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1.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625346

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major complication of the respiratory illness coronavirus disease 2019, with a death rate reaching up to 40%. The main underlying cause of ARDS is a cytokine storm that results in a dysregulated immune response. This review discusses the role of cytokines and chemokines in SARS-CoV-2 and its predecessors SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, with particular emphasis on the elevated levels of inflammatory mediators that are shown to be correlated with disease severity. For this purpose, we reviewed and analyzed clinical studies, research articles, and reviews published on PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. This review illustrates the role of the innate and adaptive immune responses in SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 and identifies the general cytokine and chemokine profile in each of the three infections, focusing on the most prominent inflammatory mediators primarily responsible for the COVID-19 pathogenesis. The current treatment protocols or medications in clinical trials were reviewed while focusing on those targeting cytokines and chemokines. Altogether, the identified cytokines and chemokines profiles in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 provide important information to better understand SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and highlight the importance of using prominent inflammatory mediators as markers for disease diagnosis and management. Our findings recommend that the use of immunosuppression cocktails provided to patients should be closely monitored and continuously assessed to maintain the desirable effects of cytokines and chemokines needed to fight the SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. The current gap in evidence is the lack of large clinical trials to determine the optimal and effective dosage and timing for a therapeutic regimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Chemokines/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2221, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575100

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus infection is known as Covid-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). This disease can be asymptomatic or can affect multiple organ systems. Damage induced by the virus is related to dysfunctional activity of the immune system, but the activity of molecules such as C-reactive protein (CRP) as a factor capable of inducing an inflammatory status that may be involved in the severe evolution of the disease, has not been extensively evaluated. A systematic review was performed using the NCBI-PubMed database to find articles related to Covid-19 immunity, inflammatory response, and CRP published from December 2019 to December 2020. High levels of CRP were found in patients with severe evolution of Covid-19 in which several organ systems were affected and in patients who died. CRP activates complement, induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and induces apoptosis which, together with the inflammatory status during the disease, can lead to a severe outcome. Several drugs can decrease the level or block the effect of CRP and might be useful in the treatment of Covid-19. From this review it is reasonable to conclude that CRP is a factor that can contribute to severe evolution of Covid-19 and that the use of drugs able to lower CRP levels or block its activity should be evaluated in randomized controlled clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , ADAM17 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/genetics , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Celecoxib/therapeutic use , Complement System Proteins/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Progression , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
4.
Clin Immunol ; 231: 108828, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363931

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is characterized by a dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines ultimately resulting a cytokine storm that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We developed an in-vitro assay using activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or CD3 + CD28 to examine secretion of cytokines from antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T cells, respectively, in donor patients with a history of COVID-19 (convalescent) and uninfected negative controls. We hypothesized that a novel antioxidant called Tempol may decrease cytokines from activated peripheral blood cells from both COVID-19 patients and normal donors. Preincubation of immune cells with Tempol resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in multiple T cell and APC-derived cytokines from both cells of COVID-19 (n = 7) and uninfected donors (n = 7). These preliminary results suggest that Tempol has strong in-vitro anti-cytokine activity and supports additional studies examining the use of Tempol for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Cyclic N-Oxides/pharmacology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Antigen-Presenting Cells/metabolism , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/drug effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Spin Labels , T-Lymphocytes/physiology
5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 273: 118567, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363900

ABSTRACT

Diffuse alveolar injury and pulmonary fibrosis (PF) are the main causes of death of Covid-19 cases. In this study a low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) with unique structural was obtained from Laminaria japonica, and its anti- PF and anti-epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) bioactivity were investigated both in vivo and in vitro. After LWMF treatment the fibrosis and inflammatory factors stimulated by Bleomycin (BLM) were in lung tissue. Immunohistochemical and Western-blot results found the expression of COL2A1, ß-catenin, TGF-ß, TNF-α and IL-6 were declined in mice lung tissue. Besides, the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt were inhibited by LMWF. In addition, the progression of EMT induced by TGF-ß1 was inhibited by LMWF through down-regulated both TGF-ß/Smad and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. These data indicate that unique LMWF can protect the lung from fibrosis by weakening the process of inflammation and EMT, and it is a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of PF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/drug effects , Polysaccharides/administration & dosage , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , A549 Cells , Animals , Bleomycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/virology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytokines/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lung/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Weight , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/mortality , Signal Transduction/drug effects
6.
Mol Cells ; 44(6): 408-421, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249737

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not only affected human health but also diverted the focus of research and derailed the world economy over the past year. Recently, vaccination against COVID-19 has begun, but further studies on effective therapeutic agents are still needed. The severity of COVID-19 is attributable to several factors such as the dysfunctional host immune response manifested by uncontrolled viral replication, type I interferon suppression, and release of impaired cytokines by the infected resident and recruited cells. Due to the evolving pathophysiology and direct involvement of the host immune system in COVID-19, the use of immune-modulating drugs is still challenging. For the use of immune-modulating drugs in severe COVID-19, it is important to balance the fight between the aggravated immune system and suppression of immune defense against the virus that causes secondary infection. In addition, the interplaying events that occur during virus-host interactions, such as activation of the host immune system, immune evasion mechanism of the virus, and manifestation of different stages of COVID-19, are disjunctive and require thorough streamlining. This review provides an update on the immunotherapeutic interventions implemented to combat COVID-19 along with the understanding of molecular aspects of the immune evasion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which may provide opportunities to develop more effective and promising therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immune Evasion/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Virus Replication/drug effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunization, Passive/methods , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Peptides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication/immunology
7.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 43(4): 395-409, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246578

ABSTRACT

A global threat has emerged in 2019 due to the rapid spread of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). As of January 2021, the number of cases worldwide reached 103 million cases and 2.22 million deaths which were confirmed as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This global pandemic galvanized the scientific community to study the causative virus (SARS-CoV2) pathogenesis, transmission, and clinical symptoms. Remarkably, the most common complication associated with this disease is the cytokine storm which is responsible for COVID-19 mortality. Thus, targeting the cytokine storm with new medications is needed to hamper COVID-19 complications where the most prominent strategy for the treatment is drug repurposing. Through this strategy, several steps are skipped especially those required for testing drug safety and thus may help in reducing the dissemination of this pandemic. Accordingly, the aim of this review is to outline the pathogenesis, clinical features, and immune complications of SARS-CoV2 in addition to suggesting several repurposed drugs with their plausible mechanism of action for possible management of severe COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 81(4): 255-263, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242057

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses belonging to the Coronaviridae family are single-stranded RNA viruses. The entry of SARS-CoV-2 is accomplished via ACE-2 receptors. SARS-CoV-2 infection coactivates both innate and adaptive immune responses. Although SARS-CoV-2 stimulates antibody production with a typical pattern of IgM/IgG, cellular immunity is also impaired. In severe cases, low CD4 + and CD8 + T cell counts are associated with impaired immune functions, and high neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios accompanying low lymphocyte subsets have been demonstrated. Recently, high IFN -α/γ ratios with impaired T cell responses, and increased IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, IP-10, IL-4, IL-10 have been reported in COVID-19 infection. Increased proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in patients with severe COVID-19 may cause the suppression of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and regulatory T cells, causing excessive inflammatory responses and fatal cytokine storm with tissue and organ damage. Consequently, novel therapeutics to be developed against host immune system, including blockade of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1, IFN) themselves, their receptors or signaling pathways- JAK inhibitors- could be effective as potential therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/metabolism , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/pathology , Macrophages/virology
10.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(8): 2074-2085, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212744

ABSTRACT

The aberrant release of inflammatory mediators often referred to as a cytokine storm or cytokine release syndrome (CRS), is a common and sometimes fatal complication in acute infectious diseases including Ebola, dengue, COVID-19, and influenza. Fatal CRS occurrences have also plagued the development of highly promising cancer therapies based on T-cell engagers and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. CRS is intimately linked with dysregulated and excessive cytokine release, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL 1, IL-6, and IL-10, resulting in a systemic inflammatory response leading to multiple organ failure. Here, we show that mice intravenously administered the agonistic hamster anti-mouse CD3ε monoclonal antibody 145-2C11 develop clinical and laboratory manifestations seen in patients afflicted with CRS, including body weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, increased vascular permeability, lung inflammation, and hypercytokinemia. Blood cytokine levels and gene expression analysis from lung, liver, and spleen demonstrated a hierarchy of inflammatory cytokine production and infiltrating immune cells with differentiating organ-dependent kinetics. IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6 up-regulation preceded clinical signs of CRS. The co-treatment of mice with a neutralizing anti-cytokine antibody cocktail transiently improved early clinical and laboratory features of CRS. We discuss the predictive use of this model in the context of new anti-cytokine strategies to treat human CRS.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies/immunology , CD3 Complex/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Mice , Phenotype , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
12.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 1345-1356, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171843

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), continues to spread around the world. While prophylactic vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are making great progress, there is still a need to explore safe and effective therapies with biological products for COVID-19. Currently clinical trial efforts are planned and ongoing using different biological agents for anti-inflammatory therapies, immunomodulation, and therapeutic repair in COVID-19. Targeting inflammatory cytokines with antibodies or inhibitors may be an urgent therapeutic strategy for COVID-19. Importantly, it is critical for an in-depth understanding of these new clinical therapeutic agents in their conditions that are probably involved in both physiological and pathological host responses. In this article, we analyze the potential implications for the current clinical trials of therapeutic biologics and address issues for the development of the COVID-19-related biological therapies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Biological Products/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokines/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
13.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 95: 107516, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108363

ABSTRACT

After the advent of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) in the late 2019, the resulting severe and pernicious syndrome (COVID-19) immediately was deployed all around the world. To date, despite relentless efforts to control the disease by drug repurposing, there is no approved specific therapy for COVID-19. Given the role of innate and acquired immune components in the control and elimination of viral infections and inflammatory mutilations during SARS-CoV2 pathogenesis, immunotherapeutic strategies appear to be beneficent. Passive immunotherapies such as convalescent plasma, which has received much attention especially in severe cases, as well as suppressing inflammatory cytokines, interferon administration, inhibition of kinases and complement cascade, virus neutralization with key engineered products, cell-based therapies, immunomodulators and anti-inflammatory drugs are among the key immunotherapeutic approaches to deal with COVID-19, which is discussed in this review. Also, details of leading COVID-19 vaccine candidates as the most potent immunotherapy have been provided. However, despite salient improvements, there is still a lack of completely assured vaccines for universal application. Therefore, adopting proper immunotherapies according to the cytokine pattern and involved immune responses, alongside engineered biologics specially ACE2-Fc to curb SARS-CoV2 infection until achieving a tailored vaccine is probably the best strategy to better manage this pandemic. Therefore, gaining knowledge about the mechanism of action, potential targets, as well as the effectiveness of immune-based approaches to confront COVID-19 in the form of a well-ordered review study is highly momentous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
14.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 61(3): 406-411, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064372

ABSTRACT

Tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the interleukin-6 receptor, holds the potential for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, particularly those at high risk of cytokine storm syndrome. However, data regarding the clinical impact of treatment with TCZ in patients with COVID-19 are limited. This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of TCZ as an adjunct therapy for the treatment of severe COVID-19 infection. This was a retrospective observational chart review of confirmed COVID-19 patients who received TCZ, along with other COVID-19 therapies. The outcomes of interest included changes in vital signs such as temperature and laboratory biomarkers, duration of mechanical ventilation, adverse events possibly associated with TCZ, and intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay. This study included 38 patients with an average age of 63 years (IQR, 48-70 years). The average dose of TCZ given was 519 ± 61 mg. Median C-reactive protein significantly decreased following TCZ administration (189.9 vs 54.8 mg/L, P = .003). Nineteen of all febrile patients before the initiation of TCZ (73%) became fever free on the fourth day of TCZ treatment. Following TCZ treatment, 11 patients developed infections because of multidrug-resistant bacteria, and elevated liver transaminases were observed in 6 patients. The preliminary findings of this study suggested TCZ appeared to ameliorate COVID-19-related cytokine storm syndrome. However, large randomized, controlled trials are needed to investigate whether treatment with TCZ is associated with better outcomes in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/blood , Retrospective Studies
15.
Lupus ; 30(5): 836-839, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054775

ABSTRACT

We report a case of COVID-19 in a pediatric patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who presented with respiratory distress marked by increased work of breathing and low oxygen saturation. Lab tests confirmed COVID-19, and showed lymphocytopenia and elevated markers of inflammation and coagulopathy. Chest X-ray showed bilateral mid-lung opacities, and the patient required intubation early in his disease course. Imaging and clinical findings were consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with inflammation. The patient was treated with different combinations of antivirals (hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir), cytokine inhibitors (anakinra and tocilizumab), glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone and methylprednisolone), and an anticoagulant (enoxaparin). Inflammatory markers decreased before clinical improvement in lung aeration. This case highlights the potential for pediatric patients with SLE to present with COVID-19 similar to the clinical presentation described in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Child, Preschool , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Disease Progression , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology
17.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110473, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988866

ABSTRACT

Severe forms of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are characterized by an enhanced inflammatory syndrome called "cytokine storm" that produces an aberrant release of high amounts of cytokines, chemokines, and other proinflammatory mediators. The pathogenetic role of the "cytokine storm" has been confirmed by the efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs such as corticosteroids along with antiviral drugs in the treatment of the severe forms of this disease. Phenylmethimazole (C10) is a derivative of methimazole with anti-inflammatory properties. Studies performed both in vitro and in vivo have shown that C10 is able to block the production of multiple cytokines, chemokines, and other proinflammatory molecules involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation. Particularly, C10 is effective in reducing the increased secretion of cytokines in animal models of endotoxic shock. We hypothesize that these effects are not limited to the endotoxic shock, but can also be applied to any disease characterized by the presence of a "cytokine storm". Therefore, C10 may be a potential drug to be used alternatively or in association with the corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents in the severe forms of COVID-19 as well as other viral diseases that induce a "cytokine storm". Preclinical and clinical studies have to be performed to confirm this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Methimazole/analogs & derivatives , Thiones/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Methimazole/pharmacology , Mice , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Shock, Septic/immunology
18.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979112

ABSTRACT

Low levels of micronutrients have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes during viral infections. Therefore, to maximize the nutritional defense against infections, a daily allowance of vitamins and trace elements for malnourished patients at risk of or diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be beneficial. Recent studies on COVID-19 patients have shown that vitamin D and selenium deficiencies are evident in patients with acute respiratory tract infections. Vitamin D improves the physical barrier against viruses and stimulates the production of antimicrobial peptides. It may prevent cytokine storms by decreasing the production of inflammatory cytokines. Selenium enhances the function of cytotoxic effector cells. Furthermore, selenium is important for maintaining T cell maturation and functions, as well as for T cell-dependent antibody production. Vitamin C is considered an antiviral agent as it increases immunity. Administration of vitamin C increased the survival rate of COVID-19 patients by attenuating excessive activation of the immune response. Vitamin C increases antiviral cytokines and free radical formation, decreasing viral yield. It also attenuates excessive inflammatory responses and hyperactivation of immune cells. In this mini-review, the roles of vitamin C, vitamin D, and selenium in the immune system are discussed in relation to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Selenium/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diet therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/virology
19.
Virus Res ; 292: 198246, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974719

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created an urgent need for therapeutics that inhibit the SARS-COV-2 virus and suppress the fulminant inflammation characteristic of advanced illness. Here, we describe the anti-COVID-19 potential of PTC299, an orally bioavailable compound that is a potent inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), the rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. In tissue culture, PTC299 manifests robust, dose-dependent, and DHODH-dependent inhibition of SARS-COV-2 replication (EC50 range, 2.0-31.6 nM) with a selectivity index >3,800. PTC299 also blocked replication of other RNA viruses, including Ebola virus. Consistent with known DHODH requirements for immunomodulatory cytokine production, PTC299 inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17A (also called IL-17), IL-17 F, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tissue culture models. The combination of anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, cytokine inhibitory activity, and previously established favorable pharmacokinetic and human safety profiles render PTC299 a promising therapeutic for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Carbamates/pharmacology , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/immunology , HeLa Cells , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/virology , Vero Cells
20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 570919, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976248

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Severe COVID-19 cases develop severe acute respiratory syndrome, which can result in multiple organ failure, sepsis, and death. The higher risk group includes the elderly and subjects with pre-existing chronic illnesses such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. To date, no specific treatment or vaccine is available for COVID-19. Among many compounds, naringenin (NAR) a flavonoid present in citrus fruits has been investigated for antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties like reducing viral replication and cytokine production. In this perspective, we summarize NAR potential anti-inflammatory role in COVID-19 associated risk factors and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Macrophages/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
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