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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112767, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712467

ABSTRACT

With an increased transmissibility but milder form of disease of the omicron variant of COVID-19 and the newer antivirals often still out of reach of many populations, a refocus of the current treatment regimens is required. Safe, affordable, and available adjuvant treatments should also be considered and known drugs and substances need to be repurposed and tested. Resveratrol, a well-known antioxidant of natural origin, shown to act as an antiviral as well as playing a role in immune stimulation, down regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine release and reducing lung injury by reducing oxidative stress, is such an option. New initiatives and collaborations will however need to be found to unleash resveratrol's full potential in the pharmaceutical market.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , Resveratrol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Cytokines/drug effects , Down-Regulation , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Oxidative Stress/drug effects
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112753, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707727

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a lethal disease caused by the pandemic SARS-CoV-2, which continues to be a public health threat. COVID-19 is principally a respiratory disease and is often associated with sputum retention and cytokine storm, for which there are limited therapeutic options. In this regard, we evaluated the use of BromAc®, a combination of Bromelain and Acetylcysteine (NAC). Both drugs present mucolytic effect and have been studied to treat COVID-19. Therefore, we sought to examine the mucolytic and anti-inflammatory effect of BromAc® in tracheal aspirate samples from critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation. METHOD: Tracheal aspirate samples from COVID-19 patients were collected following next of kin consent and mucolysis, rheometry and cytokine analysis using Luminex kit was performed. RESULTS: BromAc® displayed a robust mucolytic effect in a dose dependent manner on COVID-19 sputum ex vivo. BromAc® showed anti-inflammatory activity, reducing the action of cytokine storm, chemokines including MIP-1alpha, CXCL8, MIP-1b, MCP-1 and IP-10, and regulatory cytokines IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 IL-1Ra and total reduction for IL-9 compared to NAC alone and control. BromAc® acted on IL-6, demonstrating a reduction in G-CSF and VEGF-D at concentrations of 125 and 250 µg. CONCLUSION: These results indicate robust mucolytic and anti-inflammatory effect of BromAc® ex vivo in tracheal aspirates from critically ill COVID-19 patients, indicating its potential to be further assessed as pharmacological treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Bromelains/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , Chemokines/drug effects , Cytokines/drug effects , Sputum/cytology , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Bromelains/administration & dosage , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Down-Regulation , Drug Combinations , Expectorants/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Rheology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea/pathology , Young Adult
3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 115(3): 790-798, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The modulating effect of vitamin D on cytokine concentrations in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effect of a single high dose of vitamin D3 on cytokines, chemokines, and growth factor in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. METHODS: This is a post hoc, ancillary, and exploratory analysis from a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 were recruited from 2 hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil. Of 240 randomly assigned patients, 200 were assessed in this study and randomly assigned to receive a single oral dose of 200,000 IU vitamin D3 (n = 101) or placebo (n = 99). The primary outcome was hospital length of stay, which has been published in our previous study. The prespecified secondary outcomes were serum concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The post hoc exploratory secondary outcomes were IL-4, IL-12p70, IL-17A, IFN-γ, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-8, IFN-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), macrophage inflammatory protein-1ß (MIP-1ß), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and leukocyte count. Generalized estimating equations for repeated measures, with Bonferroni's adjustment, were used for testing all outcomes. RESULTS: The study included 200 patients with a mean ± SD age of 55.5 ± 14.3 y and BMI of 32.2 ± 7.1 kg/m2, of which 109 (54.5%) were male. GM-CSF concentrations showed a significant group-by-time interaction effect (P = 0.04), although the between-group difference at postintervention after Bonferroni's adjustment was not significant. No significant effects were observed for the other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings do not support the use of a single dose of 200,000 IU vitamin D3, compared with placebo, for the improvement of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factor in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT04449718.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokines/drug effects , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cytokines/drug effects , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Brazil , COVID-19/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
4.
JCI Insight ; 6(24)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518198

ABSTRACT

A substantial proportion of patients who have recovered from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) experience COVID-19-related symptoms even months after hospital discharge. We extensively immunologically characterized patients who recovered from COVID-19. In these patients, T cells were exhausted, with increased PD-1+ T cells, as compared with healthy controls. Plasma levels of IL-1ß, IL-1RA, and IL-8, among others, were also increased in patients who recovered from COVID-19. This altered immunophenotype was mirrored by a reduced ex vivo T cell response to both nonspecific and specific stimulation, revealing a dysfunctional status of T cells, including a poor response to SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Altered levels of plasma soluble PD-L1, as well as of PD1 promoter methylation and PD1-targeting miR-15-5p, in CD8+ T cells were also observed, suggesting abnormal function of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint axis. Notably, ex vivo blockade of PD-1 nearly normalized the aforementioned immunophenotype and restored T cell function, reverting the observed post-COVID-19 immune abnormalities; indeed, we also noted an increased T cell-mediated response to SARS-CoV-2 peptides. Finally, in a neutralization assay, PD-1 blockade did not alter the ability of T cells to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped lentivirus infection. Immune checkpoint blockade ameliorates post-COVID-19 immune abnormalities and stimulates an anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/immunology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/pharmacology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/drug effects , DNA Methylation , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/drug effects , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-8/drug effects , Interleukin-8/immunology , Male , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Middle Aged , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Promoter Regions, Genetic
5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108192, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433412

ABSTRACT

The mounting evidence regarding the pathogenesis of COVID-19 indicated that the cytokine storm has an axial role in the severity of this disease, which may lead to thrombotic complications, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and myocardial damage, among other consequences. It has recently been demonstrated that statins are known to have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, and immunomodulatory features; however, their advantage has not been evaluated in COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of lovastatin in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19. The case-control study consists of 284 ICU patients, which classified into three groups as follows: 1) the patients who no received lovastatin as a control (92 patients), 2) patients received 20 mg per day lovastatin (99 patients), and 3) patients received 40 mg per day lovastatin (93 patients). Each group's demographic and clinical parameters, along with CRP, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 levels, and mortality rate, were studied in three-time points. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between our study groups in terms of age and sex. (P > 0.05). Besides, in patients, receiving lovastatin the CRP, IL-6, IL-8 levels were significantly decreased from T1 to T3 than to the control group. Our results also showed that the use of lovastatin in COVID-19 patients significantly reduced the length of hospitalization in the ICU compared with the control group. In addition, our results showed that the mortality rate in patients receiving lovastatin was lower when compared to the control group; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Since the cytokine storm is a significant factor in the pathology of SARS-CoV-2, our findings highlighted the potential use of lovastatin to mitigate the inflammatory response induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lovastatin/pharmacology , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Critical Care/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/drug effects , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Lovastatin/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Sex Factors
6.
Clin Immunol ; 231: 108828, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363931

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is characterized by a dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines ultimately resulting a cytokine storm that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We developed an in-vitro assay using activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or CD3 + CD28 to examine secretion of cytokines from antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T cells, respectively, in donor patients with a history of COVID-19 (convalescent) and uninfected negative controls. We hypothesized that a novel antioxidant called Tempol may decrease cytokines from activated peripheral blood cells from both COVID-19 patients and normal donors. Preincubation of immune cells with Tempol resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in multiple T cell and APC-derived cytokines from both cells of COVID-19 (n = 7) and uninfected donors (n = 7). These preliminary results suggest that Tempol has strong in-vitro anti-cytokine activity and supports additional studies examining the use of Tempol for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Cyclic N-Oxides/pharmacology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Antigen-Presenting Cells/metabolism , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/drug effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Spin Labels , T-Lymphocytes/physiology
7.
Life Sci ; 276: 119437, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157592

ABSTRACT

In Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a decreased number of regulatory T (Treg) cells and their mediated factors lead to a hyperinflammatory state due to overactivation of the inflammatory cells and factors during the infection. In the current study, we evaluated the Nanocurcumin effects on the Treg cell population and corresponding factors in mild and severe COVID-19 patients. To investigate the Nanocurcumin effects, 80 COVID-19 patients (40 at the severe stage and 40 at the mild stage) were selected and classified into Nanocurcumin and placebo arms. In both the Nanocurcumin and placebo groups, the Treg cell frequency, the gene expression of Treg transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3), and cytokines (IL-10, IL-35, and TGF-ß), as well as the serum levels of cytokines were measured before and after treatment. In both mild and severe COVID-19 patients, Nanocurcumin could considerably upregulate the frequency of Treg cells, the expression levels of FoxP3, IL-10, IL-35, and TGF-ß, as well as the serum secretion levels of cytokines in the Nanocurcumin-treated group compared to the placebo group. The abovementioned factors were remarkably increased in the post-treatment with Nanocurcumin before pre-treatment conditions. By contrast, it has been observed no notable alteration in the placebo group. Our findings revealed the SinaCurcumin® effective function in a significant increase in the number of Treg cells and their mediated factors in the Nanocurcumin group than in the placebo group in both mild and severe patients. Hence, it would be an efficient therapeutic agent in rehabilitating COVID-19 infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/pharmacology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/drug effects , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Gene Expression/drug effects , Humans , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukins/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nanomedicine/methods , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology
8.
Intern Med ; 60(3): 457-461, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110169

ABSTRACT

We herein report a case of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in which high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment achieved significant clinical improvement of deterioration of pulmonary inflammation after temporary clinical improvement. In the present case, clinical and radiological deterioration occurred despite a decrease in viral load, suggesting that deterioration was caused by reactivation of proinflammatory factors, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, rather than direct viral effects. IVIg treatment may provide not only immunosuppressive effects but also inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines, indicating that treatment including IVIg may be effective by inhibiting cytokine storm in severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/drug effects , Humans , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Load
9.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 335-339, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078673

ABSTRACT

The introduction of Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib has made a significant progress in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell malignancies. Due to the reduction of cytokine release, it is effective in chronic graft-versus-host disease, and its use has also been suggested in autoimmune diseases and in prevention of COVID-19-associated lung damage. Despite this effect on the immune response, we report a severe hypersensitivity reaction in a 76-year-old male patient diagnosed with prolymphocytic leukemia. Four weeks after the ibrutinib start, non-oliguric acute kidney injury with proteinuria and microscopic hematuria developed and that was accompanied by lower limb purpuras and paresthesia. Renal biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis. Employing 1 mg/kg methylprednisolone administration, serum creatinine decreased from 365 µmol/L to 125 µmol/L at 11 days and the proteinuria-hematuria as well as the purpura, paresthesia resolved. Three months later at stabile eGFR of 56 ml/min/1.73 m2 methylprednisolone was withdrawn and a rituximab-venetoclax treatment was initiated without side effects. We conclude that despite the beneficial effect on cytokines response in Th1 direction, ibrutinib can cause acute interstitial nephritis. Early detection, discontinuation of ibrutinib, glucocorticoid administration may help to better preserve renal function, thereby lowering the risk of potential subsequent kidney injury.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Nephritis, Interstitial/chemically induced , Piperidines/adverse effects , Proteinuria/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Adenine/adverse effects , Aged , Cytokines/drug effects , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Leukemia, Prolymphocytic/drug therapy , Male , Nephritis, Interstitial/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Proteinuria/drug therapy
11.
Drugs ; 80(18): 1929-1946, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Based on current evidence, recent guidelines of the National Institute of Health, USA indicated the use of remdesivir and dexamethasone for the treatment of COVID-19 patients with mild-moderate disease, not requiring high-flow oxygen. No therapeutic agent directed against the immunologic pathogenic mechanisms related to the cytokine release syndrome complicating the disease was indicated. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review was to assess the clinical impact of different therapies for COVID-19; thus, helping to identify the optimal management of the disease. To explain the rationale for the different therapeutic approaches, the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and the immune response triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported. METHODS: The efficacy assessment of the different treatments was performed by a systematic review in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Available English language published articles including randomised controlled trials, open-label trials of antivirals and immune therapies extracted from Medline, Google Scholar, and MedRxiv databases were analysed. For inclusion, the primary end point of the trials had to be the efficacy as measured by the improvement of clinical features, or mortality, or the Intensive Care Unit Admission rate, or the discharge number. Case reports, paediatric studies, and studies without control group were excluded. The literature search was extended up to August 15, 2020. RESULTS: After the removal of duplicate articles, and the exclusion of studies not meeting the eligibility criteria, 2 trials of lopinavir/ritonavir, 1 of favipiravir, 3 of remdesivir, 1 of dexamethasone, 3 of hydroxychloroquine, 2 of colchicine, 6 of tocilizumab, 1 of sarilumab, 1 of siltuximab, 2 of anakinra, 3 of baricitinib, 1 of ruxolitinib, 1 of mavrilimumab, and 1 of itolizumab were suitable for the review. Among antivirals, only remdesivir significantly reduced the time to recovery, and mortality. Data for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were largely inconclusive. In a large trial, dexamethasone 6 mg/day reduced mortality by one-third. Trials of tocilizumab and sarilumab did not definitively demonstrate efficacy. Anakinra significantly reduced the mortality in 2 trials. Three retrospective trials on a cumulative number of 145 patients, reported the efficacy of baricitinib, with significant reduction of intensive care unit admission, and deaths. These results were recently confirmed by the ACTT-2 trial. Due to paucity of studies and to the small size clinical series, the results of other immune therapies were not conclusive. CONCLUSIONS: Beyond the supportive therapy, up to now the best therapeutic approach for COVID-19 may be a three-step combination therapy, including remdesivir 100 mg/day (200 mg loading dose on first day) in the first stage of the disease, and combined dexamethasone 6 mg/day plus baricitinib 4 mg/day to target the immune dysregulation triggered by the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The promising results of anakinra should be confirmed by the ongoing RCTs.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Biological Products/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Life Sci ; 257: 118058, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640965

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a new member of coronaviruses that its sudden spreading put the health care system of most countries in a tremendous shock. For controlling of the new infection, COVID-19, many efforts have been done and are ongoing to defeat this virus in the combat field. In this review, we focused on how the immune system behaves toward the virus and the relative possible consequences during their interactions. Then the therapeutic steps and potential vaccine candidates have been described in a hope to provide a better prospective of effective treatment and preventive strategies to the novel SARS-CoV in near future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokines/drug effects , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/methods
15.
Postgrad Med ; 132(7): 604-613, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526926

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is spreading worldwide. Antiviral therapy is the most important treatment for COVID-19. Among the drugs under investigation, anti-malarials, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), are being repurposed as treatment for COVID-19. CQ/HCQ were shown to prevent receptor recognition by coronaviruses, inhibit endosome acidification, which interferes with membrane fusion, and exhibit immunomodulatory activity. These multiple mechanisms may work together to exert a therapeutic effect on COVID-19. A number of in vitro studies revealed inhibitory effects of CQ/HCQ on various coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2 although conflicting results exist. Several clinical studies showed that CQ/HCQ alone or in combination with a macrolide may alleviate the clinical symptoms of COVID-19, promote viral conversion, and delay disease progression, with less serious adverse effects. However, recent studies indicated that the use of CQ/HCQ, alone or in combination with a macrolide, did not show any favorable effect on patients with COVID-19. Adverse effects, including prolonged QT interval after taking CQ/HCQ, may develop in COVID-19 patients. Therefore, current data are not sufficient enough to support the use of CQ/HCQ as therapies for COVID-19 and increasing caution should be taken about the application of CQ/HCQ in COVID-19 before conclusive findings are obtained by well-designed, multi-center, randomized, controlled studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Cytokines/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Glycosylation , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Immunity, Innate , In Vitro Techniques , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocytes , Toll-Like Receptors/drug effects , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Virus Internalization/drug effects
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