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1.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468496

ABSTRACT

The incidence of dengue in Latin America has increased dramatically during the last decade. Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms in dengue is crucial for the identification of biomarkers for the triage of patients. We aimed to characterize the profile of cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-18 and IL-10), chemokines (CXCL8/IL-8, CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL10/IP-10) and coagulation mediators (Fibrinogen, D-dimer, Tissue factor-TF, Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-TFPI and Thrombomodulin) during the dengue-4 epidemic in Brazil. Laboratory-confirmed dengue cases had higher levels of TNF-α (p < 0.001), IL-6 (p = 0.005), IL-10 (p < 0.001), IL-18 (p = 0.001), CXCL8/IL-8 (p < 0.001), CCL2/MCP-1 (p < 0.001), CXCL10/IP-10 (p = 0.001), fibrinogen (p = 0.037), D-dimer (p = 0.01) and TFPI (p = 0.042) and lower levels of TF (p = 0.042) compared to healthy controls. A principal component analysis (PCA) distinguished between two profiles of mediators of inflammation and coagulation: protective (TNF-α, IL-1ß and CXCL8/IL-8) and pathological (IL-6, TF and TFPI). Lastly, multivariate logistic regression analysis identified high aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) as independent risk factors associated with severity (adjusted OR: 1.33; 95% CI 1.03-1.71; p = 0.027), the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was 0.775 (95% CI 0.681-0.869) and an optimal cutoff value was 1.4 (sensitivity: 76%; specificity: 79%), so it could be a useful marker for the triage of patients attending primary care centers.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Factors/immunology , Chemokines/blood , Cytokines/blood , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Factors/classification , Brazil , Chemokines/classification , Chemokines/immunology , Cytokines/classification , Cytokines/immunology , Dengue/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 157, 2020 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724972

ABSTRACT

Identification of a suitable nonhuman primate (NHP) model of COVID-19 remains challenging. Here, we characterized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in three NHP species: Old World monkeys Macaca mulatta (M. mulatta) and Macaca fascicularis (M. fascicularis) and New World monkey Callithrix jacchus (C. jacchus). Infected M. mulatta and M. fascicularis showed abnormal chest radiographs, an increased body temperature and a decreased body weight. Viral genomes were detected in swab and blood samples from all animals. Viral load was detected in the pulmonary tissues of M. mulatta and M. fascicularis but not C. jacchus. Furthermore, among the three animal species, M. mulatta showed the strongest response to SARS-CoV-2, including increased inflammatory cytokine expression and pathological changes in the pulmonary tissues. Collectively, these data revealed the different susceptibilities of Old World and New World monkeys to SARS-CoV-2 and identified M. mulatta as the most suitable for modeling COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Callithrix/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Models, Animal , Macaca fascicularis/virology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Body Temperature , Body Weight , COVID-19 , Callithrix/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Cytokines/classification , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca fascicularis/immunology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Species Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Viral Load , Virus Replication
4.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(12): 6988-6999, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186413

ABSTRACT

Outbreaks of infections with viruses like Sars-CoV-2, Ebola virus and Zika virus lead to major global health and economic problems because of limited treatment options. Therefore, new antiviral drug candidates are urgently needed. The promising new antiviral drug candidate silvestrol effectively inhibited replication of Corona-, Ebola-, Zika-, Picorna-, Hepatis E and Chikungunya viruses. Besides a direct impact on pathogens, modulation of the host immune system provides an additional facet to antiviral drug development because suitable immune modulation can boost innate defence mechanisms against the pathogens. In the present study, silvestrol down-regulated several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, CCL2, CCL18) and increased TNF-α during differentiation and activation of M1-macrophages, suggesting that the effects of silvestrol might cancel each other out. However, silvestrol amplified the anti-inflammatory potential of M2-macrophages by increasing expression of anti-inflammatory surface markers CD206, TREM2 and reducing release of pro-inflammatory IL-8 and CCL2. The differentiation of dendritic cells in the presence of silvestrol is characterized by down-regulation of several surface markers and cytokines indicating that differentiation is impaired by silvestrol. In conclusion, silvestrol influences the inflammatory status of immune cells depending on the cell type and activation status.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Cytokines/genetics , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Macrophages/drug effects , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Chikungunya virus/drug effects , Chikungunya virus/growth & development , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Cytokines/classification , Cytokines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Ebolavirus/drug effects , Ebolavirus/growth & development , Ebolavirus/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Hepatitis E virus/drug effects , Hepatitis E virus/growth & development , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Organ Specificity , Picornaviridae/drug effects , Picornaviridae/growth & development , Picornaviridae/immunology , Primary Cell Culture , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Zika Virus/drug effects , Zika Virus/growth & development , Zika Virus/immunology
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