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1.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(3): 410-418, May-June 2022. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20244272

ABSTRACT

Abstract An acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV2 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Current data in the world and in Brazil show that approximately 40% of patients who died have some type of cardiac comorbidity. There are also robust reports showing an increase in IL-6 / IL-1B / TNF-alpha and the presence of lymphopenia in patients with COVID-19. Our team and others have shown that increased cytokines are the link between arrhythmias/Left ventricular dysfunction and the immune system in different diseases. In addition, it has been well demonstrated that lymphopenia can not only be a good marker, but also a factor that causes heart failure. Thus, the present review focused on the role of the immune system upon the cardiac alterations observed in the SARS-CoV2 infection. Additionally, it was well described that SARS-CoV-2 is able to infect cardiac cells. Therefore, here it will be reviewed in deep.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/etiology , Myocardium/immunology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Cytokines , Cytokines/immunology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Heart Failure/complications , Lymphopenia/complications
2.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 32(6): 805-815, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323014

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Childhood obesity, with persistent chronic inflammation, is a worldwide epidemic. Obesity causes dysregulation throughout the immune system, affecting the balance and levels of cytokines, adipokines, and innate and adaptive immune cells. The present review focuses on the impact of obesity on immune function in children: altering the baseline activation state of immune cells and affecting the ability of the host to combat pathogens and malignancy and respond appropriately to vaccination. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity causes dysregulation of the immune system. Single-cell RNA-sequencing of adipose tissue and resident immune cells is quantifying the impact of obesity on the frequency of immune cell subsets and their states. The system-wide alterations in immune function in obesity are most evident upon perturbation, including the response to infection (e.g. increased risk of severe COVID-19 in the ongoing pandemic), vaccination, and malignancy. However, mechanistic research in pediatric obesity is limited and this impacts our ability to care for these children. SUMMARY: We must better understand baseline and perturbed immune health in obese children to determine how to account for altered frequency and function of humoral and cellular immune components in acute infection, during vaccine design and when considering therapeutic options for this complex, medically vulnerable group.


Subject(s)
Immune System/physiology , Pediatric Obesity/immunology , Adipokines/immunology , Adipose Tissue/immunology , Child , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Infections/immunology , Vaccination
3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1151937, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299189

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus does not only lead to pulmonary infection but can also infect other organs such as the gut, the kidney, or the liver. Recent studies confirmed that severe cases of COVID-19 are often associated with liver damage and liver failure, as well as the systemic upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). However, the impact these immune mediators in the liver have on patient survival during SARS-CoV-2 infection is currently unknown. Here, by performing a post-mortem analysis of 45 patients that died from a SARS-CoV-2 infection, we find that an increased expression of TNFA in the liver is associated with elevated mortality. Using publicly available single-cell sequencing datasets, we determined that Kupffer cells and monocytes are the main sources of this TNFα production. Further analysis revealed that TNFα signaling led to the upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes that are associated with an unfavorable outcome. Moreover, high levels of TNFA in the liver were associated with lower levels of interferon alpha and interferon beta. Thus, TNFα signaling in the infected SARS-CoV-2 liver correlates with reduced interferon levels and overall survival time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Humans , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Liver/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
4.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(2): 100019, 2020 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258429

ABSTRACT

People with Down syndrome show signs of chronic immune dysregulation, including a higher prevalence of autoimmune disorders, increased rates of hospitalization during respiratory viral infections, and higher mortality rates from pneumonia and sepsis. At the molecular and cellular levels, they show markers of chronic autoinflammation, including interferon hyperactivity, elevated levels of many inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and changes in diverse immune cell types reminiscent of inflammatory conditions observed in the general population. However, the impact of this immune dysregulation in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and CoV disease of 2019 (COVID-19) remains unknown. This Perspective outlines why individuals with Down syndrome should be considered an at-risk population for severe COVID-19. Specifically, the immune dysregulation caused by trisomy 21 may result in an exacerbated cytokine release syndrome relative to that observed in the euploid population, thus justifying additional monitoring and specialized care for this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Down Syndrome/immunology , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Coinfection , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Interferons/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nature ; 615(7951): 305-314, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270582

ABSTRACT

Down's syndrome (DS) presents with a constellation of cardiac, neurocognitive and growth impairments. Individuals with DS are also prone to severe infections and autoimmunity including thyroiditis, type 1 diabetes, coeliac disease and alopecia areata1,2. Here, to investigate the mechanisms underlying autoimmune susceptibility, we mapped the soluble and cellular immune landscape of individuals with DS. We found a persistent elevation of up to 22 cytokines at steady state (at levels often exceeding those in patients with acute infection) and detected basal cellular activation: chronic IL-6 signalling in CD4 T cells and a high proportion of plasmablasts and CD11c+TbethighCD21low B cells (Tbet is also known as TBX21). This subset is known to be autoimmune-prone and displayed even greater autoreactive features in DS including receptors with fewer non-reference nucleotides and higher IGHV4-34 utilization. In vitro, incubation of naive B cells in the plasma of individuals with DS or with IL-6-activated T cells resulted in increased plasmablast differentiation compared with control plasma or unstimulated T cells, respectively. Finally, we detected 365 auto-antibodies in the plasma of individuals with DS, which targeted the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, the thyroid, the central nervous system, and the immune system itself. Together, these data point to an autoimmunity-prone state in DS, in which a steady-state cytokinopathy, hyperactivated CD4 T cells and ongoing B cell activation all contribute to a breach in immune tolerance. Our findings also open therapeutic paths, as we demonstrate that T cell activation is resolved not only with broad immunosuppressants such as Jak inhibitors, but also with the more tailored approach of IL-6 inhibition.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cytokines , Down Syndrome , Humans , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/immunology , Down Syndrome/immunology , Down Syndrome/physiopathology , Interleukin-6/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility , Receptors, Complement 3d , Autoantibodies/immunology
6.
In Vivo ; 37(1): 70-78, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: The manifestation and severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections show a clear correlation to the age of a patient. The younger a person, the less likely the infection results in significant illness. To explore the immunological characteristics behind this phenomenon, we studied the course of SARS-CoV-2 infections in 11 households, including 8 children and 6 infants/neonates of women who got infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the immune responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBCs), and T cells against spike and nucleocapsid antigens of SARS-COV-2 by flow cytometry and cytokine secretion assays. RESULTS: Upon peptide stimulation, UCBC from neonates showed a strongly reduced IFN-γ production, as well as lower levels of IL-5, IL-13, and TNF-α alongside with decreased frequencies of surface CD137/PD-1 co-expressing CD4+ and CD+8 T cells compared with adult PBMCs. The PBMC response of older children instead was characterized by elevated frequencies of IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells, but significantly lower levels of multiple cytokines (IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-17A, and TNF-α) and a marked shift of the CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio towards CD8+ T cells in comparison to adults. CONCLUSION: The increased severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections in adults could result from the strong cytokine production and lower potential to immunomodulate the excessive inflammation, while the limited IFN-γ production of responding T cells in infants/neonates and the additional higher frequencies of CD8+ T cells in older children may provide advantages during the course of a SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral , COVID-19 , Cytokines , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Nucleocapsid/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Antigens, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology
7.
Science ; 379(6632): eabo3627, 2023 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193402

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare and severe condition that follows benign COVID-19. We report autosomal recessive deficiencies of OAS1, OAS2, or RNASEL in five unrelated children with MIS-C. The cytosolic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-sensing OAS1 and OAS2 generate 2'-5'-linked oligoadenylates (2-5A) that activate the single-stranded RNA-degrading ribonuclease L (RNase L). Monocytic cell lines and primary myeloid cells with OAS1, OAS2, or RNase L deficiencies produce excessive amounts of inflammatory cytokines upon dsRNA or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) stimulation. Exogenous 2-5A suppresses cytokine production in OAS1-deficient but not RNase L-deficient cells. Cytokine production in RNase L-deficient cells is impaired by MDA5 or RIG-I deficiency and abolished by mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) deficiency. Recessive OAS-RNase L deficiencies in these patients unleash the production of SARS-CoV-2-triggered, MAVS-mediated inflammatory cytokines by mononuclear phagocytes, thereby underlying MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Endoribonucleases , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Child , Humans , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , RNA, Double-Stranded , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(1): e1010219, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197167

ABSTRACT

Excessive inflammation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many viral infections including influenza. Therefore, there is a need for therapeutic interventions that dampen and redirect inflammatory responses and, ideally, exert antiviral effects. Itaconate is an immunomodulatory metabolite which also reprograms cell metabolism and inflammatory responses when applied exogenously. We evaluated effects of endogenous itaconate and exogenous application of itaconate and its variants dimethyl- and 4-octyl-itaconate (DI, 4OI) on host responses to influenza A virus (IAV). Infection induced expression of ACOD1, the enzyme catalyzing itaconate synthesis, in monocytes and macrophages, which correlated with viral replication and was abrogated by DI and 4OI treatment. In IAV-infected mice, pulmonary inflammation and weight loss were greater in Acod1-/- than in wild-type mice, and DI treatment reduced pulmonary inflammation and mortality. The compounds reversed infection-triggered interferon responses and modulated inflammation in human cells supporting non-productive and productive infection, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and in human lung tissue. All three itaconates reduced ROS levels and STAT1 phosphorylation, whereas AKT phosphorylation was reduced by 4OI and DI but increased by itaconate. Single-cell RNA sequencing identified monocytes as the main target of infection and the exclusive source of ACOD1 mRNA in peripheral blood. DI treatment silenced IFN-responses predominantly in monocytes, but also in lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Ectopic synthesis of itaconate in A549 cells, which do not physiologically express ACOD1, reduced infection-driven inflammation, and DI reduced IAV- and IFNγ-induced CXCL10 expression in murine macrophages independent of the presence of endogenous ACOD1. The compounds differed greatly in their effects on cellular gene homeostasis and released cytokines/chemokines, but all three markedly reduced release of the pro-inflammatory chemokines CXCL10 (IP-10) and CCL2 (MCP-1). Viral replication did not increase under treatment despite the dramatically repressed IFN responses. In fact, 4OI strongly inhibited viral transcription in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the compounds reduced viral titers (4OI>Ita>DI) in A549 cells whereas viral transcription was unaffected. Taken together, these results reveal itaconates as immunomodulatory and antiviral interventions for influenza virus infection.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Succinates/pharmacology , A549 Cells , Animals , Carboxy-Lyases/deficiency , Carboxy-Lyases/immunology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Macrophages/virology , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , THP-1 Cells
9.
Cell Rep ; 39(13): 110989, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121651

ABSTRACT

The interleukin-12 (IL-12) family comprises the only heterodimeric cytokines mediating diverse functional effects. We previously reported a striking bimodal IL-12p70 response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in healthy donors. Herein, we demonstrate that interferon ß (IFNß) is a major upstream determinant of IL-12p70 production, which is also associated with numbers and activation of circulating monocytes. Integrative modeling of proteomic, genetic, epigenomic, and cellular data confirms IFNß as key for LPS-induced IL-12p70 and allowed us to compare the relative effects of each of these parameters on variable cytokine responses. Clinical relevance of our findings is supported by reduced IFNß-IL-12p70 responses in patients hospitalized with acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or chronically infected with hepatitis C (HCV). Importantly, these responses are resolved after viral clearance. Our systems immunology approach defines a better understanding of IL-12p70 and IFNß in healthy and infected persons, providing insights into how common genetic and epigenetic variation may impact immune responses to bacterial infection.


Subject(s)
Interferon-beta , Interleukin-12 , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Interferon-beta/immunology , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Interleukin-12/immunology , Interleukin-12/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(1): 81-91, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe immunopathology may drive the deleterious manifestations that are observed in the advanced stages of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to phenotype leukocyte subpopulations and the cytokine milieu in the lungs and blood of critically ill patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: We consecutively included patients less than 72 hours after intubation following informed consent from their next of kin. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was evaluated by microscopy; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood were assessed by 10-color flow cytometry and a multiplex cytokine panel. RESULTS: Four mechanically ventilated patients (aged 40-75 years) with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 ARDS were included. Immature neutrophils dominated in both blood and lungs, whereas CD4 and CD8 T-cell lymphopenia was observed in the 2 compartments. However, regulatory T cells and TH17 cells were found in higher fractions in the lung. Lung CD4 and CD8 T cells and macrophages expressed an even higher upregulation of activation markers than in blood. A wide range of cytokines were expressed at high levels both in the blood and in the lungs, most notably, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, and monocyte chemoattactant protein-1, consistent with hyperinflammation. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 ARDS exhibits a distinct immunologic profile in the lungs, with a depleted and exhausted CD4 and CD8 T-cell population that resides within a heavily hyperinflammatory milieu.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Lung/pathology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Th17 Cells/pathology
11.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(10)2022 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066492

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are more susceptible to infections compared to the general population. SARS-CoV-2 virus pathology is characterized by a cytokine storm responsible for the systemic inflammation typical of the COVID-19 disease. Since CKD patients have a reduced renal clearance, we decided to investigate whether they accumulate harmful mediators during the COVID-19 disease. We conducted a retrospective study on 77 COVID-19 hospitalized subjects in the acute phase of the illness. Thirteen different cytokines were assessed in plasma collected upon hospitalization. The patients were divided into three groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR < 30 (n = 23), 30 < eGFR < 60 (n = 33), eGFR > 60 mL/min (n = 21). We found that Tumor Necrosis Factor α and its receptors I and II, Interleukin-7, Leukemia Inhibitory Factor, FAS receptor, Chitinase 3-like I, and the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor showed an increased accumulation that negatively correlate with eGFR. Moreover, non-survivor patients with an impaired kidney function have significantly more elevated levels of the same mediators. In conclusion, there is a tendency in COVID-19 ESRD patients to accumulate harmful cytokines. The accumulation seems to associate with mortality outcomes and may be due to reduced clearance but also to increased biosynthesis in most severe cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chitinases , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Renal Insufficiency , Humans , Chemokines , fas Receptor , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Interleukin-7 , Leukemia Inhibitory Factor , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Cytokines/immunology
12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(11): 919-926, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is usually mild and self-limited in children. However, a few Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infections in children may progress to severe disease with respiratory distress or can result in a multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19. The immune mechanisms for these differential clinical outcomes are largely unknown. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed to analyze the laboratory parameters, antibody response, immune phenotypes and cytokine profiles of 51 children with different clinical presentations of COVID-19. RESULTS: We found that the absolute lymphocyte counts gradually decreased with disease severity. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels in the acute phase and convalescence were not significantly different in patients with different disease severity. A decrease in CD3 + , CD4 + and CD8 + T cells was observed as disease severity increased. Both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were activated in children with COVID-19, but no difference in the percentage of HLADR + -expressing cells was detected across the severity groups. In contrast, MIS-C patients exhibited augmented exhausted effector memory CD8 + T cells. Interestingly, the cytokine profile in sera of moderate/severe and MIS-C patients revealed an increase in anti-inflammatory IL-1RA and a suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α, RANTES, eotaxin and PDGF-BB. MIS-C patients also exhibited augmented IL-1ß. CONCLUSIONS: We report distinct immune profiles dependent on severity in pediatric COVID-19 patients. Further investigation in a larger population will help unravel the immune mechanisms underlying pediatric COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Becaplermin , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokine CCL5 , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Phenotype , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
13.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0074122, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992937

ABSTRACT

Within the past 2 decades, three highly pathogenic human coronaviruses have emerged, namely, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The health threats and economic burden posed by these tremendously severe coronaviruses have paved the way for research on their etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. Compared to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV genome encoded fewer accessory proteins, among which the ORF4b protein had anti-immunity ability in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Our work for the first time revealed that ORF4b protein was unstable in the host cells and could be degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system. After extensive screenings, it was found that UBR5 (ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component N-recognin 5), a member of the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligases, specifically regulated the ubiquitination and degradation of ORF4b. Similar to ORF4b, UBR5 can also translocate into the nucleus through its nuclear localization signal, enabling it to regulate ORF4b stability in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Through further experiments, lysine 36 was identified as the ubiquitination site on the ORF4b protein, and this residue was highly conserved in various MERS-CoV strains isolated from different regions. When UBR5 was knocked down, the ability of ORF4b to suppress innate immunity was enhanced and MERS-CoV replication was stronger. As an anti-MERS-CoV host protein, UBR5 targets and degrades ORF4b protein through the ubiquitin proteasome system, thereby attenuating the anti-immunity ability of ORF4b and ultimately inhibiting MERS-CoV immune escape, which is a novel antagonistic mechanism of the host against MERS-CoV infection. IMPORTANCE ORF4b was an accessory protein unique to MERS-CoV and was not present in SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 which can also cause severe respiratory disease. Moreover, ORF4b inhibited the production of antiviral cytokines in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus, which was likely to be associated with the high lethality of MERS-CoV. However, whether the host proteins regulate the function of ORF4b is unknown. Our study first determined that UBR5, a host E3 ligase, was a potential host anti-MERS-CoV protein that could reduce the protein level of ORF4b and diminish its anti-immunity ability by inducing ubiquitination and degradation. Based on the discovery of ORF4b-UBR5, a critical molecular target, further increasing the degradation of ORF4b caused by UBR5 could provide a new strategy for the clinical development of drugs for MERS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Host Microbial Interactions , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Proteolysis , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
14.
J Virol ; 96(13): e0050922, 2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891737

ABSTRACT

Cell-mediated immunity is critical for long-term protection against most viral infections, including coronaviruses. We studied 23 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected survivors over a 1-year post-symptom onset (PSO) interval by ex vivo cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISpot) assay. All subjects demonstrated SARS-CoV-2-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin 2 (IL-2), and granzyme B (GzmB) T cell responses at presentation, with greater frequencies in severe disease. Cytokines, mainly produced by CD4+ T cells, targeted all structural proteins (nucleocapsid, membrane, and spike) except envelope, with GzmB and IL-2 greater than IFN-γ. Mathematical modeling predicted that (i) cytokine responses peaked at 6 days for IFN-γ, 36 days for IL-2, and 7 days for GzmB, (ii) severe illness was associated with reduced IFN-γ and GzmB but increased IL-2 production rates, and (iii) males displayed greater production of IFN-γ, whereas females produced more GzmB. Ex vivo responses declined over time, with persistence of IL-2 in 86% and of IFN-γ and GzmB in 70% of subjects at a median of 336 days PSO. The average half-life of SARS-CoV-2-specific cytokine-producing cells was modeled to be 139 days (~4.6 months). Potent T cell proliferative responses persisted throughout observation, were CD4 dominant, and were capable of producing all 3 cytokines. Several immunodominant CD4 and CD8 epitopes identified in this study were shared by seasonal coronaviruses or SARS-CoV-1 in the nucleocapsid and membrane regions. Both SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones were able to kill target cells, though CD8 tended to be more potent. IMPORTANCE Our findings highlight the relative importance of SARS-CoV-2-specific GzmB-producing T cell responses in SARS-CoV-2 control and shared CD4 and CD8 immunodominant epitopes in seasonal coronaviruses or SARS-CoV-1, and they indicate robust persistence of T cell memory at least 1 year after infection. Our findings should inform future strategies to induce T cell vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-2/immunology , Male , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
15.
Inflammopharmacology ; 30(3): 789-798, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888931

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 has the ability to activate and mature proinflammatory cytokines in the body. Cytokine markers are a group of polypeptide signalling molecules that can induce and regulate many cellular biological processes by stimulating cell receptors at the surface. SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to be associated with activation of innate immunity, and an increase in neutrophils, mononuclear phagocytes, and natural killer cells has been observed, as well as a decrease in T cells including CD4+ and CD8. It is noteworthy that during the SARS-CoV-2 infection, an increase in the secretion or production of IL-6 and IL-8 is seen in COVID-19 patients along with a decrease in CD4+ and CD8+ and T cells in general. SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to significantly increase Th2, Th1/Th17 cells and antibody production in the body of patients with COVID-19. Specific immune profiles of SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to secondary infections and dysfunction of various organs in the body. It has been shown that Interleukins (such as IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, and IL-18), IFN-γ, TNF-α,TGF-ß and NF-κB play major roles in the body's inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most important goal of this review is to study the role of inflammatory cytokines in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Interleukins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 862656, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875399

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To assess humoral and cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants in COVID-19 convalescent and confirmed patients, to explore the correlation between disease severity, humoral immunity, and cytokines/chemokines in confirmed patients, and to evaluate the ADE risk of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Anti-RBD IgG were quantified using an ELISA. Neutralization potency was measured using pseudovirus and real virus. Cellular immunity was measured using ELISpot. Cytokine/chemokine levels were detected using multiplex immunoassays. In vitro ADE assays were performed using Raji cells. Results: One-month alpha convalescents exhibited spike-specific antibodies and T cells for alpha and delta variants. Notably, the RBD-specific IgG towards the delta variant decreased by 2.5-fold compared to the alpha variant. Besides, serum from individuals recently experienced COVID-19 showed suboptimal neutralizing activity against the delta and omicron variants. Humoral immune response, IL-6, IP-10 and MCP-1 levels were greater in patients with severe disease. Moreover, neither SARS-CoV-1 nor SARS-CoV-2 convalescent sera significantly enhanced SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection. Conclusions: Significant resistance of the delta and omicron variants to the humoral immune response generated by individuals who recently experienced COVID-19. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation among disease severity, humoral immune response, and specific cytokines/chemokine levels. No evident ADE was observed for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 236, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854835

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases may affect brain function and cause encephalopathy even when the pathogen does not directly infect the central nervous system, known as infectious disease-associated encephalopathy. The systemic inflammatory process may result in neuroinflammation, with glial cell activation and increased levels of cytokines, reduced neurotrophic factors, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, neurotransmitter metabolism imbalances, and neurotoxicity, and behavioral and cognitive impairments often occur in the late course. Even though infectious disease-associated encephalopathies may cause devastating neurologic and cognitive deficits, the concept of infectious disease-associated encephalopathies is still under-investigated; knowledge of the underlying mechanisms, which may be distinct from those of encephalopathies of non-infectious cause, is still limited. In this review, we focus on the pathophysiology of encephalopathies associated with peripheral (sepsis, malaria, influenza, and COVID-19), emerging therapeutic strategies, and the role of neuroinflammation.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/immunology , Influenza, Human/complications , Malaria/complications , Sepsis/complications , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Brain Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Influenza, Human/immunology , Malaria/immunology , Sepsis/immunology
18.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 36: 3946320221096202, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832998

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Innate immune system senses danger signals of COVID-19 infection and produce an orchestration of cellular, complement and cytokines cascades. These led to the approach using immunosuppressive agents. It is intriguing whether certain biomarkers can aid the proper administration of such drugs. METHODS: Plasma specimens of 58 COVID-19 patients with differing severity, from very mild illness (group A), mild (group B), moderate (group C), and severe/critical illness (group D) were assayed for cyto-chemokines and terminal complement complex (SC5b-9) during the course of diseases. None received anti-IL-6 therapy, there was no mortality in this cohort. RESULTS: IP-10 and RANTES levels were dominant cytokines. IP-10 levels increased significantly in all groups when compared between pre-nadir and nadir phases (group A, p =0.428; group B =0.034; group C =0.159; group D <0.001) and in groups B and D when compared between nadir and recovery phases (p <0.001). RANTES levels were elevated in all groups across all phases with no significant differences. SC5b-9 levels increased significantly as compared to healthy controls [pre-nadir- group A versus healthy, p =0.122; group B-D versus healthy, p =0.021); nadir-group A versus healthy, p =0.003; group B-D versus healthy, p <0.001; recovery phase (p <0.001)] but not between groups A and B-D at pre-nadir (p=0.606). CONCLUSION: The absence of significant pro-inflammatory responses and early elevation of IP-10 levels and complement activation may be favorable and necessary for viral elimination in COVID-19 patients. Expression of distinct cyto-chemokines during each clinical phase may be useful for guiding proper therapeutic interventions on alleviating thrombo-inflammation responses to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemokine CXCL10 , Complement Activation , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokine CCL5/immunology , Chemokine CXCL10/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 242, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751765

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has incited a global health crisis. Currently, there are limited therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections. We evaluated the antiviral activity of sulforaphane (SFN), the principal biologically active phytochemical derived from glucoraphanin, the naturally occurring precursor present in high concentrations in cruciferous vegetables. SFN inhibited in vitro replication of six strains of SARS-CoV-2, including Delta and Omicron, as well as that of the seasonal coronavirus HCoV-OC43. Further, SFN and remdesivir interacted synergistically to inhibit coronavirus infection in vitro. Prophylactic administration of SFN to K18-hACE2 mice prior to intranasal SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly decreased the viral load in the lungs and upper respiratory tract and reduced lung injury and pulmonary pathology compared to untreated infected mice. SFN treatment diminished immune cell activation in the lungs, including significantly lower recruitment of myeloid cells and a reduction in T cell activation and cytokine production. Our results suggest that SFN should be explored as a potential agent for the prevention or treatment of coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Common Cold/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Isothiocyanates/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfoxides/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Drug Synergism , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Male , Mice, Transgenic , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Load , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 815833, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731775

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus may vary from asymptomatic to severe infection with multi-organ failure and death. Increased levels of circulating complement biomarkers have been implicated in COVID-19-related hyperinflammation and coagulopathy. We characterized systemic complement activation at a cellular level in 49-patients with COVID-19. We found increases of the classical complement sentinel C1q and the downstream C3 component on circulating blood monocytes from COVID-19 patients when compared to healthy controls (HCs). Interestingly, the cell surface-bound complement inhibitor CD55 was also upregulated in COVID-19 patient monocytes in comparison with HC cells. Monocyte membrane-bound C1q, C3 and CD55 levels were associated with plasma inflammatory markers such as CRP and serum amyloid A during acute infection. Membrane-bounds C1q and C3 remained elevated even after a short recovery period. These results highlight systemic monocyte-associated complement activation over a broad range of COVID-19 disease severities, with a compensatory upregulation of CD55. Further evaluation of complement and its interaction with myeloid cells at the membrane level could improve understanding of its role in COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Complement Activation/immunology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Complement Inactivating Agents/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
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