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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 420, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585885

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is identified as a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which also can cross-transmit to many animals but not mice. Genetic modifications of SARS-CoV-2 or mice enable the mice susceptible to viral infection. Although neither is the natural situation, they are currently utilized to establish mouse infection models. Here we report a direct contact transmission of SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.351 in wild-type mice. The SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.351) replicated efficiently and induced significant pathological changes in lungs and tracheas, accompanied by elevated proinflammatory cytokines in the lungs and sera. Mechanistically, the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.351) spike protein turned to a high binding affinity to mouse angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (mACE2), allowing the mice highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.351) infection. Our work suggests that SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.351) expands the host range and therefore increases its transmission route without adapted mutation. As the wild house mice live with human populations quite closely, this possible transmission route could be potentially risky. In addition, because SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.351) is one of the major epidemic strains and the mACE2 in laboratory-used mice is naturally expressed and regulated, the SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.351)/mice could be a much convenient animal model system to study COVID-19 pathogenesis and evaluate antiviral inhibitors and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virus Replication
2.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2221, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575100

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus infection is known as Covid-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). This disease can be asymptomatic or can affect multiple organ systems. Damage induced by the virus is related to dysfunctional activity of the immune system, but the activity of molecules such as C-reactive protein (CRP) as a factor capable of inducing an inflammatory status that may be involved in the severe evolution of the disease, has not been extensively evaluated. A systematic review was performed using the NCBI-PubMed database to find articles related to Covid-19 immunity, inflammatory response, and CRP published from December 2019 to December 2020. High levels of CRP were found in patients with severe evolution of Covid-19 in which several organ systems were affected and in patients who died. CRP activates complement, induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and induces apoptosis which, together with the inflammatory status during the disease, can lead to a severe outcome. Several drugs can decrease the level or block the effect of CRP and might be useful in the treatment of Covid-19. From this review it is reasonable to conclude that CRP is a factor that can contribute to severe evolution of Covid-19 and that the use of drugs able to lower CRP levels or block its activity should be evaluated in randomized controlled clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , ADAM17 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/genetics , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Celecoxib/therapeutic use , Complement System Proteins/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Progression , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
3.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-13, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574011

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is now pandemic. While most Covid-19 patients will experience mild symptoms, a small proportion will develop severe disease, which could be fatal. Clinically, Covid-19 patients manifest fever with dry cough, fatigue and dyspnoea, and in severe cases develop into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis and multi-organ failure. These severe patients are characterized by hyperinflammation with highly increased pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-alpha as well as C-reactive protein, which are accompanied by decreased lymphocyte counts. Clinical evidence supports that gut microbiota dysregulation is common in Covid-19 and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Covid-19. In this narrative review, we summarize the roles of intestinal dysbiosis in Covid-19 pathogenesis and posit that the associated mechanisms are being mediated by gut bacterial metabolites. Based on this premise, we propose possible clinical implications. Various risk factors could be causal for severe Covid-19, and these include advanced age, concomitant chronic disease, SARS-CoV-2 infection of enterocytes, use of antibiotics and psychological distress. Gut dysbiosis is associated with risk factors and severe Covid-19 due to decreased commensal microbial metabolites, which cause reduced anti-inflammatory mechanisms and chronic low-grade inflammation. The preconditioned immune dysregulation enables SARS-CoV-2 infection to progress to an uncontrolled hyperinflammatory response. Thus, a pre-existing gut microbiota that is diverse and abundant could be beneficial for the prevention of severe Covid-19, and supplementation with commensal microbial metabolites may facilitate and augment the treatment of severe Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , COVID-19/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Animals , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Dysbiosis/genetics , Dysbiosis/immunology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Dysbiosis/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2236, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573896

ABSTRACT

Modifications in HLA-I expression are found in many viral diseases. They represent one of the immune evasion strategies most widely used by viruses to block antigen presentation and NK cell response, and SARS-CoV-2 is no exception. These alterations result from a combination of virus-specific factors, genetically encoded mechanisms, and the status of host defences and range from loss or upregulation of HLA-I molecules to selective increases of HLA-I alleles. In this review, I will first analyse characteristic features of altered HLA-I expression found in SARS-CoV-2. I will then discuss the potential factors underlying these defects, focussing on HLA-E and class-I-related (like) molecules and their receptors, the most documented HLA-I alterations. I will also draw attention to potential differences between cells transfected to express viral proteins and those presented as part of authentic infection. Consideration of these factors and others affecting HLA-I expression may provide us with improved possibilities for research into cellular immunity against viral variants.


Subject(s)
Antigenic Variation , COVID-19/immunology , Clonal Anergy , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Alleles , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Gene Expression , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/virology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/genetics , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/immunology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D/genetics , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/virology
5.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554803

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus's ability to induce hypercytokinemia and cause multiple organ failure makes it imperative to find effective treatments. To understand the mechanism of viral infection and its effects on organ tissues, we analyzed multiple single-cell and bulk RNAseq data from COVID-19 patients' organ samples. Various levels of severity of infection were accounted for, with comparative analyses between mild, moderate, and severely infected patients. Our analysis uncovered an upregulation of the innate immune response via several inflammatory genes, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, and NF-κB. Consequently, we found that the upregulation of these downstream effects can lead to organ injury. The downregulated pathways such as eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) and eIF4-mediated host translation, were found to lead to an increased viral translation. We also found that the loss of inhibitory peptides can suppress an overactive innate immune response via NF-κB and interleukin-mediated pathways. Investigation of viral-host protein mapping showed that the interaction of viral proteins with host proteins correlated with the down- and upregulation of host pathways such as decreased eIF2-mediated host translation and increased hypertrophy and fibrosis. Inflammation was increased via the stimulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of host translation pathways that led to reduced inflammatory inhibitors. Cardiac hypertrophy and organ fibrosis were the results of increased inflammation in organs of severe and critical patients. Finally, we identified potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of COVID-19 and its deleterious effects on organs. Further experimental investigation would conclusively determine the effects of COVID-19 infection on organs other than the lungs and the effectiveness of the proposed therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/immunology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/genetics , Fibrosis/immunology , Gene Expression , Humans , Lung/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Elife ; 102021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513055

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) regulate processes ranging from antitumor and antiviral immunity to host-microbe communication at mucosal surfaces. It remains difficult, however, to genetically manipulate human DCs, limiting our ability to probe how DCs elicit specific immune responses. Here, we develop a CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing method for human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) that mediates knockouts with a median efficiency of >94% across >300 genes. Using this method, we perform genetic screens in moDCs, identifying mechanisms by which DCs tune responses to lipopolysaccharides from the human microbiome. In addition, we reveal donor-specific responses to lipopolysaccharides, underscoring the importance of assessing immune phenotypes in donor-derived cells, and identify candidate genes that control this specificity, highlighting the potential of our method to pinpoint determinants of inter-individual variation in immunity. Our work sets the stage for a systematic dissection of the immune signaling at the host-microbiome interface and for targeted engineering of DCs for neoantigen vaccination.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Associated Protein 9/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Gene Editing , Genomics , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron/immunology , CRISPR-Associated Protein 9/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Phenotype , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 4/agonists , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13464, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500743

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that emerged in human populations recently. Severely ill COVID-19 patients exhibit the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines, and such an unbalanced production of proinflammatory cytokines is linked to acute respiratory distress syndrome with high mortality in COVID-19 patients. Our study provides evidence that the ORF3a, M, ORF7a, and N proteins of SARS-CoV-2 were NF-κB activators. The viral sequence from infected zoo lions belonged to clade V, and a single mutation of G251V is found for ORF3a gene compared to all other clades. No significant functional difference was found for clade V ORF3a, indicating the NF-κB activation is conserved among COVID-19 variants. Of the four viral proteins, the ORF7a protein induced the NF-κB dictated proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFNß. The ORF7a protein also induced IL-3, IL-4, IL-7, IL-23. Of 15 different chemokines examined in the study, CCL11, CCL17, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, CCL22, CCL25, CCL26, CCL27, and CXCL9 were significantly upregulated by ORF7. These cytokines and chemokines were frequently elevated in severely ill COVID-19 patients. Our data provide an insight into how SARS-CoV-2 modulates NF-κB signaling and inflammatory cytokine expressions. The ORF7a protein may be a desirable target for strategic developments to minimize uncontrolled inflammation in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Point Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Alignment , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism
8.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(10): e10387, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478718

ABSTRACT

We need to effectively combine the knowledge from surging literature with complex datasets to propose mechanistic models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improving data interpretation and predicting key targets of intervention. Here, we describe a large-scale community effort to build an open access, interoperable and computable repository of COVID-19 molecular mechanisms. The COVID-19 Disease Map (C19DMap) is a graphical, interactive representation of disease-relevant molecular mechanisms linking many knowledge sources. Notably, it is a computational resource for graph-based analyses and disease modelling. To this end, we established a framework of tools, platforms and guidelines necessary for a multifaceted community of biocurators, domain experts, bioinformaticians and computational biologists. The diagrams of the C19DMap, curated from the literature, are integrated with relevant interaction and text mining databases. We demonstrate the application of network analysis and modelling approaches by concrete examples to highlight new testable hypotheses. This framework helps to find signatures of SARS-CoV-2 predisposition, treatment response or prioritisation of drug candidates. Such an approach may help deal with new waves of COVID-19 or similar pandemics in the long-term perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Factual , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Software , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Computer Graphics , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Data Mining/statistics & numerical data , Gene Expression Regulation , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/virology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/immunology , Myeloid Cells/drug effects , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/virology , Protein Interaction Mapping , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription Factors/immunology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741502, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477825

ABSTRACT

Host innate immune response follows severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and it is the driver of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) amongst other inflammatory end-organ morbidities. Such life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is heralded by virus-induced activation of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs; monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells). MPs play substantial roles in aberrant immune secretory activities affecting profound systemic inflammation and end-organ malfunctions. All follow the presence of persistent viral components and virions without evidence of viral replication. To elucidate SARS-CoV-2-MP interactions we investigated transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of human monocyte-derived macrophages. While expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, paralleled monocyte-macrophage differentiation, it failed to affect productive viral infection. In contrast, simple macrophage viral exposure led to robust pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression but attenuated type I interferon (IFN) activity. Both paralleled dysregulation of innate immune signaling pathways, specifically those linked to IFN. We conclude that the SARS-CoV-2-infected host mounts a robust innate immune response characterized by a pro-inflammatory storm heralding end-organ tissue damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Immunity, Innate , Macrophages/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Regulatory Networks , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Proteome , Proteomics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction , Transcriptome
10.
Nat Immunol ; 22(11): 1416-1427, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475314

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 (interferon-stimulated gene 15) (ISG15) is a ubiquitin-like modifier induced during infections and involved in host defense mechanisms. Not surprisingly, many viruses encode deISGylating activities to antagonize its effect. Here we show that infection by Zika, SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses induce ISG15-modifying enzymes. While influenza and Zika viruses induce ISGylation, SARS-CoV-2 triggers deISGylation instead to generate free ISG15. The ratio of free versus conjugated ISG15 driven by the papain-like protease (PLpro) enzyme of SARS-CoV-2 correlates with macrophage polarization toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype and attenuated antigen presentation. In vitro characterization of purified wild-type and mutant PLpro revealed its strong deISGylating over deubiquitylating activity. Quantitative proteomic analyses of PLpro substrates and secretome from SARS-CoV-2-infected macrophages revealed several glycolytic enzymes previously implicated in the expression of inflammatory genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that altered free versus conjugated ISG15 dysregulates macrophage responses and probably contributes to the cytokine storms triggered by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Gene Knockdown Techniques , HeLa Cells , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Innate , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Ubiquitination , Ubiquitins/genetics , Zika Virus/physiology , Zika Virus Infection/immunology
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470894

ABSTRACT

Infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in many cases is accompanied by the release of a large amount of proinflammatory cytokines in an event known as "cytokine storm", which is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and high mortality. The excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines is linked, inter alia, to the enhanced activity of receptors capable of recognizing the conservative regions of pathogens and cell debris, namely TLRs, TREM-1 and TNFR1. Here we report that peptides derived from innate immunity protein Tag7 inhibit activation of TREM-1 and TNFR1 receptors during acute inflammation. Peptides from the N-terminal fragment of Tag7 bind only to TREM-1, while peptides from the C-terminal fragment interact solely with TNFR1. Selected peptides are capable of inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines both in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors and in vivo in the mouse model of acute lung injury (ALI) by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Treatment with peptides significantly decreases the infiltration of mononuclear cells to lungs in animals with DAD. Our findings suggest that Tag7-derived peptides might be beneficial in terms of the therapy or prevention of acute lung injury, e.g., for treating COVID-19 patients with severe pulmonary lesions.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Cytokines/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/metabolism , Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1/antagonists & inhibitors
12.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 126, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448237

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At present, the COVID-19 has been prevalent worldwide for more than a year and caused more than four million deaths. Liver injury was frequently observed in patients with COVID-19. Recently, a new definition of metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was proposed by a panel of international experts, and the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 has been actively investigated. Several previous studies indicated that the patients with MAFLD had a higher prevalence of COVID-19 and a tendency to develop severe type of respiratory infection, and others indicated that liver injury would be exacerbated in the patients with MAFLD once infected with COVID-19. The mechanism underlying the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 infection has not been thoroughly investigated, and recent studies indicated that multifactorial mechanisms, such as altered host angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor expression, direct viral attack, disruption of cholangiocyte function, systemic inflammatory reaction, drug-induced liver injury, hepatic ischemic and hypoxic injury, and MAFLD-related glucose and lipid metabolic disorders, might jointly contribute to both of the adverse hepatic and respiratory outcomes. In this review, we discussed the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 based on current available literature, and summarized the recommendations for clinical management of MAFLD patients during the pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/complications , Hypoxia/complications , Liver/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Dipeptides/therapeutic use , Gene Expression Regulation , Glucose/metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Nat Methods ; 18(10): 1181-1191, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447314

ABSTRACT

Cytokines are critical for intercellular communication in human health and disease, but the investigation of cytokine signaling activity has remained challenging due to the short half-lives of cytokines and the complexity/redundancy of cytokine functions. To address these challenges, we developed the Cytokine Signaling Analyzer (CytoSig; https://cytosig.ccr.cancer.gov/ ), providing both a database of target genes modulated by cytokines and a predictive model of cytokine signaling cascades from transcriptomic profiles. We collected 20,591 transcriptome profiles for human cytokine, chemokine and growth factor responses. This atlas of transcriptional patterns induced by cytokines enabled the reliable prediction of signaling activities in distinct cell populations in infectious diseases, chronic inflammation and cancer using bulk and single-cell transcriptomic data. CytoSig revealed previously unidentified roles of many cytokines, such as BMP6 as an anti-inflammatory factor, and identified candidate therapeutic targets in human inflammatory diseases, such as CXCL8 for severe coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Databases, Protein , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/physiology , Humans , Signal Transduction/physiology
14.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(5&6): 677-683, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413141

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Upper respiratory mucosa is the entryway for SARS-CoV-2, and cells at this site form the first line of resistance against the pathogens. Innate immune response at this point is crucial for managing the replication and early stage symptoms of virus infection. This study was aimed to evaluate the expression of pattern recognition receptors and cytokines in upper airway cells of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Methods: Forty seven nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens from 25 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and 22 SARS-CoV-2 negative individuals were investigated for expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs), melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), NOD-like receptors family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), interleukin (IL) - 6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and type-1 interferons (IFNs) by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Increased expression of TLR2, MDA5 and ACE2 was detected in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in comparison with controls. MDA5 expression was significantly higher in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive patients than the patients with severe symptoms. The asymptomatic group showed significant induction of type 1 IFNs than the symptomatic group. Non-specific induction of TLR7 could be observed in nasopharyngeal (NP) cells irrespective of symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings suggest that increased MDA5 in NP cells of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positive patients may subsequently induce type 1 IFNs to protect the individuals from further clinical severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A future prospective study in NPS of larger cohort needs to be performed to confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Cytokines/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 681516, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399136

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out and then became a global epidemic at the end of 2019. With the increasing number of deaths, early identification of disease severity and interpretation of pathogenesis are very important. Aiming to identify biomarkers for disease severity and progression of COVID-19, 75 COVID-19 patients, 34 healthy controls and 23 patients with pandemic influenza A(H1N1) were recruited in this study. Using liquid chip technology, 48 cytokines and chemokines were examined, among which 33 were significantly elevated in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy controls. HGF and IL-1ß were strongly associated with APACHE II score in the first week after disease onset. IP-10, HGF and IL-10 were correlated positively with virus titers. Cytokines were significantly correlated with creatinine, troponin I, international normalized ratio and procalcitonin within two weeks after disease onset. Univariate analyses were carried out, and 6 cytokines including G-CSF, HGF, IL-10, IL-18, M-CSF and SCGF-ß were found to be associated with the severity of COVID-19. 11 kinds of cytokines could predict the severity of COVID-19, among which IP-10 and M-CSF were excellent predictors for disease severity. In conclusion, the levels of cytokines in COVID-19 were significantly correlated with the severity of the disease in the early stage, and serum cytokines could be used as warning indicators of the severity and progression of COVID-19. Early stratification of disease and intervention to reduce hypercytokinaemia may improve the prognosis of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Transcriptome/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Chemokines/blood , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Middle Aged
16.
Cytokine ; 140: 155430, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385381

ABSTRACT

In vitro interferon (IFN)α treatment of primary human upper airway basal cells has been shown to drive ACE2 expression, the receptor of SARS-CoV-2. The protease furin is also involved in mediating SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections, although its association with early IFN response has not been evaluated yet. In order to assess the in vivo relationship between ACE2 and furin expression and the IFN response in nasopharyngeal cells, we first examined ACE2 and furin levels and their correlation with the well-known marker of IFNs' activation, ISG15, in children (n = 59) and adults (n = 48), during respiratory diseases not caused by SARS-CoV-2. A strong positive correlation was found between ACE2 expression, but not of furin, and ISG15 in all patients analyzed. In addition, type I and III IFN stimulation experiments were performed to examine the IFN-mediated activation of ACE2 isoforms (full-length and truncated) and furin in epithelial cell lines. Following all the IFNs treatments, only the truncated ACE2 levels, were upregulated significantly in the A549 and Calu3 cells, in particular by type I IFNs. If confirmed in vivo following IFNs' activation, the induction of the truncated ACE2 isoform only would not enhance the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Gene Expression/drug effects , Interferons/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Adult , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Child , Cytokines/genetics , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Lung/cytology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Ubiquitins/genetics
18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 221, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387195
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5152, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376195

ABSTRACT

The immunological features that distinguish COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from other causes of ARDS are incompletely understood. Here, we report the results of comparative lower respiratory tract transcriptional profiling of tracheal aspirate from 52 critically ill patients with ARDS from COVID-19 or from other etiologies, as well as controls without ARDS. In contrast to a "cytokine storm," we observe reduced proinflammatory gene expression in COVID-19 ARDS when compared to ARDS due to other causes. COVID-19 ARDS is characterized by a dysregulated host response with increased PTEN signaling and elevated expression of genes with non-canonical roles in inflammation and immunity. In silico analysis of gene expression identifies several candidate drugs that may modulate gene expression in COVID-19 ARDS, including dexamethasone and granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Compared to ARDS due to other types of viral pneumonia, COVID-19 is characterized by impaired interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viral load and expression of ISGs is decoupled in patients with COVID-19 ARDS when compared to patients with mild COVID-19. In summary, assessment of host gene expression in the lower airways of patients reveals distinct immunological features of COVID-19 ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , RNA/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , Trachea/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA
20.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374539

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a host ectopeptidase and the receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, albeit virus-ACE2 interaction goes far beyond viral entry into target cells. Controversial data exists linking viral infection to changes in ACE2 expression and function, which might influence the subsequent induction of an inflammatory response. Here, we tested the significance of soluble ACE2 enzymatic activity longitudinally in nasopharyngeal swabs and plasma samples of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, along with the induction of inflammatory cytokines. Release of soluble functional ACE2 increases upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in swabs and plasma of infected patients, albeit rapidly decreasing during infection course in parallel with ACE2 gene expression. Similarly, SARS-CoV-2 infection also induced the expression of inflammatory cytokines. These changes positively correlated with the viral load. Overall, our results demonstrate the existence of mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 modulates ACE2 expression and function, intracellular viral sensing and subsequent inflammatory response, offering new insights into ACE2 dynamics in the human upper respiratory tract and pointing towards soluble ACE2 levels as a putative early biomarker of infection severity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Gene Expression , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load
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