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1.
Nature ; 584(7821): 463-469, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-677004

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have provided insights into the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1-4. However, the longitudinal immunological correlates of disease outcome remain unclear. Here we serially analysed immune responses in 113 patients with moderate or severe COVID-19. Immune profiling revealed an overall increase in innate cell lineages, with a concomitant reduction in T cell number. An early elevation in cytokine levels was associated with worse disease outcomes. Following an early increase in cytokines, patients with moderate COVID-19 displayed a progressive reduction in type 1 (antiviral) and type 3 (antifungal) responses. By contrast, patients with severe COVID-19 maintained these elevated responses throughout the course of the disease. Moreover, severe COVID-19 was accompanied by an increase in multiple type 2 (anti-helminths) effectors, including interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13, immunoglobulin E and eosinophils. Unsupervised clustering analysis identified four immune signatures, representing growth factors (A), type-2/3 cytokines (B), mixed type-1/2/3 cytokines (C), and chemokines (D) that correlated with three distinct disease trajectories. The immune profiles of patients who recovered from moderate COVID-19 were enriched in tissue reparative growth factor signature A, whereas the profiles of those with who developed severe disease had elevated levels of all four signatures. Thus, we have identified a maladapted immune response profile associated with severe COVID-19 and poor clinical outcome, as well as early immune signatures that correlate with divergent disease trajectories.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokines/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cluster Analysis , Cytokines/immunology , Eosinophils/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin E/analysis , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Interleukin-13/analysis , Interleukin-13/immunology , Interleukin-5/analysis , Interleukin-5/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Load , Young Adult
2.
J Infect ; 81(2): 205-212, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609140

ABSTRACT

A subgroup of COVID-19 patients develop very severe disease with requirement for ICU treatment, ventilation, and ECMO therapy. Laboratory tests indicate that the immune and clotting system show marked alterations with hyper-activation, hyper-inflammation, cytokine storm development. Furthermore, organ-specific biomarkers demonstrate the involvement of cardiac muscle, kidney, and liver dysfunction in many patients. In this article the use of laboratory biomarkers is discussed with regard to their use for diagnosis, disease progression, and risk assessment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Inflammation/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokines/analysis , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Risk Assessment
3.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 154, 2020 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-608659

ABSTRACT

Electronic cigarette (e-cig) vaping is increasing rapidly in the United States, as e-cigs are considered less harmful than combustible cigarettes. However, limited research has been conducted to understand the possible mechanisms that mediate toxicity and pulmonary health effects of e-cigs. We hypothesized that sub-chronic e-cig exposure induces inflammatory response and dysregulated repair/extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which occur through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRα7). Adult wild-type (WT), nAChRα7 knockout (KO), and lung epithelial cell-specific KO (nAChRα7 CreCC10) mice were exposed to e-cig aerosol containing propylene glycol (PG) with or without nicotine. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and lung tissues were collected to determine e-cig induced inflammatory response and ECM remodeling, respectively. Sub-chronic e-cig exposure with nicotine increased inflammatory cellular influx of macrophages and T-lymphocytes including increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in BALF and increased SARS-Cov-2 Covid-19 ACE2 receptor, whereas nAChRα7 KO mice show reduced inflammatory responses associated with decreased ACE2 receptor. Interestingly, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), such as MMP2, MMP8 and MMP9, were altered both at the protein and mRNA transcript levels in female and male KO mice, but WT mice exposed to PG alone showed a sex-dependent phenotype. Moreover, MMP12 was increased significantly in male mice exposed to PG with or without nicotine in a nAChRα7-dependent manner. Additionally, sub-chronic e-cig exposure with or without nicotine altered the abundance of ECM proteins, such as collagen and fibronectin, significantly in a sex-dependent manner, but without the direct role of nAChRα7 gene. Overall, sub-chronic e-cig exposure with or without nicotine affected lung inflammation and repair responses/ECM remodeling, which were mediated by nAChRα7 in a sex-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia/metabolism , Vaping/adverse effects , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/genetics , Animals , Blood Gas Analysis , Blotting, Western , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Cytokines/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Pandemics , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reference Values , Role , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Signal Transduction/genetics
4.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 154, 2020 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603889

ABSTRACT

Electronic cigarette (e-cig) vaping is increasing rapidly in the United States, as e-cigs are considered less harmful than combustible cigarettes. However, limited research has been conducted to understand the possible mechanisms that mediate toxicity and pulmonary health effects of e-cigs. We hypothesized that sub-chronic e-cig exposure induces inflammatory response and dysregulated repair/extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which occur through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRα7). Adult wild-type (WT), nAChRα7 knockout (KO), and lung epithelial cell-specific KO (nAChRα7 CreCC10) mice were exposed to e-cig aerosol containing propylene glycol (PG) with or without nicotine. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and lung tissues were collected to determine e-cig induced inflammatory response and ECM remodeling, respectively. Sub-chronic e-cig exposure with nicotine increased inflammatory cellular influx of macrophages and T-lymphocytes including increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in BALF and increased SARS-Cov-2 Covid-19 ACE2 receptor, whereas nAChRα7 KO mice show reduced inflammatory responses associated with decreased ACE2 receptor. Interestingly, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), such as MMP2, MMP8 and MMP9, were altered both at the protein and mRNA transcript levels in female and male KO mice, but WT mice exposed to PG alone showed a sex-dependent phenotype. Moreover, MMP12 was increased significantly in male mice exposed to PG with or without nicotine in a nAChRα7-dependent manner. Additionally, sub-chronic e-cig exposure with or without nicotine altered the abundance of ECM proteins, such as collagen and fibronectin, significantly in a sex-dependent manner, but without the direct role of nAChRα7 gene. Overall, sub-chronic e-cig exposure with or without nicotine affected lung inflammation and repair responses/ECM remodeling, which were mediated by nAChRα7 in a sex-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia/metabolism , Vaping/adverse effects , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/genetics , Animals , Blood Gas Analysis , Blotting, Western , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Cytokines/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Pandemics , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reference Values , Role , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Signal Transduction/genetics
5.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(13): 1909-1913, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595643

ABSTRACT

Studies have found increased rates of dysosmia in patients with Novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the mechanism that causes olfactory loss is unknown. The primary objective of this study was to explore local proinflammatory cytokine levels in the olfactory epithelium in patients with COVID-19. Biopsies of the olfactory epithelium were taken from patients with confirmed COVID-19 as well as uninfected controls. Levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1ß) were assessed using ELISA and compared between groups. Average TNF-α levels were significantly increased in the olfactory epithelium of the COVID-19 group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, no differences in IL-1ß were seen between groups. Elevated levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α were seen in the olfactory epithelium in patients with COVID-19. This suggests that direct inflammation of the olfactory epithelium could play a role in the acute olfactory loss described in many patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Olfaction Disorders/metabolism , Olfactory Mucosa/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytokines/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
6.
ACS Sens ; 5(6): 1506-1513, 2020 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459525

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has oversaturated many intensive care units to the point of collapse, leading to enormous spikes in death counts. Before critical care becomes a necessity, identifying patients who are likely to become critically ill and providing prompt treatment is a strategy to avoid ICU oversaturation. There is a consensus that a hyperinflammatory syndrome or a "cytokine storm" is responsible for poor outcomes in COVID-19. Measuring cytokine levels at the point of care is required in order to better understand this process. In this Perspective, we summarize the main events behind the cytokine storm in COVID-19 as well as current experimental treatments. We advocate for a new biosensor-enabled paradigm to personalize the management of COVID-19 and stratify patients. Biosensor-guided dosing and timing of immunomodulatory therapies could maximize the benefits of these anti-inflammatory treatments while minimizing deleterious effects. Biosensors will also be essential in order to detect complications such as coinfections and sepsis, which are common in immunosuppressed patients. Finally, we propose the ideal features of these biosensors using some prototypes from the recent literature as examples. Multisensors, lateral flow tests, mobile biosensors, and wearable biosensors are seen as key players for precision medicine in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokines/analysis , Immunomodulation , Inflammation , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-6/analysis , Interleukin-6/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Precision Medicine , Sepsis
7.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 883-890.e2, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165371

ABSTRACT

The outbreaks of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection have posed a severe threat to global public health. It is unclear how the human immune system responds to this infection. Here, we used metatranscriptomic sequencing to profile immune signatures in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of eight COVID-19 cases. The expression of proinflammatory genes, especially chemokines, was markedly elevated in COVID-19 cases compared to community-acquired pneumonia patients and healthy controls, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes hypercytokinemia. Compared to SARS-CoV, which is thought to induce inadequate interferon (IFN) responses, SARS-CoV-2 robustly triggered expression of numerous IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). These ISGs exhibit immunopathogenic potential, with overrepresentation of genes involved in inflammation. The transcriptome data was also used to estimate immune cell populations, revealing increases in activated dendritic cells and neutrophils. Collectively, these host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection could further our understanding of disease pathogenesis and point toward antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory System/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/analysis , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory System/pathology
8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 883-890.e2, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125388

ABSTRACT

The outbreaks of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection have posed a severe threat to global public health. It is unclear how the human immune system responds to this infection. Here, we used metatranscriptomic sequencing to profile immune signatures in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of eight COVID-19 cases. The expression of proinflammatory genes, especially chemokines, was markedly elevated in COVID-19 cases compared to community-acquired pneumonia patients and healthy controls, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes hypercytokinemia. Compared to SARS-CoV, which is thought to induce inadequate interferon (IFN) responses, SARS-CoV-2 robustly triggered expression of numerous IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). These ISGs exhibit immunopathogenic potential, with overrepresentation of genes involved in inflammation. The transcriptome data was also used to estimate immune cell populations, revealing increases in activated dendritic cells and neutrophils. Collectively, these host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection could further our understanding of disease pathogenesis and point toward antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory System/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/analysis , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory System/pathology
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 761-770, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-29222

ABSTRACT

Circulating in China and 158 other countries and areas, the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak has caused devastating mortality and posed a great threat to public health. However, efforts to identify effectively supportive therapeutic drugs and treatments has been hampered by our limited understanding of host immune response for this fatal disease. To characterize the transcriptional signatures of host inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 (HCoV-19) infection, we carried out transcriptome sequencing of the RNAs isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) specimens of COVID-19 patients. Our results reveal distinct host inflammatory cytokine profiles to SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients, and highlight the association between COVID-19 pathogenesis and excessive cytokine release such as CCL2/MCP-1, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL3/MIP-1A, and CCL4/MIP1B. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 induced activation of apoptosis and P53 signalling pathway in lymphocytes may be the cause of patients' lymphopenia. The transcriptome dataset of COVID-19 patients would be a valuable resource for clinical guidance on anti-inflammatory medication and understanding the molecular mechansims of host response.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Chemokines/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Cytokines/analysis , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Transcriptome , Apoptosis , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Lymphopenia , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , RNA-Seq , Signal Transduction , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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