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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 537, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Passive immunization against SARS-CoV-2 limits viral burden and death from COVID-19; however, it poses a theoretical risk of disease exacerbation through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). ADE after anti-SARS-CoV2 antibody treatment has not been reported, and therefore the potential risk and promoting factors remain unknown. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old female was admitted to the emergency room with recurrent, unexplained bruises and leukocytopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Evaluation of a bone marrow biopsy established the diagnosis of an acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing of nasal and throat swabs on admission was negative. During the routine SARS-CoV-2 testing of inpatients, our patient tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on day 14 after admission without typical COVID-19 symptoms. Due to disease- and therapy-related immunosuppression and advanced age conferring a high risk of progressing to severe COVID-19, casirivimab and imdevimab were administered as a preemptive approach. The patient developed immune activation and cytokine release syndrome (CRS) occurring within four hours of preemptive anti-SARS-CoV2 antibody (casirivimab/imdevimab) infusion. Immune activation and CRS were evidenced by a rapid increase in serum cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, IL-8, IL-10), acute respiratory insufficiency, and progressive acute respiratory distress syndrome. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The temporal relationship between therapeutic antibody administration and the rapid laboratory, radiological, and clinical deterioration suggests that CRS was an antibody-related adverse event, potentially exacerbated by APL treatment-mediated differentiation of leukemic blasts and promyelocytes. This case highlights the need for careful assessment of life-threatening adverse events after passive SARS-CoV-2 immunization, especially in the clinical context of patients with complex immune and hematological landscapes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Female , Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/complications , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/diagnosis , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2511: 245-256, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941380

ABSTRACT

Severe cases of SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogenic virus infections are often associated with the uncontrolled release of proinflammatory cytokines, known as a "cytokine storm." We present a protocol for multiplex analysis of three cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-10, which are typically elevated in cytokine storm events and may be used as a predictive biomarker profile of disease severity or disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokines , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 15(3): 243-251, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730522

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: D- Dimer levels from peripheral blood are increasingly used to assess various pathological conditions. Initially, an area for hematologists, now this analyte is evaluated more extensively from many specialties of medicine. Covid-19 infection has not only added a new dimension to D-Dimer level assessment in this disease but has also shed newer lights to the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms for its elevation in this disease. AREAS COVERED: Innate variability in measuring D- Dimer levels, Impact of various techniques in measuring D- Dimer, nonavailability of uniform controls and standards, molecular heterogeneity of the product, how it is produced. Reasons for raised D- Dimer in covid-19 infection. D- Dimer in other pathological states. Articles with relevant key words from 1990 searched in PubMed were utilized for review. EXPERT OPINION: : D-Dimer has important application in diagnosis, prognosis, management, and understanding various conditions. Its level can rise with increased coagulability of blood, sepsis, cytokine storm, snake bite, etc. Renal function, age influences its reference ranges. Units of measurement, its expression varies in different reports needing international standardization. In Covid-19 infection its levels correlate with stage of the disease, pathology, and complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Prognosis
4.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 418, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565706

ABSTRACT

The systemic processes involved in the manifestation of life-threatening COVID-19 and in disease recovery are still incompletely understood, despite investigations focusing on the dysregulation of immune responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection. To define hallmarks of severe COVID-19 in acute disease (n = 58) and in disease recovery in convalescent patients (n = 28) from Hannover Medical School, we used flow cytometry and proteomics data with unsupervised clustering analyses. In our observational study, we combined analyses of immune cells and cytokine/chemokine networks with endothelial activation and injury. ICU patients displayed an altered immune signature with prolonged lymphopenia but the expansion of granulocytes and plasmablasts along with activated and terminally differentiated T and NK cells and high levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. The core signature of seven plasma proteins revealed a highly inflammatory microenvironment in addition to endothelial injury in severe COVID-19. Changes within this signature were associated with either disease progression or recovery. In summary, our data suggest that besides a strong inflammatory response, severe COVID-19 is driven by endothelial activation and barrier disruption, whereby recovery depends on the regeneration of the endothelial integrity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Chemokine CXCL9/blood , Cluster Analysis , Convalescence , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disease Progression , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Granulocytes/immunology , Granulocytes/virology , Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors/blood , Hepatocyte Growth Factor/blood , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-12 Subunit p40/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/virology , Lectins, C-Type/blood , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/mortality , Lymphopenia/virology , Plasma Cells/immunology , Plasma Cells/virology , Survival Analysis , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 745515, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551502

ABSTRACT

Objective: A critical role in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis is played by immune dysregulation that leads to a generalized uncontrolled multisystem inflammatory response, caused by overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines, known as "a cytokine storm" (CS), strongly associated with a severe course of disease. The aim of this study is to identify prognostic biomarkers for CS development in COVID-19 patients and integrate them into a prognostic score for CS-associated risk applicable to routine clinical practice. Materials and Methods: The authors performed a review of 458 medical records from COVID-19 patients (241 men and 217 women aged 60.0 ± 10.0) who received treatment in the St. Petersburg State Budgetary Institution of Healthcare City Hospital 40 (City Hospital 40, St. Petersburg), from Apr. 18, 2020 to Nov. 21, 2020. The patients were split in two groups: one group included 100 patients with moderate disease symptoms; the other group included 358 patients with progressive moderately severe, severe, and extremely severe disease. The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) score was used alongside with clinical assessment, chest computed tomographic (CT) scans, electrocardiography (ECG), and lab tests, like ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer. Results: The basic risk factors for cytokine storms in COVID-19 patients are male gender, age over 40 years, positive test result for replicative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA, absolute lymphocyte count, dynamics in the NEWS score, as well as LDH, D-dimer, ferritin, and IL-6 levels. These clinical and instrumental findings can be also used as laboratory biomarkers for diagnosis and dynamic monitoring of cytokine storms. The suggested prognostic scale (including the NEWS score dynamics; serum IL-6 greater than 23 pg/ml; serum CRP 50 mg/L or greater; absolute lymphocyte count less than 0.72 × 109/L; positive test result for replicative coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) RNA; age 40 years and over) is a useful tool to identify patients at a high risk for cytokine storm, requiring an early onset of anti-inflammatory therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Biomarkers/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
7.
Platelets ; 33(1): 48-53, 2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541393

ABSTRACT

Coagulopathy is an evident complication of COVID-19 with predominance of a prothrombotic state. Platelet activation plays a key role. The terms "hyper-reactivity" and "hyperactivity" used in recent literature may not be clear or sufficient to explain the pathological events involved in COVID-related thrombosis (CRT). Inflammation may play a bigger role compared to thrombosis in COVID-related mortality because a smaller percentage of patients with COVID-19 die due to direct effects of thrombosis. Not all COVID-19 patients have thrombocytopenia and a few show thrombocytosis. We believe the platelet pathology is more complex than just activation or hyper-activation, particularly due to the platelets' role in inflammation. Understanding the pathology and consequences of platelets' role may help optimize management strategies and diminish CRT-associated morbidity and mortality. In this viewpoint report, we examine the published evidence of platelet hyper-reactivity in COVID-19 with a focused analysis of the key pathologies, diverse alterations, disease outcomes, and therapeutic targets. We believe that COVID-19 is a disease of inflammation and pathologic platelets, and based on the complexity and diverse pathologies, we propose the term "thrombocytopathy" as a more reflective term of the platelets' involvement in COVID-19. In our opinion, thrombocytopathy is the unpredictable pathologic alterations of platelets in function, morphology and number, caused by different factors with a variety of presentations.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Abciximab/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Platelet Activation/drug effects , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Treatment Outcome
8.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 338, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486570

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) accompanies hypercytokinemia, similar to secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). We aimed to find if HScore could predict disease severity in COVID-19. HScore was calculated in hospitalized children and adult patients with a proven diagnosis of COVID-19. The need for intensive care unit (ICU), hospital length of stay (LOS), and in-hospital mortality were recorded. The median HScore was 43.0 (IQR 0.0-63.0), which was higher in those who needed ICU care (59.7, 95% CI 46.4-72.7) compared to those admitted to non-ICU medical wards (38.8, 95% CI 32.2-45.4; P = 0.003). It was also significantly higher in patients who died of COVID-19 (105.1, 95% CI 53.7-156.5) than individuals who survived (41.5, 95% CI 35.8-47.1; P = 0.005). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that higher HScore was associated with a higher risk of ICU admission (adjusted OR = 4.93, 95% CI 1.5-16.17, P = 0.008). The risk of death increased by 20% for every ten units increase in HScore (adjusted OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.04, P = 0.009). Time to discharge was statistically longer in high HScore levels than low levels (HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.69). HScore is much lower in patients with severe COVID-19 than sHLH. Higher HScore is associated with more ICU admission, more extended hospitalization, and a higher mortality rate. A modified HScore with a new cut-off seems more practical in predicting disease severity in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Iran/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Young Adult
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 811, 2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a severe hyperinflammatory disease, whose diagnosis is based on the HLH-2004 criteria. In secondary forms of HLH (sHLH), the primary goal is treating the triggering factors such as COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019). The link between the cytokine storm related to COVID-19 and development of sHLH has already been reported since the onset of pandemic, but little is known about clinical manifestations of HLH which develop after the patient's recovery from mild symptomatic or asymptomatic Sars-CoV-2 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a woman diagnosed with sHLH related to previous Sars-CoV-2 infection and successfully treated with steroids, colchicine, etoposide and ruxolitinib. CONCLUSIONS: Our report suggests that HLH-like syndrome might be secondary to Sars-CoV-2 infection, even if the patient utterly recovered from the mildly symptomatic viral infection. In addition, we underline the treatment with low dose ruxolitinib plus etoposide as a potential choice for Sars-CoV-2 infection related HLH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Female , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 659419, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389180

ABSTRACT

Highly pathogenic virus infections usually trigger cytokine storms, which may have adverse effects on vital organs and result in high mortalities. The two cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ play key roles in the generation and regulation of cytokine storms. However, it is still unclear whether the cytokine with the largest induction amplitude is the same under different virus infections. It is unknown which is the most critical and whether there are any mathematical formulas that can fit the changing rules of cytokines. Three coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2), three influenza viruses (2009H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9), Ebola virus, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue virus, Zika virus, West Nile virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and enterovirus 71 were included in this analysis. We retrieved the cytokine fold change (FC), viral load, and clearance rate data from these highly pathogenic virus infections in humans and analyzed the correlations among them. Our analysis showed that interferon-inducible protein (IP)-10, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17 are the most common cytokines with the largest induction amplitudes. Equations were obtained: the maximum induced cytokine (max) FC = IFN-γ FC × (IFN-γ FC/IL-4 FC) (if IFN-γ FC/IL-4 FC > 1); max FC = IL-4 FC (if IFN-γ FC/IL-4 FC < 1). For IFN-γ-inducible infections, 1.30 × log2 (IFN-γ FC) = log10 (viral load) - 2.48 - 2.83 × (clearance rate). The clinical relevance of cytokines and their antagonists is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Models, Immunological , Virus Diseases/complications , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Viral Load/immunology , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
13.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 26(1): 75-85, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a high fatality rate, especially in hemodialysis (HD) patients, with this poor prognosis being caused by systemic hyperinflammation; cytokine storms. Steroid pulse therapy or tocilizumab (TCZ) have insufficient inhibitory effects against cytokine storms in critical cases. This study evaluated the clinical effects and safety of combining steroid pulse therapy and TCZ. METHODS: From September 2020 to May 2021, 201 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to our hospital. Before February 2021, patients with an oxygen demand exceeding 8 L/min were intubated and treated with standard therapy (dexamethasone and antiviral therapy). After February 2021, patients underwent high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy and were treated with TCZ (8 mg/kg) and methylprednisolone (mPSL) (500 mg/day [≤ 75 kg], 1000 mg/day [> 75 kg]) for 3 days. We compared background characteristics, laboratory findings, and prognosis between non-HD and HD patients and between patients who received and did not receive TCZ and mPSL pulse therapy. RESULTS: Among non-HD patients, the TCZ + mPSL pulse group had significantly higher survival rates and lower secondary infection rates (p < 0.05), than the standard therapy group. All HD patients in the standard therapy group with oxygen demand exceeding 8 L/min died. Contrastingly, all patients in the TCZ + mPSL pulse group survived, with their oxygen demand decreasing to 0-1 L/min within 3 weeks post-administration. CONCLUSION: TCZ combined with mPSL pulse therapy improved the survival rate without significant adverse events in critical HD and non-HD patients with COVID-19 by strongly suppressing systemic hyperinflammation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Renal Dialysis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/immunology , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Male , Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Pulse Therapy, Drug , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e021428, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348207

ABSTRACT

Background Cardiac dysfunction is a prominent feature of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), yet the etiology is poorly understood. We determined whether dysfunction is global or regional, and whether it is associated with the cytokine milieu, microangiopathy, or severity of shock. Methods and Results We analyzed echocardiographic parameters of myocardial deformation and compared global and segmental left ventricular strain between 43 cases with MIS-C ≤18 years old and 40 controls. Primary outcomes included left ventricular global longitudinal strain, right ventricular free wall strain), and left atrial strain. We evaluated relationships between strain and profiles of 10 proinflammatory cytokines, microangiopathic features (soluble C5b9), and vasoactive-inotropic requirements. Compared with controls, cases with MIS-C had significant impairments in all parameters of systolic and diastolic function. 65% of cases with MIS-C had abnormal left ventricular function (|global longitudinal strain|<17%), although elevations of cytokines were modest. All left ventricular segments were involved, without apical or basal dominance to suggest acute stress cardiomyopathy. Worse global longitudinal strain correlated with higher ratios of interleukin-6 (ρ -0.43) and interleukin-8 (ρ -0.43) to total hypercytokinemia, but not absolute levels of interleukin-6 or interleukin-8, or total hypercytokinemia. Similarly, worse right ventricular free wall strain correlated with higher relative interleukin-8 expression (ρ -0.59). There were no significant associations between function and microangiopathy or vasoactive-inotropic requirements. Conclusions Myocardial function is globally decreased in MIS-C and not explained by acute stress cardiomyopathy. Cardiac dysfunction may be driven by the relative skew of the immune response toward interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 pathways, more so than degree of hyperinflammation, refining the current paradigm of myocardial involvement in MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Atrial Function, Left , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokines/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Function, Right , Adolescent , Age Factors , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Echocardiography , Female , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/immunology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology
16.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302391

ABSTRACT

There is a vast practice of using antimalarial drugs, RAS inhibitors, serine protease inhibitors, inhibitors of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the virus and immunosuppressants for the treatment of the severe form of COVID-19, which often occurs in patients with chronic diseases and older persons. Currently, the clinical efficacy of these drugs for COVID-19 has not been proven yet. Side effects of antimalarial drugs can worsen the condition of patients and increase the likelihood of death. Peptides, given their physiological mechanism of action, have virtually no side effects. Many of them are geroprotectors and can be used in patients with chronic diseases. Peptides may be able to prevent the development of the pathological process during COVID-19 by inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 virus proteins, thereby having immuno- and bronchoprotective effects on lung cells, and normalizing the state of the hemostasis system. Immunomodulators (RKDVY, EW, KE, AEDG), possessing a physiological mechanism of action at low concentrations, appear to be the most promising group among the peptides. They normalize the cytokines' synthesis and have an anti-inflammatory effect, thereby preventing the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Peptides/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory System Agents/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemical synthesis , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Respiratory System Agents/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2 , Structure-Activity Relationship
17.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253894, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the laboratory parameters and biomarkers of the cytokine storm syndrome associated with severe and fatal COVID-19 cases. METHODS: A search with standardized descriptors and synonyms was performed on November 28th, 2020 of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, LILACS, and IBECS to identify studies of interest. Grey literature searches and snowballing techniques were additionally utilized to identify yet-unpublished works and related citations. Two review authors independently screened the retrieved titles and abstracts, selected eligible studies for inclusion, extracted data from the included studies, and then assessed the risk of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Eligible studies were those including laboratory parameters-including serum interleukin-6 levels-from mild, moderate, or severe COVID-19 cases. Laboratory parameters, such as interleukin-6, ferritin, hematology, C-Reactive Protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, and D-dimer, were extracted from the studies. Meta-analyses were conducted using the laboratory data to estimate mean differences with associated 95% confidence intervals. DATA SYNTHESIS: The database search yielded 9,620 records; 40 studies (containing a total of 9,542 patients) were included in the final analysis. Twenty-one studies (n = 4,313) assessed laboratory data related to severe COVID-19 cases, eighteen studies (n = 4,681) assessed predictors for fatal COVID-19 cases and one study (n = 548) assessed laboratory biomarkers related to severe and fatal COVID-19 cases. Lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated levels of interleukin-6, ferritin, D-dimer, aspartate aminotransferase, C-Reactive-Protein, procalcitonin, creatinine, neutrophils and leucocytes were associated with severe and fatal COVID-19 cases. CONCLUSIONS: This review points to interleukin-6, ferritin, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, C-Reactive Protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, and D-dimer as important biomarkers of cytokine storm syndrome. Elevated levels of interleukin-6 and hyperferritinemia should be considered as red flags of systemic inflammation and poor prognosis in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Leukocytes/cytology , Leukocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
18.
J Neuroimmunol ; 358: 577632, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267756

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2-induced COVID-19 is a serious pandemic of the 21st century, which has caused a devastating loss of lives and a global economic catastrophe. A successful vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 has suffered a delay due to lack of substantial knowledge about its mechanisms of action. Understanding the innate immune system against SARS-CoV-2 and the role of heat shock proteins' (HSP) inhibiting and resolution of inflammatory pathways may provide information to the low SARS-CoV-2 mortality rates in Africa. In addition, bats being a host to different viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 possess a well specialized IFN-innate antiviral inflammatory response, showing no signs of disease or pro-inflammatory cytokine storm. We discuss the molecular pathways in COVID-19 with a focus on innate immunity, inflammation, HSP responses, and suggest appropriate candidates for therapeutic targets and The contribution of the innate immune system to the efficacy of mRNA or vector based Corona immunizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Heat-Shock Proteins/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
19.
Virol J ; 18(1): 117, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, specific cytokines associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and extrapulmonary multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) in COVID-19 patients have not been systematically described. We determined the levels of inflammatory cytokines in patients with COVID-19 and their relationships with ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD. METHODS: The clinical and laboratory data of 94 COVID-19 patients with and without ARDS were analyzed. The levels of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]) were measured on days 1, 3, and 5 following admission. Seventeen healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. Correlations in the levels of inflammatory cytokines with clinical and laboratory variables were analyzed, furthermore, we also explored the relationships of different cytokines with ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD. RESULTS: The ARDS group had higher serum levels of all 4 inflammatory cytokines than the controls, and these levels steadily increased after admission. The ARDS group also had higher levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 than the non-ARDS group, and the levels of these cytokines correlated significantly with coagulation parameters and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The levels of IL-6 and TNF-α correlated with the levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen, and were also higher in ARDS patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). All 4 inflammatory cytokines had negative correlations with PaO2/FiO2. IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α had positive correlations with the APACHE-II score. Relative to survivors, non-survivors had higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 at admission, and increasing levels over time. CONCLUSIONS: The cytokine storm apparently contributed to the development of ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD in COVID-19 patients. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 correlated with DIC, and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were associated with AKI. Relative to survivors, patients who died within 28 days had increased levels of IL-6 and IL-10.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokines/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Aged , Blood Urea Nitrogen , COVID-19/pathology , Creatinine/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
20.
Nat Immunol ; 22(7): 829-838, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220263

ABSTRACT

The innate immune response is critical for recognizing and controlling infections through the release of cytokines and chemokines. However, severe pathology during some infections, including SARS-CoV-2, is driven by hyperactive cytokine release, or a cytokine storm. The innate sensors that activate production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines during COVID-19 remain poorly characterized. In the present study, we show that both TLR2 and MYD88 expression were associated with COVID-19 disease severity. Mechanistically, TLR2 and Myd88 were required for ß-coronavirus-induced inflammatory responses, and TLR2-dependent signaling induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines during coronavirus infection independent of viral entry. TLR2 sensed the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein as its ligand. In addition, blocking TLR2 signaling in vivo provided protection against the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, our study provides a critical understanding of the molecular mechanism of ß-coronavirus sensing and inflammatory cytokine production, which opens new avenues for therapeutic strategies to counteract the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Macrophages , Male , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Toll-Like Receptor 2/genetics , Vero Cells
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