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1.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2221, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575100

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus infection is known as Covid-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). This disease can be asymptomatic or can affect multiple organ systems. Damage induced by the virus is related to dysfunctional activity of the immune system, but the activity of molecules such as C-reactive protein (CRP) as a factor capable of inducing an inflammatory status that may be involved in the severe evolution of the disease, has not been extensively evaluated. A systematic review was performed using the NCBI-PubMed database to find articles related to Covid-19 immunity, inflammatory response, and CRP published from December 2019 to December 2020. High levels of CRP were found in patients with severe evolution of Covid-19 in which several organ systems were affected and in patients who died. CRP activates complement, induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and induces apoptosis which, together with the inflammatory status during the disease, can lead to a severe outcome. Several drugs can decrease the level or block the effect of CRP and might be useful in the treatment of Covid-19. From this review it is reasonable to conclude that CRP is a factor that can contribute to severe evolution of Covid-19 and that the use of drugs able to lower CRP levels or block its activity should be evaluated in randomized controlled clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , ADAM17 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/genetics , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Celecoxib/therapeutic use , Complement System Proteins/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Progression , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
2.
Int Immunol ; 33(10): 515-519, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574756

ABSTRACT

Blockade of IL-6 function by an anti-IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) antibody (tocilizumab, trade name Actemra) has been shown to be effective for the treatment of chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, treatment with tocilizumab has also been found to alleviate the cytokine storm induced by chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy. Patients with serious cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibit cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which suggested that tocilizumab might be an effective therapeutic for serious cases of COVID-19. In the first part of this short review, the therapeutic effect of tocilizumab for the disease induced by IL-6 overproduction is described. CRS induced by CAR-T-cell therapy and COVID-19 is then discussed.


Subject(s)
Arthritis/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans
3.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2234, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574124

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic is the most serious event of the year 2020, causing considerable global morbidity and mortality. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of reported associations between inter-individual immunogenic variants and disease susceptibility or symptoms caused by the coronavirus strains severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-2, and two of the main respiratory viruses, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus. The results suggest that the genetic background of the host could affect the levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and might modulate the progression of Covid-19 in affected patients. Notably, genetic variations in innate immune components such as toll-like receptors and mannose-binding lectin 2 play critical roles in the ability of the immune system to recognize coronavirus and initiate an early immune response to clear the virus and prevent the development of severe symptoms. This review provides promising clues related to the potential benefits of using immunotherapy and immune modulation for respiratory infectious disease treatment in a personalized manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Influenza, Human/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Variation, Individual , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/drug effects , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/immunology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology
4.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-13, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574052

ABSTRACT

Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) biologicals, Dexamethasone and rIL-7 are of considerable interest in treating COVID-19 patients who are in danger of, or have become, seriously ill. Yet reducing sepsis mortality by lowering circulating levels of TNF lost favour when positive endpoints in earlier simplistic models could not be reproduced in well-conducted human trials. Newer information with anti-TNF biologicals has encouraged reintroducing this concept for treating COVID-19. Viral models have had encouraging outcomes, as have the effects of anti-TNF biologicals on community-acquired COVID-19 during their long-term use to treat chronic inflammatory states. The positive outcome of a large scale trial of dexamethasone, and its higher potency late in the disease, harmonises well with its capacity to enhance levels of IL-7Rα, the receptor for IL-7, a cytokine that enhances lymphocyte development and is increased during the cytokine storm. Lymphoid germinal centres required for antibody-based immunity can be harmed by TNF, and restored by reducing TNF. Thus the IL-7- enhancing activity of dexamethasone may explain its higher potency when lymphocytes are depleted later in the infection, while employing anti-TNF, for several reasons, is much more logical earlier in the infection. This implies dexamethasone could prove to be synergistic with rIL-7, currently being trialed as a COVID-19 therapeutic. The principles behind these COVID-19 therapies are consistent with the observed chronic hypoxia through reduced mitochondrial function, and also the increased severity of this disease in ApoE4-positive individuals. Many of the debilitating persistent aspects of this disease are predictably susceptible to treatment with perispinal etanercept, since they have cerebral origins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Interleukin-17/administration & dosage , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572496

ABSTRACT

In humans, over-activation of innate immunity in response to viral or bacterial infections often causes severe illness and death. Furthermore, similar mechanisms related to innate immunity can cause pathogenesis and death in sepsis, massive trauma (including surgery and burns), ischemia/reperfusion, some toxic lesions, and viral infections including COVID-19. Based on the reviewed observations, we suggest that such severe outcomes may be manifestations of a controlled suicidal strategy protecting the entire population from the spread of pathogens and from dangerous pathologies rather than an aberrant hyperstimulation of defense responses. We argue that innate immunity may be involved in the implementation of an altruistic programmed death of an organism aimed at increasing the well-being of the whole community. We discuss possible ways to suppress this atavistic program by interfering with innate immunity and suggest that combating this program should be a major goal of future medicine.


Subject(s)
Altruism , Apoptosis/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Death/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/immunology
6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 522-532, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated proinflammatory cytokines are associated with greater COVID-19 severity. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of sarilumab, an interleukin-6 receptor inhibitor, in patients with severe (requiring supplemental oxygen by nasal cannula or face mask) or critical (requiring greater supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal support) COVID-19. METHODS: We did a 60-day, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational phase 3 trial at 45 hospitals in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Russia, and Spain. We included adults (≥18 years) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and pneumonia, who required oxygen supplementation or intensive care. Patients were randomly assigned (2:2:1 with permuted blocks of five) to receive intravenous sarilumab 400 mg, sarilumab 200 mg, or placebo. Patients, care providers, outcome assessors, and investigators remained masked to assigned intervention throughout the course of the study. The primary endpoint was time to clinical improvement of two or more points (seven point scale ranging from 1 [death] to 7 [discharged from hospital]) in the modified intention-to-treat population. The key secondary endpoint was proportion of patients alive at day 29. Safety outcomes included adverse events and laboratory assessments. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04327388; EudraCT, 2020-001162-12; and WHO, U1111-1249-6021. FINDINGS: Between March 28 and July 3, 2020, of 431 patients who were screened, 420 patients were randomly assigned and 416 received placebo (n=84 [20%]), sarilumab 200 mg (n=159 [38%]), or sarilumab 400 mg (n=173 [42%]). At day 29, no significant differences were seen in median time to an improvement of two or more points between placebo (12·0 days [95% CI 9·0 to 15·0]) and sarilumab 200 mg (10·0 days [9·0 to 12·0]; hazard ratio [HR] 1·03 [95% CI 0·75 to 1·40]; log-rank p=0·96) or sarilumab 400 mg (10·0 days [9·0 to 13·0]; HR 1·14 [95% CI 0·84 to 1·54]; log-rank p=0·34), or in proportions of patients alive (77 [92%] of 84 patients in the placebo group; 143 [90%] of 159 patients in the sarilumab 200 mg group; difference -1·7 [-9·3 to 5·8]; p=0·63 vs placebo; and 159 [92%] of 173 patients in the sarilumab 400 mg group; difference 0·2 [-6·9 to 7·4]; p=0·85 vs placebo). At day 29, there were numerical, non-significant survival differences between sarilumab 400 mg (88%) and placebo (79%; difference +8·9% [95% CI -7·7 to 25·5]; p=0·25) for patients who had critical disease. No unexpected safety signals were seen. The rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were 65% (55 of 84) in the placebo group, 65% (103 of 159) in the sarilumab 200 mg group, and 70% (121 of 173) in the sarilumab 400 mg group, and of those leading to death 11% (nine of 84) were in the placebo group, 11% (17 of 159) were in the sarilumab 200 mg group, and 10% (18 of 173) were in the sarilumab 400 mg group. INTERPRETATION: This trial did not show efficacy of sarilumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 and receiving supplemental oxygen. Adequately powered trials of targeted immunomodulatory therapies assessing survival as a primary endpoint are suggested in patients with critical COVID-19. FUNDING: Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , International Cooperation , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 511-521, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global randomised controlled trials of the anti-IL-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 have shown conflicting results but potential decreases in time to discharge and burden on intensive care. Tocilizumab reduced progression to mechanical ventilation and death in a trial population enriched for racial and ethnic minorities. We aimed to investigate whether tocilizumab treatment could prevent COVID-19 progression in the first multicentre randomised controlled trial of tocilizumab done entirely in a lower-middle-income country. METHODS: COVINTOC is an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial done at 12 public and private hospitals across India. Adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 (Indian Ministry of Health grading) confirmed by positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result were randomly assigned (1:1 block randomisation) to receive tocilizumab 6 mg/kg plus standard care (the tocilizumab group) or standard care alone (the standard care group). The primary endpoint was progression of COVID-19 (from moderate to severe or from severe to death) up to day 14 in the modified intention-to-treat population of all participants who had at least one post-baseline assessment for the primary endpoint. Safety was assessed in all randomly assigned patients. The trial is completed and registered with the Clinical Trials Registry India (CTRI/2020/05/025369). FINDINGS: 180 patients were recruited between May 30, 2020, and Aug 31, 2020, and randomly assigned to the tocilizumab group (n=90) or the standard care group (n=90). One patient randomly assigned to the standard care group inadvertently received tocilizumab at baseline and was included in the tocilizumab group for all analyses. One patient randomly assigned to the standard care group withdrew consent after the baseline visit and did not receive any study medication and was not included in the modified intention-to-treat population but was still included in safety analyses. 75 (82%) of 91 in the tocilizumab group and 68 (76%) of 89 in the standard care group completed 28 days of follow-up. Progression of COVID-19 up to day 14 occurred in eight (9%) of 91 patients in the tocilizumab group and 11 (13%) of 88 in the standard care group (difference -3·71 [95% CI -18·23 to 11·19]; p=0·42). 33 (36%) of 91 patients in the tocilizumab group and 22 (25%) of 89 patients in the standard care group had adverse events; 18 (20%) and 15 (17%) had serious adverse events. The most common adverse event was acute respiratory distress syndrome, reported in seven (8%) patients in each group. Grade 3 adverse events were reported in two (2%) patients in the tocilizumab group and five (6%) patients in the standard care group. There were no grade 4 adverse events. Serious adverse events were reported in 18 (20%) patients in the tocilizumab group and 15 (17%) in the standard care group; 13 (14%) and 15 (17%) patients died during the study. INTERPRETATION: Routine use of tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 is not supported. However, post-hoc evidence from this study suggests tocilizumab might still be effective in patients with severe COVID-19 and so should be investigated further in future studies. FUNDING: Medanta Institute of Education and Research, Roche India, Cipla India, and Action COVID-19 India.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , India , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
8.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2146-2151, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526353

ABSTRACT

Tocilizumab is an IL-6 receptor antagonist with the ability to suppress the cytokine storm in critically ill patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We evaluated patients treated with tocilizumab for a SARS-CoV-2 infection who were admitted between March 13, 2020, and April 16, 2020. This was a multicenter study with data collected by chart review both retrospectively and concurrently. Parameters evaluated included age, sex, race, use of mechanical ventilation (MV), usage of steroids and vasopressors, inflammatory markers, and comorbidities. Early dosing was defined as a tocilizumab dose administered prior to or within 1 day of intubation. Late dosing was defined as a dose administered > 1 day after intubation. In the absence of MV, the timing of the dose was related to the patient's date of admission only. We evaluated 145 patients. The average age was 58.1 years, 64% were men, 68.3% had comorbidities, and 60% received steroid therapy. Disposition of patients was 48.3% discharged and 29.3% died, of which 43.9% were African American. MV was required in 55.9%, of which 34.5% died. Avoidance of MV (P = 0.002) and increased survival (P < 0.001) was statistically associated with early dosing. Tocilizumab therapy was effective at decreasing mortality and should be instituted early in the management of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019) COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741218, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518486

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of the SARS-Cov-2 virus in 2020 has killed millions of people worldwide and forced large parts of the world into lockdowns. While multiple vaccine programs are starting to immunize the global population, there is no direct cure for COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS-Cov-2 infection. A common symptom in patients is a decrease in T cells, called lymphopenia. It is as of yet unclear what the exact role of T cells are in the immune response to COVID-19. The research so far has mainly focused on the involvement of classical αß T cells. However, another subset of T cells called γδ T cells could have an important role to play. As part of the innate immune system, γδ T cells respond to inflammation and stressed or infected cells. The γδ T cell subset appears to be particularly affected by lymphopenia in COVID-19 patients and commonly express activation and exhaustion markers. Particularly in children, this subset of T cells seems to be most affected. This is interesting and relevant because γδ T cells are more prominent and active in early life. Their specific involvement in this group of patients could indicate a significant role for γδ T cells in this disease. Furthermore, they seem to be involved in other viral infections and were able to kill SARS infected cells in vitro. γδ T cells can take up, process and present antigens from microbes and human cells. As e.g. tumour-associated antigens are presented by MHC on γδ T cells to classical T-cells, we argue here that it stands to reason that also viral antigens, such as SARS-Cov-2-derived peptides, can be presented in the same way. γδ T cells are already used for medical purposes in oncology and have potential in cancer therapy. As γδ T cells are not necessarily able to distinguish between a transformed and a virally infected cell it could therefore be of great interest to investigate further the relationship between COVID-19 and γδ T cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Neoplasms/immunology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 765965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497082

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulted in an unprecedented global crisis. Although primarily a respiratory illness, dysregulated immune responses may lead to multi-organ dysfunction. Prior data showed that the resident microbial communities of gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts act as modulators of local and systemic inflammatory activity (the gut-lung axis). Evolving evidence now signals an alteration in the gut microbiome, brought upon either by cytokines from the infected respiratory tract or from direct infection of the gut, or both. Dysbiosis leads to a "leaky gut". The intestinal permeability then allows access to bacterial products and toxins into the circulatory system and further exacerbates the systemic inflammatory response. In this review, we discuss the available data related to the role of the gut microbiome in the development and progression of COVID-19. We provide mechanistic insights into early data with a focus on immunological crosstalk and the microbiome's potential as a biomarker and therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/microbiology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Dysbiosis/immunology , Humans , Immunity , Inflammation
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 742941, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477827

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) elicited by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused devastating health, economic and social impact worldwide. Its clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic to respiratory failure and multi-organ failure or death. The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is attributed to a complex interplay between virus and host immune response. It involves activation of multiple inflammatory pathways leading to hyperinflammation and cytokine storm, resulting in tissue damage, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ failure. Accumulating evidence has raised concern over the long-term health effects of COVID-19. Importantly, the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2 may have devastating consequences in the brain. This review provides a conceptual framework on how the virus tricks the host immune system to induce infection and cause severe disease. We also explore the key differences between mild and severe COVID-19 and its short- and long-term effects, particularly on the human brain.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Sex Factors
13.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 367, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475287

ABSTRACT

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) embodies a mixture of clinical manifestations, including elevated circulating cytokine levels, acute systemic inflammatory symptoms and secondary organ dysfunction, which was first described in the context of acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and was later observed in pandemics of influenza, SARS-CoV and COVID-19, immunotherapy of tumor, after chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) therapy, and in monogenic disorders and autoimmune diseases. Particularly, severe CRS is a very significant and life-threatening complication, which is clinically characterized by persistent high fever, hyperinflammation, and severe organ dysfunction. However, CRS is a double-edged sword, which may be both helpful in controlling tumors/viruses/infections and harmful to the host. Although a high incidence and high levels of cytokines are features of CRS, the detailed kinetics and specific mechanisms of CRS in human diseases and intervention therapy remain unclear. In the present review, we have summarized the most recent advances related to the clinical features and management of CRS as well as cutting-edge technologies to elucidate the mechanisms of CRS. Considering that CRS is the major adverse event in human diseases and intervention therapy, our review delineates the characteristics, kinetics, signaling pathways, and potential mechanisms of CRS, which shows its clinical relevance for achieving both favorable efficacy and low toxicity.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome , Signal Transduction/immunology , Acute Disease , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Graft vs Host Disease/complications , Graft vs Host Disease/immunology , Graft vs Host Disease/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/immunology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy
14.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(12): 2471-2474, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473989

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiological process of the disease, Covid-19, is mediated by innate immunity, with the presence of macrophages responsible for secreting type 1 and 6 interleukins (IL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) leading to dilation of endothelial cells with a consequent increase in capillary permeability. The treatment of this disease has been much discussed, but the variability in the clinical picture, the difficulties for diagnosis and treatment, especially of those patients who have the most severe clinical condition of the disease. Immunization is an effective tool for controlling the spread and overload of health services, but its effectiveness involves high investments in the acquisition of inputs, development of vaccines, and logistics of storage and distribution. These factors can be obstacles for countries with lower economic, technological, and infrastructure indexes. Reflecting on these difficulties, we raised the possibility of adjuvant therapies with imminent research feasibility, as is the case with the use of carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol whose has biological properties that serve as a barrier to processes mediated by free radicals, such as irritation and inflammation, due to its antioxidant action. Many authors highlighted the activity of carvacrol as a potent suppressor of COX-2 expression minimizing the acute inflammatory process, decreasing the release of some pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-1ß, TNF-α, PGE2. Anyway, the benefits of carvacrol are numerous and the therapeutic possibilities too. With this description, the question arises: would carvacrol be a supporting treatment option, effective in minimizing the deleterious effects of Covid-19? There is still a lot to discover and research.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cymenes/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Cymenes/pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470895

ABSTRACT

Innate and adaptive immune responses have a well-known link and represent the distinctive origins of several diseases, many of which may be the consequence of the loss of balance between these two responses. Indeed, autoinflammation and autoimmunity represent the two extremes of a continuous spectrum of pathologic conditions with numerous overlaps in different pathologies. A common characteristic of these dysregulations is represented by hyperinflammation, which is an exaggerated response of the immune system, especially involving white blood cells, macrophages, and inflammasome activation with the hyperproduction of cytokines in response to various triggering stimuli. Moreover, hyperinflammation is of great interest, as it is one of the main manifestations of COVID-19 infection, and the cytokine storm and its most important components are the targets of the pharmacological treatments used to combat COVID-19 damage. In this context, the purpose of our review is to provide a focus on the pathogenesis of autoinflammation and, in particular, of hyperinflammation in order to generate insights for the identification of new therapeutic targets and strategies.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Autoimmune Diseases/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Immunity, Innate , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
J Clin Invest ; 131(20)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470549

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) manifests as a severe and uncontrolled inflammatory response with multiorgan involvement, occurring weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we utilized proteomics, RNA sequencing, autoantibody arrays, and B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire analysis to characterize MIS-C immunopathogenesis and identify factors contributing to severe manifestations and intensive care unit admission. Inflammation markers, humoral immune responses, neutrophil activation, and complement and coagulation pathways were highly enriched in MIS-C patient serum, with a more hyperinflammatory profile in severe than in mild MIS-C cases. We identified a strong autoimmune signature in MIS-C, with autoantibodies targeted to both ubiquitously expressed and tissue-specific antigens, suggesting autoantigen release and excessive antigenic drive may result from systemic tissue damage. We further identified a cluster of patients with enhanced neutrophil responses as well as high anti-Spike IgG and autoantibody titers. BCR sequencing of these patients identified a strong imprint of antigenic drive with substantial BCR sequence connectivity and usage of autoimmunity-associated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) genes. This cluster was linked to a TRBV11-2 expanded T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, consistent with previous studies indicating a superantigen-driven pathogenic process. Overall, we identify a combination of pathogenic pathways that culminate in MIS-C and may inform treatment.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Adolescent , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant , Inflammation/immunology , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/genetics , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/metabolism , Neutrophil Activation , Proteomics , RNA-Seq , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism
17.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 43(6): 633-643, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467231

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), at first, was reported in Wuhan, China, and then rapidly became pandemic throughout the world. Cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) in COVID-19 patients is associated with high levels of cytokines and chemokines that cause multiple organ failure, systemic inflammation, and hemodynamic instabilities. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a common complication of COVID-19, is a consequence of cytokine storm. In this regard, several drugs have been being investigated to suppress this inflammatory condition. Purinergic signaling receptors comprising of P1 adenosine and P2 purinoceptors play a critical role in inflammation. Therefore, activation or inhibition of some subtypes of these kinds of receptors is most likely to be beneficial to attenuate cytokine storm. This article summarizes suggested therapeutic drugs with potential anti-inflammatory effects through purinergic receptors.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Purinergic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Receptors, Purinergic/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/immunology , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Purinergic Antagonists/adverse effects , Receptors, Purinergic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction
18.
Neuropharmacology ; 201: 108841, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466809

ABSTRACT

A strong association between perinatal viral infections and neurodevelopmental disorders has been established. Both the direct contact of the virus with the developing brain and the strong maternal immune response originated by viral infections can impair proper neurodevelopment. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the highly-infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is currently responsible for a large global outbreak and is a major public health issue. While initial studies focused on the viral impact on the respiratory system, increasing evidence suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infects other organs and tissues including the mature brain. While studies continue to determine the neuropathology associated to COVID-19, the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection to the developing brain remain largely unexplored. The present review discusses evidence suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infection may have persistent effects on the course of pregnancy and on brain development. Studies have shown that several proinflammatory mediators which are increased in the SARS-CoV-2-associated cytokine storm, are also modified in other viral infections known to increase the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. In this sense, further studies should assess the genuine effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and delivery along with an extended follow-up of the offspring, including neurocognitive, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological examination. It also remains to be determined whether and by which mechanisms SARS-CoV-2 intrauterine and early life infection could lead to an increased risk of developing neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ), in the offspring.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/immunology , Brain/embryology , Brain/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/immunology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Schizophrenia/immunology
19.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e935005, 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464039

ABSTRACT

Recent studies on the pathogenesis and clinical spectrum of human disease following infection with the new human pathogen, SARS-CoV-2, have identified the varied presentations and sequelae of COVID-19. Acute 'cytokine storm' in severe COVID-19 results in multiorgan damage due to vascular hyperpermeability, edema, and hypercoagulation. The long-term consequences of infection from SARS-CoV-2 include long COVID. or post-COVID syndrome, and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Several case reports of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) have shown the presentation at more than four weeks after initial infection with SARS-CoV-2 in adults more than 21 years of age. In September 2021, a published systematic review of the literature identified 221 patients with MIS-A, representing the most comprehensive clinical study to date. MIS-A occurs in the post-acute COVID-19 period. The pathogenesis may involve a dysregulated antibody-mediated immune response, similar to MIS-C. Therefore, patients with MIS-A may respond to supportive therapies that control hyperinflammation. This Editorial aims to describe MIS-A and discuss COVID-19 as a spectrum of hyperinflammatory disease in terms of severity, extent, duration, and patient age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 646972, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438415

ABSTRACT

Background: Immune system conditions of the patient is a key factor in COVID-19 infection survival. A growing number of studies have focused on immunological determinants to develop better biomarkers for therapies. Aim: Studies of the insurgence of immunity is at the core of both SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development and therapies. This paper attempts to describe the insurgence (and the span) of immunity in COVID-19 at the population level by developing an in-silico model. We simulate the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and analyze the impact of infecting viral load, affinity to the ACE2 receptor, and age in an artificially infected population on the course of the disease. Methods: We use a stochastic agent-based immune simulation platform to construct a virtual cohort of infected individuals with age-dependent varying degrees of immune competence. We use a parameter set to reproduce known inter-patient variability and general epidemiological statistics. Results: By assuming the viremia at day 30 of the infection to be the proxy for lethality, we reproduce in-silico several clinical observations and identify critical factors in the statistical evolution of the infection. In particular, we evidence the importance of the humoral response over the cytotoxic response and find that the antibody titers measured after day 25 from the infection are a prognostic factor for determining the clinical outcome of the infection. Our modeling framework uses COVID-19 infection to demonstrate the actionable effectiveness of modeling the immune response at individual and population levels. The model developed can explain and interpret observed patterns of infection and makes verifiable temporal predictions. Within the limitations imposed by the simulated environment, this work proposes quantitatively that the great variability observed in the patient outcomes in real life can be the mere result of subtle variability in the infecting viral load and immune competence in the population. In this work, we exemplify how computational modeling of immune response provides an important view to discuss hypothesis and design new experiments, in particular paving the way to further investigations about the duration of vaccine-elicited immunity especially in the view of the blundering effect of immunosenescence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Models, Immunological , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Computer Simulation , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunosenescence , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load
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