactions , Humans , Hydrolysis , Hydroxylamines , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic
12.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 40(7): 699-714, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1920313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) imposes a substantial and ongoing burden on the US healthcare system and society. Molnupiravir is a new oral antiviral for treating COVID-19 in outpatient settings. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness profile of molnupiravir versus best supportive care in the treatment of adult patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 at risk of progression to severe disease, from a US payer's perspective. METHODS: The model was developed using a decision tree for the short-term acute phase of COVID-19 and a Markov state transition model for the long-term post-acute phase. This model compared molnupiravir with best supportive care as consistent with the MOVe-OUT trial. Costs were reported in 2021 US dollars. Transition probabilities were derived from the phase III MOVe-OUT trial and the TriNetX real-world electronic health records database. Costs were derived from the TriNetX database and utility values from a de novo, vignette-based utility study. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (DSA/PSA) were conducted. Primary outcomes included proportion hospitalized, proportion who died overall and by highest healthcare setting at the end of the acute phase, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental costs per QALY gained over a lifetime (100 years) horizon, discounted at 3% annually and assessed at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $100,000 per QALY. RESULTS: In this model, the use of molnupiravir led to an increase in QALYs (0.210) and decrease in direct total medical costs (-$895) per patient across a lifetime horizon, compared with best supportive care in COVID-19 outpatients. Molnupiravir was the dominant intervention when compared with best supportive care. Patients treated with molnupiravir were less likely to be hospitalized (6.38% vs. 9.20%) and more likely to remain alive (99.88% vs. 98.71%) during the acute phase. Through DSA, molnupiravir treatment effect of hospitalization reduction was identified to be the most influential parameter, and through PSA, molnupiravir remained dominant in 84% of the total simulations and, overall, 100% cost effective. CONCLUSION: This analysis suggests that molnupiravir is cost effective compared with best supportive care for the treatment of adult outpatients with COVID-19. However, our study was limited by the unavailability of the most recent information on the rapidly evolving pandemic, including new viral variants, patient populations affected, and changes in standards of care. Further research should explore the impact of vaccination on the cost effectiveness of molnupiravir and other therapies, based on real-world data, to account for these changes, including the impact of vaccination and immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Outpatients , Adult , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Male , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
13.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 29(10): 1668-1678, 2022 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922286

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Understanding public discourse on emergency use of unproven therapeutics is essential to monitor safe use and combat misinformation. We developed a natural language processing-based pipeline to understand public perceptions of and stances on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related drugs on Twitter across time. METHODS: This retrospective study included 609 189 US-based tweets between January 29, 2020 and November 30, 2021 on 4 drugs that gained wide public attention during the COVID-19 pandemic: (1) Hydroxychloroquine and Ivermectin, drug therapies with anecdotal evidence; and (2) Molnupiravir and Remdesivir, FDA-approved treatment options for eligible patients. Time-trend analysis was used to understand the popularity and related events. Content and demographic analyses were conducted to explore potential rationales of people's stances on each drug. RESULTS: Time-trend analysis revealed that Hydroxychloroquine and Ivermectin received much more discussion than Molnupiravir and Remdesivir, particularly during COVID-19 surges. Hydroxychloroquine and Ivermectin were highly politicized, related to conspiracy theories, hearsay, celebrity effects, etc. The distribution of stance between the 2 major US political parties was significantly different (P < .001); Republicans were much more likely to support Hydroxychloroquine (+55%) and Ivermectin (+30%) than Democrats. People with healthcare backgrounds tended to oppose Hydroxychloroquine (+7%) more than the general population; in contrast, the general population was more likely to support Ivermectin (+14%). CONCLUSION: Our study found that social media users with have different perceptions and stances on off-label versus FDA-authorized drug use across different stages of COVID-19, indicating that health systems, regulatory agencies, and policymakers should design tailored strategies to monitor and reduce misinformation for promoting safe drug use. Our analysis pipeline and stance detection models are made public at https://github.com/ningkko/COVID-drug.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Hydroxylamines , Ivermectin , Off-Label Use , Pandemics , Public Opinion , Retrospective Studies
14.
Nature ; 607(7917): 119-127, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915276

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529 lineage) variants possessing numerous mutations has raised concerns of decreased effectiveness of current vaccines, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antiviral drugs for COVID-19 against these variants1,2. The original Omicron lineage, BA.1, prevailed in many countries, but more recently, BA.2 has become dominant in at least 68 countries3. Here we evaluated the replicative ability and pathogenicity of authentic infectious BA.2 isolates in immunocompetent and human ACE2-expressing mice and hamsters. In contrast to recent data with chimeric, recombinant SARS-CoV-2 strains expressing the spike proteins of BA.1 and BA.2 on an ancestral WK-521 backbone4, we observed similar infectivity and pathogenicity in mice and hamsters for BA.2 and BA.1, and less pathogenicity compared with early SARS-CoV-2 strains. We also observed a marked and significant reduction in the neutralizing activity of plasma from individuals who had recovered from COVID-19 and vaccine recipients against BA.2 compared to ancestral and Delta variant strains. In addition, we found that some therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (REGN10987 plus REGN10933, COV2-2196 plus COV2-2130, and S309) and antiviral drugs (molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir and S-217622) can restrict viral infection in the respiratory organs of BA.2-infected hamsters. These findings suggest that the replication and pathogenicity of BA.2 is similar to that of BA.1 in rodents and that several therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antiviral compounds are effective against Omicron BA.2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Combinations , Hydroxylamines , Indazoles , Lactams , Leucine , Mice , Nitriles , Proline , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Triazines , Triazoles
15.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1206: 123363, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914562

ABSTRACT

A fully validated, simple, rapid and reproducible liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to determine NHC (N-hydroxycytidine), the active metabolite of Molnupiravir (MOL) in human plasma; one of the limited treatment options for SARS-CoV-2 in plasma of healthy volunteers. The internal standard (IS) used was ribavirin. The extraction of analyte and IS from plasma was performed using acetonitrile as a solvent for protein precipitation. Agilent Zorbax Eclipse plus C18, 4.6 × 150 mm, (5 µm) was used for chromatographic separation using a mixture of methanol0.2 % acetic acid (5:95, v/v) as a mobile phase that was pumped at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) employing positive ESI interface using API4500 triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer system, with the transitions set at m/z 260.10 â†’ 128.10 and 245.10 â†’ 113.20 for NHC and IS respectively. Method validation was performed in accordance with United States FDA bioanalytical guidance. The concentration range of 20.0-10000.0 ng/mL was used to establish linearity via weighted linear regression approach (1/x2). Moreover, the analyzed pharmacokinetic data from twelve Egyptian healthy volunteers were used to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for NHC. The developed model was used to perform simulations and evaluate the current MOL dosing recommendations through calculating the maximum concentration (Cmax) "the safety metric" and area under the curve (AUC0-12 h) "the efficacy metric" for 1000 virtual subjects. Geometric mean ratios (GMR) with their associated 90% confidence intervals (CI) compared to literature values were computed. Geometric means of simulation-based Cmax and AUC0-12 were 3827 ng/mL (GMR = 1.05; 90% CI = 0.96-1.15) and 9320 ng.h/mL (GMR = 1.04; 90% CI = 0.97-1.11), respectively indicating that current MOL dosage can achieve the therapeutic targets and dose adjustment may not be required for the Egyptian population. The developed model could be used in the future to refine MOL dosage once further therapeutic targets are identified.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Prodrugs , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Antiviral Agents/blood , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Egypt , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hydroxylamines/blood , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
16.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 88(10): 4403-4411, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909336

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety profile of molnupiravir in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, medRxive and Google Scholar were searched for articles published up to April 25, 2022. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. RESULTS: Four trials involving 2241 patients met the inclusion criteria. No significant difference was observed between molnupiravir at 200, 400 and 800 mg compared with placebo (200 mg: risk ratio [RR] = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78-1.20; P = .80; 400 mg: RR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.64-1.02; P = .07; 800 mg: RR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.83-1.06; P = .36) for any adverse events (AEs); at 200, 400 and 800 mg compared with placebo (200 mg: RR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.41-1.63; P = .57; 400 mg: RR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.41-1.61; P = .56; 800 mg: RR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.59-1.08; P = .15) for serious adverse events; at 200, 400 and 800 mg compared with placebo (200 mg: RR = 1.74; 95% CI: 0.48-6.30; P = .39; 400 mg: RR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.28-4.09; P = .91; 800 mg: RR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.17-1.28; P = .14) for AEs leading to death; and at 200, 400 and 800 mg compared with placebo (200 mg: RR = 1.50; 95% CI: 0.26-8.55; P = .64; 400 mg: RR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.17-5.68; P = .99; 800 mg: RR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.31-1.23; P = .17) for treatment discontinuation due to AEs. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis showed that the use of three doses of molnupiravir (200, 400 and 800 mg) is safe for COVID-19 patients. Further research is needed to confirm the present findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxylamines
17.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903496

ABSTRACT

Enterovirus infections can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFDM), aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and acute flaccid myelitis, leading to death of infants and young children. However, no specific antiviral drug is currently available for the treatment of this type of infection. The Unites States and United Kingdom health authorities recently approved a new antiviral drug, molnupiravir, for the treatment of COVID-19. In this study, we reported that molnupiravir (EIDD-2801) and its active form, EIDD-1931, have broad-spectrum anti-enterovirus potential. Our data showed that EIDD-1931 could significantly reduce the production of EV-A71 progeny virus and the expression of EV-A71 viral protein at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The results of the time-of-addition assay suggest that EIDD-1931 acts at the post-entry step, which is in accordance with its antiviral mechanism. The intraperitoneal administration of EIDD-1931 and EIDD-2801 protected 1-day-old ICR suckling mice from lethal EV-A71 challenge by reducing the viral load in various tissues of the infected mice. The pharmacokinetics analysis indicated that the plasma drug concentration overwhelmed the EC50 for enteroviruses, suggesting the clinical potential of molnupiravir against enteroviruses. Thus, molnupiravir along with its active form, EIDD-1931, may be a promising drug candidate against enterovirus infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus A, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Animals , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Child, Preschool , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Enterovirus/metabolism , Enterovirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR
18.
J Biol Chem ; 298(8): 102169, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895142

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir and molnupiravir have gained considerable interest because of their demonstrated activity against SARS-CoV-2. These antivirals are converted intracellularly to their active triphosphate forms remdesivir-TP and molnupiravir-TP. Cellular hydrolysis of these active metabolites would consequently decrease the efficiency of these drugs; however, whether endogenous enzymes that can catalyze this hydrolysis exist is unknown. Here, we tested remdesivir-TP as a substrate against a panel of human hydrolases and found that only Nudix hydrolase (NUDT) 18 catalyzed the hydrolysis of remdesivir-TP with notable activity. The kcat/Km value of NUDT18 for remdesivir-TP was determined to be 17,700 s-1M-1, suggesting that NUDT18-catalyzed hydrolysis of remdesivir-TP may occur in cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that the triphosphates of the antivirals ribavirin and molnupiravir are also hydrolyzed by NUDT18, albeit with lower efficiency than Remdesivir-TP. Low activity was also observed with the triphosphate forms of sofosbuvir and aciclovir. This is the first report showing that NUDT18 hydrolyzes triphosphates of nucleoside analogs of exogenous origin, suggesting that NUDT18 can act as a cellular sanitizer of modified nucleotides and may influence the antiviral efficacy of remdesivir, molnupiravir, and ribavirin. As NUDT18 is expressed in respiratory epithelial cells, it may limit the antiviral efficacy of remdesivir and molnupiravir against SARS-CoV-2 replication by decreasing the intracellular concentration of their active metabolites at their intended site of action.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydrolysis , Hydroxylamines , Polyphosphates , Pyrophosphatases , Ribavirin/pharmacology , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMJ ; 377: o1030, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861607
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