Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 174
Filter
1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 975848, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142004

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread rapidly worldwide, resulting in a pandemic with a high mortality rate. In clinical practice, we have noted that many critically ill or critically ill patients with COVID-19 present with typical sepsis-related clinical manifestations, including multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, coagulopathy, and septic shock. In addition, it has been demonstrated that severe COVID-19 has some pathological similarities with sepsis, such as cytokine storm, hypercoagulable state after blood balance is disrupted and neutrophil dysfunction. Considering the parallels between COVID-19 and non-SARS-CoV-2 induced sepsis (hereafter referred to as sepsis), the aim of this study was to analyze the underlying molecular mechanisms between these two diseases by bioinformatics and a systems biology approach, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and the development of new treatments. Specifically, the gene expression profiles of COVID-19 and sepsis patients were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and compared to extract common differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Subsequently, common DEGs were used to investigate the genetic links between COVID-19 and sepsis. Based on enrichment analysis of common DEGs, many pathways closely related to inflammatory response were observed, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway and NF-kappa B signaling pathway. In addition, protein-protein interaction networks and gene regulatory networks of common DEGs were constructed, and the analysis results showed that ITGAM may be a potential key biomarker base on regulatory analysis. Furthermore, a disease diagnostic model and risk prediction nomogram for COVID-19 were constructed using machine learning methods. Finally, potential therapeutic agents, including progesterone and emetine, were screened through drug-protein interaction networks and molecular docking simulations. We hope to provide new strategies for future research and treatment related to COVID-19 by elucidating the pathogenesis and genetic mechanisms between COVID-19 and sepsis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Biomarkers , Computational Biology/methods , Critical Illness , Cytokines/genetics , Emetine , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-kappa B/genetics , Progesterone , Receptors, Cytokine/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/genetics , Sepsis/metabolism
2.
Immunobiology ; 227(6): 152301, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119151

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has recently emerged as a respiratory infection with a significant impact on health and society. The pathogenesis is primarily attributed to a dysregulation of cytokines, especially those with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Interleukin-38 (IL-38) is a recently identified anti-inflammatory cytokine with a proposed involvement in mediating COVID-19 pathogenesis, while the association between IL38 gene variants and disease susceptibility has not been explored. Therefore, a pilot study was designed to evaluate the association of three gene variants in the promoter region of IL38 gene (rs7599662 T/A/C/G, rs28992497 T/C and rs28992498 C/A/T) with COVID-19 risk. DNA sequencing was performed to identify these variants. The study included 148 Iraqi patients with COVID-19 and 113 healthy controls (HC). Only rs7599662 showed a significant negative association with susceptibility to COVID-19. The mutant T allele was presented at a significantly lower frequency in patients compared to HC. Analysis of recessive, dominant and codominant models demonstrated that rs7599662 TT genotype frequency was significantly lower in patients than in HC. In terms of haplotypes (in order: rs7599662, rs28992497 and rs28992498), frequency of CTC haplotype was significantly increased in patients compared to HC, while TTC haplotype showed significantly lower frequency in patients. The three SNPs influenced serum IL-38 levels and homozygous genotypes of mutant alleles were associated with elevated levels. In conclusion, this study indicated that IL38 gene in terms of promoter variants and haplotypes may have important implications for COVID-19 risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Genotype , Pilot Projects , Iraq , Case-Control Studies , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alleles , Haplotypes , Cytokines/genetics , Interleukins/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Gene Frequency
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116106

ABSTRACT

This study is a successor of our previous work concerning changes in the chemokine profile in infection that are associated with different SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants. The goal of our study was to take into account both the virus and the host immune system by assessing concentrations of cytokines in patients infected with different SARS-CoV-2 variants (ancestral Wuhan strain, Alpha, Delta and Omicron). Our study was performed on 340 biological samples taken from COVID-19 patients and healthy donors in the timespan between May 2020 and April 2022. We performed genotyping of the virus in nasopharyngeal swabs, which was followed by assessment of cytokines' concentration in blood plasma. We noted that out of nearly 30 cytokines, only four showed stable elevation independently of the variant (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and IL-27), and we believe them to be 'constant' markers for COVID-19 infection. Cytokines that were studied as potential biomarkers lose their diagnostic value as the virus evolves, and the specter of potential targets for predictive models is narrowing. So far, only four cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, and IL-27) showed a consistent rise in concentrations independently of the genetic variant of the virus. Although we believe our findings to be of scientific interest, we still consider them inconclusive; further investigation and comparison of immune responses to different variants of SARS-CoV-2 is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-27 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Interleukin-18/genetics , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-6 , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/genetics
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 297, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effective transmission mode of Neospora caninum, with infection leading to reproductive failure in ruminants, is vertical transmission. The uterus is an important reproductive organ that forms the maternal-fetal interface. Neospora caninum can successfully invade and proliferate in the uterus, but the molecular mechanisms underlying epithelial-pathogen interactions remain unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that host long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in cellular molecular regulatory networks, with reports that these RNA molecules are closely related to the pathogenesis of apicomplexan parasites. However, the expression profiles of host lncRNAs during N. caninum infection has not been reported. METHODS: RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was used to investigate the expression profiles of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and lncRNAs in caprine endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) infected with N. caninum for 24 h (TZ_24h) and 48 h (TZ_48 h), and the potential functions of differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs were predicted by using Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis of their mRNA targets. RESULTS: RNA-seq analysis identified 1280.15 M clean reads in 12 RNA samples, including six samples infected with N. caninum for 24 h (TZ1_24h-TZ3_24h) and 48 h (TZ1_48h-TZ3_48h), and six corresponding control samples (C1_24h-C3_24h and C1_48h-C3_48h). Within the categories TZ_24h-vs-C_24h, TZ_48h-vs-C_48h and TZ_48h-vs-TZ_24h, there were 934 (665 upregulated and 269 downregulated), 1238 (785 upregulated and 453 downregulated) and 489 (252 upregulated and 237 downregulated) DEmRNAs, respectively. GO enrichment and KEGG analysis revealed that these DEmRNAs were mainly involved in the regulation of host immune response (e.g. TNF signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway), signaling molecules and interaction (e.g. cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules and ECM-receptor interaction). A total of 88 (59 upregulated and 29 downregulated), 129 (80 upregulated and 49 downregulated) and 32 (20 upregulated and 12 downregulated) DElncRNAs were found within the categories TZ_24h-vs-C_24h, TZ_48h-vs-C_48h and TZ_48h-vs-TZ_24h, respectively. Functional prediction indicated that these DElncRNAs would be involved in signal transduction (e.g. MAPK signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway), neural transmission (e.g. GABAergic synapse, serotonergic synapse, cholinergic synapse), metabolism processes (e.g. glycosphingolipid biosynthesis-lacto and neolacto series, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-heparan sulfate/heparin) and signaling molecules and interaction (e.g. cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules and ECM-receptor interaction). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first investigation of global gene expression profiles of lncRNAs during N. caninum infection. The results provide valuable information for further studies of the roles of lncRNAs during N. caninum infection.


Subject(s)
Coccidiosis , Neospora , RNA, Long Noncoding , Animals , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Cytokines/genetics , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Goats , Humans , Neospora/genetics , Neospora/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Cytokine/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987838

ABSTRACT

The epipharynx, located behind the nasal cavity, is responsible for upper respiratory tract immunity; however, it is also the site of frequent acute and chronic inflammation. Previous reports have suggested that chronic epipharyngitis is involved not only in local symptoms such as cough and postnasal drip, but also in systemic inflammatory diseases such as IgA nephropathy and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and Long COVID. Epipharyngeal Abrasive Therapy (EAT), which is an effective treatment for chronic epipharyngitis in Japan, is reported to be effective for these intractable diseases. The sedation of chronic epipharyngitis by EAT induces suppression of the inflammatory cytokines and improves systemic symptoms, which is considered to be one of the mechanisms, but there is no report that has proved this hypothesis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the anti-inflammatory effect of EAT histologically. The study subjects were 8 patients who were not treated with EAT and 11 patients who were treated with EAT for chronic epipharyngitis for 1 month or more. For immunohistochemical assessment, the expression pattern of IL-6 mRNA, which plays a central role in the human cytokine network, was analyzed using in situ hybridization. The expression of IL-6 in the EAT-treated group was significantly lower than those in the EAT nontreated group (p = 0.0015). In addition, EAT suppressed the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), a crucial proinflammatory cytokine. As a result, continuous EAT suppressed submucosal cell aggregation and reduced inflammatory cytokines. Thus, EAT may contribute to the improvement of systemic inflammatory diseases through the suppression of IL-6 expression.


Subject(s)
Interleukin-6 , Pharyngitis , Cytokines/genetics , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Pharyngitis/therapy , RNA, Messenger/genetics
6.
J Food Biochem ; 46(10): e14352, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961634

ABSTRACT

Dry eye disease (DED) is a complex ocular surface inflammatory disease. Its occurrence varies widely over the world, ranging from 5% to 34%. The use of preservatives, specifically benzalkonium chloride, in the ocular drops worsens the DED conditions. Furthermore, the Covid-19 pandemic increased screen time and the use of face masks and shields. As a result, the number of people suffering from dry eye disease (DED) has increased significantly in recent years. The main objective of our study is to find a solution to manage the dry eye disease (DED) preferably from natural source without any adverse events. In this study, the beneficial effects of capsanthin from Capsicum annum (CCA) were evaluated on benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-induced dry eye disease (DED) in Albino Wistar rats. Oral supplementation of CCA resulted in a statistically significant decrease in intraocular pressure (IOP) (p < .0001), increase in tear break-up time (TBUT) (p < .01), decline in Schirmer test results (p < .01), and decrease in corneal surface inflammation (p < .01). Capsanthin ameliorated in reducing oxidative stress by increasing serum antioxidant levels such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX), nitric oxide (NO), and lactoferrin (LTF) and inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP9) (p < .0001). Capsanthin treatment significantly inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukins (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6), and pro-inflammatory mediator, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). Furthermore, the lacrimal gland expressed vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) was suppressed by CCA treatment. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Benzalkonium chloride (BAC), a preservative widely used in the topical ocular drug delivery system (ODDS), causes undesirable effects such as dry eye disease as well as ameliorating intraocular pressure leading to optical nerve damage and irreversible vision loss. Capsanthin from Capsicum annum (CCA) can be used to treat symptoms related to dry eye disease such as inflammation, eye irritation, visual disturbance, ocular discomfort with potential damage to the ocular surface. The CCA may be beneficial in the treatment of glaucoma, an elevated intraocular pressure. Capsanthin from C. annum can be useful in managing DED by increasing tear break-up time (TBUT), declining in Schirmer test results and decreasing in corneal surface inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Capsicum , Dry Eye Syndromes , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Benzalkonium Compounds , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Dry Eye Syndromes/chemically induced , Dry Eye Syndromes/drug therapy , Dry Eye Syndromes/genetics , Fruit/metabolism , Gene Expression , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation Mediators , Interleukin-2/metabolism , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lactoferrin/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Pandemics , Rats , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Xanthophylls
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(7)2022 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911272

ABSTRACT

The epigenetic features contribute to variations in host susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity of symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the relative expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and the severity of the disease in COVID-19 patients. The miRNA profiles were monitored during the different stages of the disease course using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The expression levels of the selected 11 miRNAs were measured in the blood samples collected from 73 patients (moderate, n = 37; severe, n = 25; critically ill, n = 11, a total of 219 longitudinal samples) on hospitalization day and days 7 and 21. Expression changes were expressed as "fold change" compared to healthy controls (n = 10). Our study found that several miRNAs differed according to disease severity, with the miR-155-5p the most strongly upregulated (p = 0.0001). A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between the expression of miR-155-5p and its target gene, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1). The relative expression of miR-155-5p was significantly increased and SOCS1 was significantly decreased with the disease progression (r = -0.805 p = 0.0001, r = -0.940 p = 0.0001, r = -0.933 p = 0.0001 for admission, day 7, and day 21, respectively). The overexpression of miR-155-5p has significantly increased inflammatory cytokine production and promoted COVID-19 progression. We speculated that microRNA-155 facilitates immune inflammation via targeting SOCS1, thus establishing its association with disease prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Protein/genetics , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Protein/metabolism
8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 150, 2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890153
10.
J Med Virol ; 94(9): 4088-4096, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838234

ABSTRACT

Innate and acquired immunity responses are crucial for viral infection elimination. However, genetic variations in coding genes may exacerbate the inflammation or initiate devastating cytokine storms which poses severe respiratory conditions in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Host genetic variations in particular those related to the immune responses determine the patients' susceptibility and COVID-19 severity and pathophysiology. Gene polymorphisms such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interferons, TNF, IL1, IL4, IL6, IL7, IL10, and IL17 predispose patients to the severe form of COVID-19 or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2). These variations mainly alter the gene expression and cause a severe response by B cells, T cells, monocytes, neutrophils, and natural killer cells participating in a cytokine storm. Moreover, cytokines and chemokines SNPs are associated with the severity of COVID-19 and clinical outcomes depending on the corresponding effect. Additionally, genetic variations in genes encoding toll-like receptors (TLRs) mainly TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 have been related to the COVID-19 severe respiratory symptoms. The specific relation of these mutations with the novel variants of concern (VOCs) infection remains to be elucidated. Genetic variations mainly within genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines, cytokine receptors, and TLRs predispose patients to COVID-19 disease severity. Understanding host immune gene variations associated with the SARS-COV-2 infection opens insights to control the pathophysiology of emerging viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Receptors, Cytokine , Toll-Like Receptors , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Humans , Receptors, Cytokine/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics
11.
Cell Biol Int ; 46(7): 1109-1127, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825908

ABSTRACT

Cytokines play pivotal functions in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. However, little is known about the rationale and importance of genetic variations associated with immune system responses, so-called "immunogenetic profiling." We studied whether polymorphisms of IL6, IL6R, TNFA, and IL1RN affect the disorder severity and outcome in patients infected with COVID19. We recruited 317 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Bu-Ali hospital and 317 high-risk participants who had high exposure to COVID-19 patients but with a negative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Multiple regression analyses were applied. We indicated that participants carrying the A allele in TNFA-rs361525, G>A (p < .004), the C allele in IL1RN-rs419598 T>C (p < .004), the A allele in IL6R-rs2228145, A>C (p = .047) are more susceptible to develop COVID-19. In contrast, those who carry the G allele of IL6-rs2069827, G>T (p = .01), are more protected from COVID-19. Also, we compared the various genotypes regarding the disorder severity and poor prognosis; we found that the AA genotype in TNFA is related to more aggressive illness and bad prognostic in contrast to the other inflammatory cytokines' genotypes. In addition, a high level of inflammatory indications, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and systemic immune-inflammation index, was observed in deceased patients compared with the survived subjects (p < .0001). We advised considering inflammatory cytokines polymorphisms as the main item to realize the therapeutic response against the acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Iran/epidemiology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
12.
Cytokine ; 154: 155889, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). Disease severity is associated with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). Genetic polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of cytokine genes may be associated with differential cytokine production in COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to investigate the association between three potentially functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of IL-6 and the severity of susceptibility to COVID-19 in an Iranian population. METHODS: In total, 346 individuals (175 patients with severe COVID-19 and 171 patients with mild COVID-19) were recruited for this cohort study. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes of patients to determine the genotypes of three selected SNPs (rs1800795 (-174 G > C), rs1800796 (-572 G > C), and rs1800797 (-597 G > A)) in the promoter region of the IL-6 gene using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the genotype or allele distribution of selected SNPs (rs1800795 (-174 G > C), rs1800796 (-572 G > C), and rs1800797 (-597 G > A)) in the promoter region of the IL-6 gene in patients with severe COVID-19 and patients with mild COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Our study indicated that these SNPs are not associated with COVID-19 severity in the Kurdish population from Kermanshah, Iran.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6 , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/genetics , Gene Frequency/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Vet Sci ; 23(2): e27, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in a feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection is not completely understood. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the expression of TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon (IFN)-ß, and interleukin (IL)-10 upon an FIPV infection in Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells and feline monocytes. METHODS: CRFK cells and monocytes from feline coronavirus (FCoV)-seronegative cats and FCoV-seropositive cats were infected with type II FIPV-79-1146. At four, 12, and 24 hours post-infection (hpi), the expression of TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, TNF-α, IFN-ß, and IL-10, and the viral load were measured using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Viral protein production was confirmed using immunofluorescence. RESULTS: FIPV-infected CRFK showed the upregulation of TLR9, TNF-α, and IFN-ß expression between 4 and 24 hpi. Uninfected monocytes from FCoV-seropositive cats showed lower TLR3 and TLR9 expression but higher TLR7 expression compared to uninfected monocytes from FCoV-seronegative cats. FIPV-infected monocytes from FCoV-seropositive cats downregulated TLR7 and TNF-α expression between 4 and 24 hpi, and 4 and 12 hpi, respectively. IFN-ß was upregulated early in FIPV-infected monocytes from FCoV-seropositive cats, with a significant difference observed at 12 hpi compared to FCoV-seronegative cats. The viral load in the CRFK and FIPV-infected monocytes in both cohorts of cats was similar over time. CONCLUSION: TLR7 may be the key TLR involved in evading the innate response against inhibiting TNF-α production. Distinct TLR expression profiles between FCoV-seronegative and FCoV-seropositive cats were observed. The associated TLR that plays a role in the induction of IFN-ß needs to be explored further.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Coronavirus, Feline , Feline Infectious Peritonitis , Animals , Cats , Coronavirus, Feline/genetics , Coronavirus, Feline/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 3
14.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 225, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740485

ABSTRACT

Late 2020, SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant emerged in United Kingdom and gradually replaced G614 strains initially involved in the global spread of the pandemic. In this study, we use a Syrian hamster model to compare a clinical strain of Alpha variant with an ancestral G614 strain. The Alpha variant succeed to infect animals and to induce a pathology that mimics COVID-19. However, both strains replicate to almost the same level and induced a comparable disease and immune response. A slight fitness advantage is noted for the G614 strain during competition and transmission experiments. These data do not corroborate the epidemiological situation observed during the first half of 2021 in humans nor reports that showed a more rapid replication of Alpha variant in human reconstituted bronchial epithelium. This study highlights the need to combine data from different laboratories using various animal models to decipher the biological properties of newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Models, Animal , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Genome, Viral , Lung/virology , Nasal Lavage Fluid/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication
15.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05010, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726723

ABSTRACT

Background: In this study, we performed a bidirectional mendelian randomization analysis on circulating cytokines and critically ill COVID-19. Methods: Both the exposure and outcome data were obtained from public genome wide association study (GWAS) database. We extracted independent instrumental variables from exposure at genome level significance (P < 5 × 10-8). Wald ratio or inverse variance weighted (IVW) method were used for estimating the causal relationships between circulating cytokines and critically ill COVID-19. Results: Only IL5 (cytokines to critically ill COVID-19 direction) and bNGF, IL8 (critically ill COVID-19 to cytokines direction) showed suggestive causal relations. However, these associations lost significance after FDR correction. Another validation data set of critically ill COVID-19 did not confirm these associations, either. Conclusions: Our Mendelian randomization did not find causal relationships between analyzable circulating cytokines and critically ill COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Critical Illness , Cytokines/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Mendelian Randomization Analysis/methods , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(3): 471-485, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1679508

ABSTRACT

Humans exhibit remarkable interindividual and interpopulation immune response variability upon microbial challenges. Cytokines play a vital role in regulating inflammation and immune responses, but dysregulation of cytokine responses has been implicated in different disease states. Host genetic factors were previously shown to significantly impact cytokine response heterogeneity mainly in European-based studies, but it is unclear whether these findings are transferable to non-European individuals. Here, we aimed to identify genetic variants modulating cytokine responses in healthy adults of East African ancestry from Tanzania. We leveraged both cytokine and genetic data and performed genome-wide cytokine quantitative trait loci (cQTLs) mapping. The results were compared with another cohort of healthy adults of Western European ancestry via direct overlap and functional enrichment analyses. We also performed meta-analyses to identify cQTLs with congruent effect direction in both populations. In the Tanzanians, cQTL mapping identified 80 independent suggestive loci and one genome-wide significant locus (TBC1D22A) at chromosome 22; SNP rs12169244 was associated with IL-1b release after Salmonella enteritidis stimulation. Remarkably, the identified cQTLs varied significantly when compared to the European cohort, and there was a very limited percentage of overlap (1.6% to 1.9%). We further observed ancestry-specific pathways regulating induced cytokine responses, and there was significant enrichment of the interferon pathway specifically in the Tanzanians. Furthermore, contrary to the Europeans, genetic variants in the TLR10-TLR1-TLR6 locus showed no effect on cytokine response. Our data reveal both ancestry-specific effects of genetic variants and pathways on cytokine response heterogeneity, hence arguing for the importance of initiatives to include diverse populations into genomics research.


Subject(s)
Genome-Wide Association Study , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Adult , Cytokines/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genomics , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Tanzania
17.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(2): 459-472, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667649

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak is emerging as a significant public health challenge. Excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines, also known as cytokine storm, is a severe clinical syndrome known to develop as a complication of infectious or inflammatory diseases. Clinical evidence suggests that the occurrence of cytokine storm in severe acute respiratory syndrome secondary to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is closely associated with the rapid deterioration and high mortality of severe cases. In this review, we aim to summarize the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the subsequent immunological events related to excessive cytokine production and inflammatory responses associated with ACE2-AngII signaling. An overview of the diagnosis and an update on current therapeutic regimens and vaccinations is also provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans
18.
Trends Immunol ; 43(2): 117-131, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654629

ABSTRACT

The mammalian immune system packs serious punch against infection but can also cause harm: for example, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) made headline news of the simultaneous power and peril of human immune responses. In principle, natural selection leads to exquisite adaptation and therefore cytokine responsiveness that optimally balances the benefits of defense against its costs (e.g., immunopathology suffered and resources expended). Here, we illustrate how evolutionary biology can predict such optima and also help to explain when/why individuals exhibit apparently maladaptive immunopathological responses. Ultimately, we argue that the evolutionary legacies of multicellularity and life-history strategy, in addition to our coevolution with symbionts and our demographic history, together explain human susceptibility to overzealous, pathology-inducing cytokine responses. Evolutionary insight thereby complements molecular/cellular mechanistic insights into immunopathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Physiological , Animals , Biological Evolution , Cytokines/genetics , Humans , Immune System , SARS-CoV-2
19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(4): 4882-4891, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649372

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is seriously threatening human health. Following SARS-CoV-2 infection, immune cell infiltration creates an inflammatory and oxidative microenvironment, which can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death. Clinically, a safe and effective treatment strategy remains to be established. Herein, a nano-bait strategy for inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection by redirecting viral attack while simultaneously relieving inflammation is developed. Specifically, the nano-bait was based on the exosome-sheathed polydopamine (PDA@Exosome) nanoparticles, which were generated by exocytosis of the PDA nanoparticles from H293T cells. In this approach, PDA@Exosome inherits from the source cells of H293T cells a surface display of ACE2 through pre-engineered expression. The resulting PDA@Exosome can compete with ACE2-expressing epithelial cells for S protein binding, in either the pre-exposure or post-exposure route. Moreover, relying on the ability of PDA to intercept and deactivate radical species, the PDA@Exosome can significantly attenuate the level of inflammatory cytokines by mediating oxidative stress, a major cause of organ injury. Due to its high trapping, multiple antioxidant ability, and good biocompatibility, the HACE2-exosome based nano-bait is a promising robust antiviral nanotherapeutics for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Exosomes/drug effects , Exosomes/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Internalization/drug effects
20.
J Food Biochem ; 46(5): e14079, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642706

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm is a phrase used to refer to an abrupt upsurge in the circulating levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines, causing increased stimulation and activity of immune cells during disease conditions. The binding of pattern recognition receptors to pathogen-associated molecular patterns during COVID-19 infection recruits response machinery involving the activation of transcription factors and proteins required for a robust immune response by host cells. These immune responses could be influenced by epigenetic modifications as evidenced by significant variations in COVID-19 pathophysiology and response to therapy observed among patients across the globe. Considering that circulating levels of interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin 6 are significantly elevated during cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients, genetic and epigenetic variations in the expression and function of these proteins could enhance our understanding of the disease pathogenesis. Treatment options that repress the transcription of specific cytokine genes during COVID-19 infection could serve as possible targets to counteract cytokine storm in COVID-19. Therefore, the present article reviews the roles of cytokines and associated genes in the COVID-19 cytokine storm, identifies epigenetic modifications associated with the disease progression, and possible ameliorative effects of some vitamins and minerals obtained as epigenetic modifiers for the control of cytokine storm and disease severity in COVID-19 patients. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: COVID-19 causes mortality and morbidity that adversely affect global economies. Despite a global vaccination campaign, side effects associated with vaccination, misconceptions, and a number of other factors have affected the expected successes. Cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients contributes to the disease pathogenesis and response to therapy. Epigenetic variations in the expression of various cytokines could be implicated in the different outcomes observed in COVID-19 patients. Certain vitamins and minerals have been shown to interfere with the expression and activity of cytokines implicated in cytokine storm, thereby counteracting observed pathologies. This review examines cytokines implicated in cytokine storm in COVID-19, epigenetic modifications that contribute to increased expression of identified cytokines, specific foods rich in the identified vitamins and minerals, and suggests their possible ameliorative benefits. The article will be beneficial to both scientists and the general public who are interested in the role of vitamins and minerals in ameliorating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Humans , Minerals , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin A , Vitamins
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL