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1.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 42(2): 49-61, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692282

ABSTRACT

The interleukin (IL)-1 superfamily of cytokines comprises 11 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which play essential roles during the immune response. Several pathogenic pathways are initiated by IL-1RL2 (interleukin 1 receptor-like 2) signaling, also known as IL-36R, in the skin, lungs, and gut. IL-36 cytokines promote the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, upregulation of antimicrobial peptides, proliferation mediators, and adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. In addition, the IL-36-IL-1RL2 axis has an essential role against viral infections, including a potential role in COVID-19 pathology. The evidence presented in this review highlights the importance of the axis IL-36-IL-1RL2 in the development of several inflammation-related diseases and the healing process. It suggests that IL-1RL2 ligands have specific roles depending on the tissue or cell source. However, there is still much to discover about this cytokine family, their functions in other organs, and how they accomplish a dual effect in inflammation and healing.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/physiopathology , Receptors, Interleukin-1/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Cytokines/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interleukin-1/physiology , Interleukins/classification , Intestines/metabolism , Intestines/pathology , Ligands , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Domains , Receptors, Interleukin/classification , Receptors, Interleukin-1/agonists , Receptors, Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-1/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Skin/metabolism , Skin/pathology
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 749291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566649

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a causative virus in the development of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. Respiratory manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection such as acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) leads to hypoxia, oxidative stress, and sympatho-activation and in severe cases leads to sympathetic storm (SS). On the other hand, an exaggerated immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 invasion may lead to uncontrolled release of pro-inflammatory cytokine development of cytokine storm (CS). In Covid-19, there are interactive interactions between CS and SS in the development of multi-organ failure (MOF). Interestingly, cutting the bridge between CS and SS by anti-inflammatory and anti-adrenergic agents may mitigate complications that are induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in severely affected Covid-19 patients. The potential mechanisms of SS in Covid-19 are through different pathways such as hypoxia, which activate the central sympathetic center through carotid bodies chemosensory input and induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, which cross the blood-brain barrier and activation of the sympathetic center. ß2-receptors signaling pathway play a crucial role in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, macrophage activation, and B-cells for the production of antibodies with inflammation exacerbation. ß-blockers have anti-inflammatory effects through reduction release of pro-inflammatory cytokines with inhibition of NF-κB. In conclusion, ß-blockers interrupt this interaction through inhibition of several mediators of CS and SS with prevention development of neural-cytokine loop in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Evidence from this study triggers an idea for future prospective studies to confirm the potential role of ß-blockers in the management of Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Sympathetic Nervous System/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Catecholamines/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , /etiology , /physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sympathetic Nervous System/metabolism , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiopathology
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25923, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455404

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Blocking IL-6 pathways with sarilumab, a fully human anti-IL-6R antagonist may potentially curb the inflammatory storm of SARS-CoV2. In the present emergency scenario, we used "off-label" sarilumab in 5 elderly patients in life-threatening condition not candidates to further active measures. We suggest that sarilumab can modulate severe COVID-19-associated Cytokine Release Syndrome.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1017-1031, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286160

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) is the culprit of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), which has infected approximately 173 million people and killed more than 3.73 million. At risk groups including diabetic and obese patients are more vulnerable to COVID-19-related complications and poor outcomes. Substantial evidence points to hypovitaminosis D as a risk factor for severe disease, the need for ICU, and mortality. 1,25(OH)D, a key regulator of calcium homeostasis, is believed to have various immune-regulatory roles including; promoting anti-inflammatory cytokines, down regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, dampening entry and replication of SARS-COV-2, and the production of antimicrobial peptides. In addition, there are strong connections which suggest that dysregulated 1,25(OH)D levels play a mechanistic and pathophysiologic role in several disease processes that are shared with COVID-19 including: diabetes, obesity, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), cytokine storm, and even hypercoagulable states. With evidence continuing to grow for the case that low vitamin D status is a risk factor for COVID-19 disease and poor outcomes, there is a need now to address the public health efforts set in place to minimize infection, such as lock down orders, which may have inadvertently increased hypovitaminosis D in the general population and those already at risk (elderly, obese, and disabled). Moreover, there is a need to address the implications of this evidence and how we may apply the use of cheaply available supplementation, which has yet to overcome the near global concern of hypovitaminosis D. In our review, we exhaustively scope these shared pathophysiologic connections between COVID-19 and hypovitaminosis D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Thrombophilia/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/metabolism , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 589095, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231334

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an ongoing major threat to global health and has posed significant challenges for the treatment of severely ill COVID-19 patients. Several studies have reported that cytokine storms are an important cause of disease deterioration and death in COVID-19 patients. Consequently, it is important to understand the specific pathophysiological processes underlying how cytokine storms promote the deterioration of COVID-19. Here, we outline the pathophysiological processes through which cytokine storms contribute to the deterioration of SARS-CoV-2 infection and describe the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the immune system, as well as the pathophysiology of immune response dysfunction that leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and coagulation impairment. Treatments based on inhibiting cytokine storm-induced deterioration and occurrence are also described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans
7.
mBio ; 12(3)2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216782

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection has enormously impacted our lives. Clinical evidence has implicated the emergence of cytokine release syndrome as the prominent cause of mortality in COVID-19 patients. In this study, we observed massive elevation of plasma Galectin-9 (Gal-9) in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls (HCs). By using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, we found that a baseline of 2,042 pg/ml plasma Gal-9 can differentiate SARS-CoV-2-infected from noninfected individuals with high specificity/sensitivity (95%). Analysis of 30 cytokines and chemokines detected a positive correlation of the plasma Gal-9 with C-reactive protein (CRP) and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IP-10, MIP-1α, and MCP-1 but an inverse correlation with transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) in COVID-19 patients. In agreement, we found enhanced production of IL-6 and TNF-α by monocytes and NK cells of COVID-19 patients once treated with the recombinant human Gal-9 in vitro Also, we observed that although the cell-membrane expression of Gal-9 on monocytes does not change in COVID-19 patients, those with higher Gal-9 expression exhibit an activated phenotype. Furthermore, we noted significant downregulation of surface Gal-9 in neutrophils from COVID-19 patients compared to HCs. Our further investigations indicated that immune activation following SARS-CoV-2 infection results in Gal-9 shedding from neutrophils. The strong correlation of Gal-9 with proinflammatory mediators suggests that inhibition of Gal-9 may severe as a therapeutic approach in COVID-19 infection. Besides, the plasma Gal-9 measurement may be used as a surrogate diagnostic biomarker in COVID-19 patients.IMPORTANCE The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection has enormously impacted our lives. Clinical evidence has implicated the emergence of cytokine release syndrome as the prominent cause of mortality in COVID-19 patients. We observed substantial elevation of the plasma Galectin-9 (Gal-9) in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls. Gal-9 is an abundant protein in many immune and nonimmune cells. We found that Gal-9 detection assay can differentiate SARS-CoV-2-infected from noninfected individuals with a specificity/sensitivity of 95%. Importantly, we found a positive correlation of the plasma Gal-9 with a wide range of proinflammatory biomarkers in COVID-19 patients. In agreement, we found enhanced expression and production of such proinflammatory molecules by immune cells of COVID-19 patients once treated with Gal-9 in vitro Our results propose Gal-9 as an important contributing factor in cytokine release syndrome; therefore, Gal-9 inhibition may serve as a beneficial therapeutic approach by suppressing the hyperimmune activation in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Galectins/blood , Sex Factors , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 613070, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170085

ABSTRACT

Lack of specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19 has resulted in long hospitalizations and high mortality rate. By harnessing the regulatory effects of adenosine on inflammatory mediators, we have instituted a new therapeutic treatment with inhaled adenosine in COVID-19 patients, with the aim of reducing inflammation, the onset of cytokine storm, and therefore to improve prognosis. The use of inhaled adenosine in COVID19 patients has allowed reduction of length of stay, on average 6 days. This result is strengthened by the decrease in SARS-CoV-2 positive days. In treated patients compared to control, a clear improvement in PaO2/FiO2 was observed together with a reduction in inflammation parameters, such as the decrease of CRP level. Furthermore, the efficacy of inhaled exogenous adenosine led to an improvement of the prognosis indices, NLR and PLR. The treatment seems to be safe and modulates the immune system, allowing an effective response against the viral infection progression, reducing length of stay and inflammation parameters.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Female , Heparin/administration & dosage , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(4): 968-979, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155205

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Many neurological manifestations are associated with COVID-19, including a distinct form of encephalopathy related to cytokine storm, the acute systemic inflammatory syndrome present in a subgroup of COVID-19 patients. Cytokine storm is also associated with immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS), a complication of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy, a highly effective treatment for refractory hematological malignancies. We investigated whether COVID-19-related encephalopathy, ICANS, and other encephalopathies associated with cytokine storm, share clinical and investigative findings. METHODS: Narrative literature review. RESULTS: Comparisons between COVID-19-related encephalopathy and ICANS revealed several overlapping features. Clinically, these included dysexecutive syndrome, language disturbances, akinetic mutism and delirium. EEG showed a prevalence of frontal abnormalities. Brain MRI was often unrevealing. CSF elevated cytokine levels have been reported. A direct correlation between cytokine storm intensity and severity of neurological manifestations has been shown for both conditions. Clinical recovery occurred spontaneously or following immunotherapies in most of the patients. Similar clinical and investigative features were also reported in other encephalopathies associated with cytokine storm, such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, sepsis, and febrile infection-associated encephalopathies. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19-related encephalopathy and ICANS are characterized by a predominant electro-clinical frontal lobe dysfunction and share several features with other encephalopathies associated with cytokine storm, which may represent the common denominator of a clinical spectrum of neurological disorders. Therefore, we propose a unifying definition of cytokine storm-associated encephalopathy (CySE), and its diagnostic criteria.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/physiopathology , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/trends
12.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs ; 20(6): 525-533, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-755898

ABSTRACT

Human factor Xa (FXa) is a serine protease of the common coagulation pathway. FXa is known to activate prothrombin to thrombin, which eventually leads to the formation of cross-linked blood clots. While this process is important in maintaining hemostasis, excessive thrombin generation results in a host of thrombotic conditions. FXa has also been linked to inflammation via protease-activated receptors. Together, coagulopathy and inflammation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of viral infections, including the current coronavirus pandemic. Direct FXa inhibitors have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects, in addition to their established anticoagulant activity. This review summarizes the pharmacological activities of direct FXa inhibitors, their pharmacokinetics, potential drug-drug interactions and adverse effects, and the details of clinical trials involving direct FXa inhibitors in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/pharmacology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Drug Interactions , Factor Xa/metabolism , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Factor Xa Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Half-Life , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , Pandemics , Protein Binding/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138734

ABSTRACT

Among patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) syndrome, one of the worst possible scenarios is represented by the critical lung damage caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced cytokine storm, responsible for a potentially very dangerous hyperinflammatory condition. Within such a context, interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a key pathogenic role, thus being a suitable therapeutic target. Indeed, the IL-6-receptor antagonist tocilizumab, already approved for treatment of refractory rheumatoid arthritis, is often used to treat patients with severe COVID-19 symptoms and lung involvement. Therefore, the aim of this review article is to focus on the rationale of tocilizumab utilization in the SARS-CoV-2-triggered cytokine storm, as well as to discuss current evidence and future perspectives, especially with regard to ongoing trials referring to the evaluation of tocilizumab's therapeutic effects in patients with life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/chemistry , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/physiology
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 34, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110742

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world has experienced the emergence in China of a new infection called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This infection quickly has progressed to a global pandemic since March 2020, with very high human-to-human transmission rate. Besides lung injury, COVID-19 is also associated with cardio and neurovascular complications. Herein, we report the case of a 77-year-old female who presented with non-severe COVID-19 and multiple ischemic strokes secondary to an extensive carotid thrombosis. The ischemic stroke was supposed to have been caused by the cytokine storm related to COVID-19. The possibility of hemorrhagic transformation, based on the assessment of bleeding score, limited the use of anticoagulation, and probably explained the stroke recurrence and poor outcome in our patient. The pathogenic mechanism and the management of this complex situation are still lacking and further studies are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Aged , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Recurrence
15.
IEEE Pulse ; 12(1): 2-6, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091099

ABSTRACT

In March 2020 -still the early days of the U.K.'s COVID-19 crisis-Rhys Thomas, a neurologist at Newcastle University, got a call at home from a concerned colleague. The colleague's cousin was hospitalized, critically ill with COVID-19, and had developed brainstem encephalitis, a severe inflammatory condition of the brain causing a suite of symptoms, from eye problems to balance problems and drowsiness. He wanted to know if Thomas knew anything about these conditions. At the time, the research coming out of Wuhan, China, only suggested a mild whiff of neurological symptoms-headache, dizziness, and the loss of taste and smell. Clearly the virus could affect the brain in some ways, but it wasn't, Thomas thought then, anything serious. But this report sounded much more concerning. Symptoms like this patient's would mean the virus was accessing more of the nervous system than scientists originally thought.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Brain Diseases/physiopathology , Brain Diseases/psychology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology
16.
Br J Community Nurs ; 26(1): 18-25, 2021 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068039

ABSTRACT

Heart failure as a comorbidity in the older population with COVID-19 poses an additional threat to those affected. Patients with both COVID-19 and heart failure share similar risk factors, which result in magnification of pathological outcomes. These include a common inflammatory pathology and related coagulopathy. Both illnesses pose a risk of arrhythmia. Polypharmacy further complicates safe drug administration and worsens the risk of medication-induced arrhythmia. Additionally, both conditions present challenges regarding attaining and maintaining an appropriate nutritional state. Exploration of the interplay between these factors demonstrates the gravity of the co-existence of these conditions and helps understand the difficulties faced when caring for this patient group. Although care provided to COVID-19 patients is primarily related to symptom presentation, based on the analysis conducted, there are some recommendations for practice in relation to evidence and guidelines when managing heart failure patients in primary care within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Diet , Gene Expression , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Pandemics , Polypharmacy , Primary Health Care , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(1): 7-18, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064458

ABSTRACT

Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an acute and rapidly progressive systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by cytopenia, excessive cytokine production, and hyperferritinemia. Common clinical manifestations of HLH are acute unremitting fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and multiorgan failure. Due to a massive cytokine release, this clinical condition is considered as a cytokine storm syndrome. HPS has primary and acquired (secondary, reactive) forms. Its primary form is mostly seen in childhood and caused by various mutations with genetic inheritance and, therefore, is called familial HLH. Secondary HLH may be caused in the presence of an underlying disorder, that is, secondary to a malignant, infectious, or autoimmune/autoinflammatory stimulus. This paper aims to review the pathogenesis and the clinical picture of HLH, and its severe complication, the cytokine storm, with a special emphasis on the developed classification criteria sets for rheumatologists, since COVID-19 infection has clinical symptoms resembling those of the common rheumatologic conditions and possibly triggers HLH. MED-LINE/Pubmed was searched from inception to April 2020, and the following terms were used for data searching: "hemophagocytic syndrome" OR "macrophage activation syndrome" OR "hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis", OR "cytokine storm". Finally, AND "COVID-19" was included in this algorithm. The selection is restricted to the past 5 years and limited numbers of earlier key references were manually selected. Only full-text manuscripts, published in an English language peer-reviewed journal were included. Manuscript selection procedure and numbers are given in Fig. 2. Briefly, the database search with the following terms of "Hemophagocytic syndrome" OR "Macrophage activation syndrome" OR "Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis" OR "Cytokine storm" yielded 6744 results from inception to April 2020. The selection is restricted to the past 5 years and only limited numbers of earlier key references were selected, and this algorithm resulted in 3080 manuscripts. The addition of (AND "COVID-19") resulted in 115 publications of which 47 studies, together with four sections of an online book were used in the final review. No statistical method was used. HLH is triggered by genetic conditions, infections, malignancies, autoimmune-autoinflammatory diseases, and some drugs. In COVID-19 patients, secondary HLH and cytokine storm may be responsible for unexplained progressive fever, cytopenia, ARDS, neurological and renal impairment. Differentiation between the primary and secondary forms of HLH is utterly important, since primary form of HLH requires complicated treatments such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Further studies addressing the performance of HScore and other recommendations in the classification of these patients is necessary.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/physiopathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics , Rheumatology/methods , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Nature ; 590(7844): 29-31, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038200
19.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 34(1)2020 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029783

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, introduced the third highly pathogenic coronavirus into humans in the 21st century. Scientific advance after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) epidemic and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emergence enabled clinicians to understand the epidemiology and pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we summarize and discuss the epidemiology, clinical features, and virology of and host immune responses to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 and the pathogenesis of coronavirus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We especially highlight that highly pathogenic coronaviruses might cause infection-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, which is involved in the immunopathogenesis of human coronavirus-induced ARDS, and also discuss the potential implication of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis therapeutics for combating severe coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Lung/immunology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/mortality , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/physiopathology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
20.
Arch Med Res ; 51(7): 608-612, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023468

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly spreading all over the world. Excessive immune responses trigger life-threatening cytokine release syndrome (CRS) which can result in overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1ß with different pro-inflammatory roles. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the modulation of systemic immune responses may have a potential role in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Given the importance of the issue and the lack of therapeutic treatment or vaccine; anti-cytokine therapy such as IL-6, TNFα and IL-1 antagonists have been suggested for the alleviation of hyper-inflammation status in these patients. In this mini-review, we addressed the inflammatory pathways of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its relationship with the host cytokine storm. Furthermore, the proposed therapeutic options to reverse hyper-inflammation in infected patients were mentioned.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Immunotherapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
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