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1.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 215, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233061

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cytokine adsorption using the CytoSorb® adsorber has been proposed in various clinical settings including sepsis, ARDS, hyperinflammatory syndromes, cardiac surgery or recovery after cardiac arrest. The aim of this analysis is to provide evidence for the efficacy of the CytoSorb® adsorber with regard to mortality in various settings. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library database and the database provided by Cytosorbents™ (01.1.2010-29.5.2022). We considered randomized controlled trials and observational studies with control groups. The longest reported mortality was defined as the primary endpoint. We computed risk ratios and 95%-confidence intervals and used DerSimonian and Lairds random effects model. We analysed all studies combined and divided them into the subgroups: sepsis, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB), other severe illness, SARS-CoV-2 infection and recovery from cardiac arrest. The meta-analysis was registered in advance (PROSPERO: CRD42022290334). RESULTS: Of an initial 1295 publications, 34 studies were found eligible, including 1297 patients treated with CytoSorb® and 1314 controls. Cytosorb® intervention did not lower mortality (RR [95%-CI]: all studies 1.07 [0.88; 1.31], sepsis 0.98 [0.74; 1.31], CPB surgery 0.91 [0.64; 1.29], severe illness 0.95 [0.59; 1.55], SARS-CoV-2 1.58 [0.50; 4.94]). In patients with cardiac arrest, we found a significant survival advantage of the untreated controls (1.22 [1.02; 1.46]). We did not find significant differences in ICU length of stay, lactate levels, or IL-6 levels after treatment. Of the eligible 34 studies only 12 were randomized controlled trials. All observational studies showed moderate to serious risk of bias. INTERPRETATION: To date, there is no evidence for a positive effect of the CytoSorb® adsorber on mortality across a variety of diagnoses that justifies its widespread use in intensive care medicine.


Subject(s)
Adsorption , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Cytokines , Cytokines/adverse effects , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/metabolism , Thoracic Surgery , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control
2.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286211, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cytokine storm invoked during acute and chronic lung injury promotes alveolar damage and remodeling. The current study shows that degraded elastin-targeted nanoparticles releasing doxycycline (Doxy NPs) are potent in mitigating cytokines storm, migration of immune cells in the lungs, and inhibiting inflammasome pathways in the LPS mouse model. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cytokine storm and lung injury were induced using LPS and elastase in C57BL/6 mice (rodent model for emphysema). The mice were then treated with I.V. Doxy NPs, blank NPs, or Doxy a day before LPS administration. Cytokine levels, immune cell population, and MMP activity were analyzed in broncheo-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) 4 hours after LPS administration. Additionally, gene expression of IL-6, IL-1beta, MCP-1, NLRP3, Caspase 1 and MMPs were investigated in alveolar cells on day 3 after LPS administration. KEY RESULTS: Doxycycline NPs but not Doxycycline significantly decreased IL-6, TNF-α, IL-23 and were significantly more effective in decreasing the percentage of immune cells in the BALF. This is the first in-vivo study to demonstrate that Doxycycline can effectively inhibit inflammasome pathways in the lungs. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: IV administration of elastin antibody conjugated Doxycycline-loaded albumin NPs can effectively modulate the local immune environment in the lungs, which is not achieved by IV Doxycycline even at 100-fold higher dose. This novel method of drug delivery can effectively lead to the repurposing of traditional Doxycycline as a potential adjunct treatment for managing the cytokine storm in the lungs in COPD and viral infections.


Subject(s)
Lung Injury , Nanoparticles , Pneumonia , Mice , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Elastin/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Lung Injury/metabolism
3.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 20(7): 835-849, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235826

ABSTRACT

Early and strong interferon type I (IFN-I) responses are usually associated with mild COVID-19 disease, whereas persistent or unregulated proinflammatory cytokine responses are associated with severe disease outcomes. Previous work suggested that monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) are resistant and unresponsive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we demonstrate that upon phagocytosis of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, MDMs are activated and secrete IL-6 and TNF. Importantly, activated MDMs in turn mediate strong activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), leading to the secretion of high levels of IFN-α and TNF. Furthermore, pDC activation promoted IL-6 production by MDMs. This kind of pDC activation was dependent on direct integrin-mediated cell‒cell contacts and involved stimulation of the TLR7 and STING signaling pathways. Overall, the present study describes a novel and potent pathway of pDC activation that is linked to the macrophage-mediated clearance of infected cells. These findings suggest that a high infection rate by SARS-CoV-2 may lead to exaggerated cytokine responses, which may contribute to tissue damage and severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Phagocytosis , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/metabolism
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244543

ABSTRACT

Inflammation has been described for two millennia, but cellular aspects and the paradigm involving different mediators have been identified in the recent century. Two main groups of molecules, the prostaglandins (PG) and the cytokines, have been discovered and play a major role in inflammatory processes. The activation of prostaglandins PGE2, PGD2 and PGI2 results in prominent symptoms during cardiovascular and rheumatoid diseases. The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory compounds is nowadays a challenge for more targeted therapeutic approaches. The first cytokine was described more than a century ago and is now a part of different families of cytokines (38 interleukins), including the IL-1 and IL-6 families and TNF and TGFß families. Cytokines can perform a dual role, being growth promotors or inhibitors and having pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. The complex interactions between cytokines, vascular cells and immune cells are responsible for dramatic conditions and lead to the concept of cytokine storm observed during sepsis, multi-organ failure and, recently, in some cases of COVID-19 infection. Cytokines such as interferon and hematopoietic growth factor have been used as therapy. Alternatively, the inhibition of cytokine functions has been largely developed using anti-interleukin or anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of sepsis or chronic inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostaglandins , Humans , Prostaglandins/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukins/therapeutic use , Prostaglandins, Synthetic , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243981

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infects cells via its spike (S) protein binding to its surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and results in the production of multiple proinflammatory cytokines, especially in the lungs, leading to what is known as COVID-19. However, the cell source and the mechanism of secretion of such cytokines have not been adequately characterized. In this study, we used human cultured mast cells that are plentiful in the lungs and showed that recombinant SARS-CoV-2 full-length S protein (1-10 ng/mL), but not its receptor-binding domain (RBD), stimulates the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) as well as the proteolytic enzymes chymase and tryptase. The secretion of IL-1ß, chymase, and tryptase is augmented by the co-administration of interleukin-33 (IL-33) (30 ng/mL). This effect is mediated via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for IL-1ß and via ACE2 for chymase and tryptase. These results provide evidence that the SARS-CoV-2 S protein contributes to inflammation by stimulating mast cells through different receptors and could lead to new targeted treatment approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Chymases/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-33/metabolism , Mast Cells/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tryptases/metabolism
6.
Elife ; 122023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242416

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) causes immune perturbations which may persist long term, and patients frequently report ongoing symptoms for months after recovery. We assessed immune activation at 3-12 months post hospital admission in 187 samples from 63 patients with mild, moderate, or severe disease and investigated whether it associates with long COVID. At 3 months, patients with severe disease displayed persistent activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, based on expression of HLA-DR, CD38, Ki67, and granzyme B, and elevated plasma levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-7, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) compared to mild and/or moderate patients. Plasma from severe patients at 3 months caused T-cells from healthy donors to upregulate IL-15Rα, suggesting that plasma factors in severe patients may increase T-cell responsiveness to IL-15-driven bystander activation. Patients with severe disease reported a higher number of long COVID symptoms which did not however correlate with cellular immune activation/pro-inflammatory cytokines after adjusting for age, sex, and disease severity. Our data suggests that long COVID and persistent immune activation may correlate independently with severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism
7.
J Immunol ; 211(2): 252-260, 2023 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241408

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused an estimated 7 million deaths worldwide to date. A secreted SARS-CoV-2 accessory protein, known as open reading frame 8 (ORF8), elicits inflammatory pulmonary cytokine responses and is associated with disease severity in COVID-19 patients. Recent reports proposed that ORF8 mediates downstream signals in macrophages and monocytes through the IL-17 receptor complex (IL-17RA, IL-17RC). However, generally IL-17 signals are found to be restricted to the nonhematopoietic compartment, thought to be due to rate-limiting expression of IL-17RC. Accordingly, we revisited the capacity of IL-17 and ORF8 to induce cytokine gene expression in mouse and human macrophages and monocytes. In SARS-CoV-2-infected human and mouse lungs, IL17RC mRNA was undetectable in monocyte/macrophage populations. In cultured mouse and human monocytes and macrophages, ORF8 but not IL-17 led to elevated expression of target cytokines. ORF8-induced signaling was fully preserved in the presence of anti-IL-17RA/RC neutralizing Abs and in Il17ra-/- cells. ORF8 signaling was also operative in Il1r1-/- bone marrow-derived macrophages. However, the TLR/IL-1R family adaptor MyD88, which is dispensable for IL-17R signaling, was required for ORF8 activity yet MyD88 is not required for IL-17 signaling. Thus, we conclude that ORF8 transduces inflammatory signaling in monocytes and macrophages via MyD88 independently of the IL-17R.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monocytes , Humans , Mice , Animals , Monocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Receptors, Interleukin-17/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-17/metabolism , Open Reading Frames , COVID-19/genetics , Macrophages/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2673: 317-327, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234868

ABSTRACT

Interleukin 6 (IL6) is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. In the past, a number of studies reported that high level of IL6 promotes the proliferation of cancer, autoimmune disorders, and cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients. Thus, it is extremely important to identify and remove the antigenic regions from a therapeutic protein or vaccine candidate that may induce IL6-associated immunotoxicity. In order to overcome this challenge, our group has developed a computational tool, IL6pred, for discovering IL6-inducing peptides in a vaccine candidate. The aim of this chapter is to describe the potential applications and methodology of IL6pred. It sheds light on the prediction, designing, and scanning modules of IL6pred webserver and standalone package ( https://webs.iiitd.edu.in/raghava/il6pred/ ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytokines/metabolism , Internet
9.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1148727, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240736

ABSTRACT

Innate immunity is an important first line of defense against pathogens, including viruses. These pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs, respectively), resulting in the induction of inflammatory cell death, are detected by specific innate immune sensors. Recently, Z-DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1), also called the DNA-dependent activator of IFN regulatory factor (DAI) or DLM1, is reported to regulate inflammatory cell death as a central mediator during viral infection. ZBP1 is an interferon (IFN)-inducible gene that contains two Z-form nucleic acid-binding domains (Zα1 and Zα2) in the N-terminus and two receptor-interacting protein homotypic interaction motifs (RHIM1 and RHIM2) in the middle, which interact with other proteins with the RHIM domain. By sensing the entry of viral RNA, ZBP1 induces PANoptosis, which protects host cells against viral infections, such as influenza A virus (IAV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV1). However, some viruses, particularly coronaviruses (CoVs), induce PANoptosis to hyperactivate the immune system, leading to cytokine storm, organ failure, tissue damage, and even death. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanism of ZBP1-derived PANoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines that influence the double-edged sword of results in the host cell. Understanding the ZBP1-derived PANoptosis mechanism may be critical for improving therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
RNA-Binding Proteins , Virus Diseases , Humans , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Cell Death , Cytokines/metabolism , Immunity, Innate
10.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324416

ABSTRACT

During SARS-CoV-2 infection, the innate immune response can be inhibited or delayed, and the subsequent persistent viral replication can induce emergency signals that may culminate in a cytokine storm contributing to the severe evolution of COVID-19. Cytokines are key regulators of the immune response and virus clearance, and, as such, are linked to the-possibly altered-response to the SARS-CoV-2. They act via a family of more than 40 transmembrane receptors that are coupled to one or several of the 4 Janus kinases (JAKs) coded by the human genome, namely JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and TYK2. Once activated, JAKs act on pathways for either survival, proliferation, differentiation, immune regulation or, in the case of type I interferons, antiviral and antiproliferative effects. Studies of graft-versus-host and systemic rheumatic diseases indicated that JAK inhibitors (JAKi) exert immunosuppressive effects that are non-redundant with those of corticotherapy. Therefore, they hold the potential to cut-off pathological reactions in COVID-19. Significant clinical experience already exists with several JAKi in COVID-19, such as baricitinib, ruxolitinib, tofacitinib, and nezulcitinib, which were suggested by a meta-analysis (Patoulias et al.) to exert a benefit in terms of risk reduction concerning major outcomes when added to standard of care in patients with COVID-19. Yet, only baricitinib is recommended in first line for severe COVID-19 treatment by the WHO, as it is the only JAKi that has proven efficient to reduce mortality in individual randomized clinical trials (RCT), especially the Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial (ACTT-2) and COV-BARRIER phase 3 trials. As for secondary effects of JAKi treatment, the main caution with baricitinib consists in the induced immunosuppression as long-term side effects should not be an issue in patients treated for COVID-19.We discuss whether a class effect of JAKi may be emerging in COVID-19 treatment, although at the moment the convincing data are for baricitinib only. Given the key role of JAK1 in both type I IFN action and signaling by cytokines involved in pathogenic effects, establishing the precise timing of treatment will be very important in future trials, along with the control of viral replication by associating antiviral molecules.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azetidines , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Imidazoles , Indazoles , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Piperidines , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1085456, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327391

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to clarify the effects of two processed forms of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) on immunosuppression caused by cyclophosphamide (CTX) in mice. In the CTX-induced immunosuppressive model, mice were given either steamed American ginseng (American ginseng red, AGR) or raw American ginseng (American ginseng soft branch, AGS) by intragastric administration. Serum and spleen tissues were collected, and the pathological changes in mice spleens were observed by conventional HE staining. The expression levels of cytokines were detected by ELISA, and the apoptosis of splenic cells was determined by western blotting. The results showed that AGR and AGS could relieve CTX-induced immunosuppression through the enhanced immune organ index, improved cell-mediated immune response, increased serum levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2) and immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM), as well as macrophage activities including carbon clearance and phagocytic index. AGR and AGS downregulated the expression of BAX and elevated the expression of Bcl-2, p-P38, p-JNK, and p-ERK in the spleens of CTX-injected animals. Compared to AGS, AGR significantly improved the number of CD4+CD8-T lymphocytes, the spleen index, and serum levels of IgA, IgG, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. The expression of the ERK/MAPK pathway was markedly increased. These findings support the hypothesis that AGR and AGS are effective immunomodulatory agents capable of preventing immune system hypofunction. Future research may investigate the exact mechanism to rule out any unforeseen effects of AGR and AGS.


Subject(s)
Panax , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Mice , Animals , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Immunosuppression Therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Macrophages , Immunoglobulin G/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Immunoglobulin A/pharmacology
12.
J Clin Invest ; 133(9)2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320676

ABSTRACT

Inflammation promotes adverse ventricular remodeling, a common antecedent of heart failure. Here, we set out to determine how inflammatory cells affect cardiomyocytes in the remodeling heart. Pathogenic cardiac macrophages induced an IFN response in cardiomyocytes, characterized by upregulation of the ubiquitin-like protein IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), which posttranslationally modifies its targets through a process termed ISGylation. Cardiac ISG15 is controlled by type I IFN signaling, and ISG15 or ISGylation is upregulated in mice with transverse aortic constriction or infused with angiotensin II; rats with uninephrectomy and DOCA-salt, or pulmonary artery banding; cardiomyocytes exposed to IFNs or CD4+ T cell-conditioned medium; and ventricular tissue of humans with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. By nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we identified the myofibrillar protein filamin-C as an ISGylation target. ISG15 deficiency preserved cardiac function in mice with transverse aortic constriction and led to improved recovery of mouse hearts ex vivo. Metabolomics revealed that ISG15 regulates cardiac amino acid metabolism, whereas ISG15 deficiency prevented misfolded filamin-C accumulation and induced cardiomyocyte autophagy. In sum, ISG15 upregulation is a feature of pathological ventricular remodeling, and protein ISGylation is an inflammation-induced posttranslational modification that may contribute to heart failure development by altering cardiomyocyte protein turnover.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Heart Failure , Humans , Rats , Mice , Animals , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Filamins , Ventricular Remodeling/genetics , Heart Failure/metabolism , Inflammation , Ubiquitins/genetics
13.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285532, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320111

ABSTRACT

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is one of the most powerful mechanisms for Natural Killer (NK) cells to kill cancer cells or virus-infected cells. A novel chimeric protein (NA-Fc) was created, which when expressed in cells, positions an IgG Fc domain on the plasma membrane, mimicking the orientation of IgG bound to the cell surface. This NA-Fc chimera was tested with PM21-NK cells, produced through a previously developed particle-based method which yields superior NK cells for immunotherapeutic applications. Real time viability assays revealed higher PM21-NK killing of both ovarian and lung cancer cells expressing NA-Fc, which correlated with increased release of TNF-α and IFN-γ cytokines from NK cells and was dependent on CD16-Fc interactions. Lentivirus delivery of NA-Fc to target cells increased the rate of PM21-NK cell killing of A549 and H1299 lung, SKOV3 ovarian and A375 melanoma cancer cells. This NA-Fc-directed killing was extended to virus infected cells, where delivery of NA-Fc to lung cells that were persistently infected with Parainfluenza virus resulted in increased killing by PM21-NK cells. In contrast to its effect on PM21-NK cells, the NA-Fc molecule did not enhance complement mediated lysis of lung cancer cells. Our study lays the foundation for application of the novel NA-Fc chimera that could be delivered specifically to tumors during oncolytic virotherapy to mark target cells for ADCC by co-treatment with adoptive NK cells. This strategy would potentially eliminate the need to search for unique cancer specific antigens for development of new antibody therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Killer Cells, Natural , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Cytokines/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism
14.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 17: 17534666231158276, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319790

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines from over stimulation of immune cells have become a concern due to the potential outburst of cytokine storm that damages the tissues and organs, especially the lungs. This leads to the manifestation of COVID-19 symptoms, such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple organ failure, and eventually death. Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are currently one of hopeful approaches in treating COVID-19 considering its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions. On that account, the number of clinical trials concerning the use of MSCs for COVID-19 has been increasing. However, the number of systematic reviews and meta-analysis that specifically discuss its potential as treatment for the disease is still lacking. Therefore, this review will assess the safety and efficacy of MSC administration in COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVES: To pool evidence on the safety and efficacy of MSCs in treating COVID-19 by observing MSC-related adverse effects as well as evaluating its effects in reducing inflammatory response and improving pulmonary function. DATA SOURCES AND METHODS: Following literature search across six databases and one trial register, full-text retrieval, and screening against eligibility criteria, only eight studies were included for data extraction. All eight studies evaluated the use of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (UC-MSC), infused intravenously. Of these eight studies, six studies were included in meta-analysis on the incidence of mortality, adverse events (AEs), and serious adverse events (SAEs), and the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6. Meta-analysis on pulmonary function was not performed due to insufficient data. RESULTS: MSC-treated group showed significantly lower risk of mortality than the control group (p = 0.03). No statistical significance was observed on the incidence of AEs (p = 0.78) and SAEs (p = 0.44), and the levels of CRP (p = 0.06) and IL-6 (p = 0.09). CONCLUSION: MSCs were safe for use, with lower risk of mortality and no association with AEs. Regarding efficacy, descriptive analysis showed indications of improvement on the inflammatory reaction, lung clearance, and oxygenation status despite the lack of statistical significance in meta-analysis of CRP and IL-6. Nevertheless, more studies are needed for affirmation. REGISTRATION: This systematic review and meta-analysis was registered on the PROSPERO database (no. CRD42022307730).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317682

ABSTRACT

Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory types are the main phenotypes of the macrophage, which are commonly notified as M1 and M2, respectively. The alteration of macrophage phenotypes and the progression of inflammation are intimately associated; both phenotypes usually coexist throughout the whole inflammation stage, involving the transduction of intracellular signals and the secretion of extracellular cytokines. This paper aims to address the interaction of macrophages and surrounding cells and tissues with inflammation-related diseases and clarify the crosstalk of signal pathways relevant to the phenotypic metamorphosis of macrophages. On these bases, some novel therapeutic methods are proposed for regulating inflammation through monitoring the transition of macrophage phenotypes so as to prevent the negative effects of antibiotic drugs utilized in the long term in the clinic. This information will be quite beneficial for the diagnosis and treatment of inflammation-related diseases like pneumonia and other disorders involving macrophages.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Macrophages , Humans , Macrophages/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Phenotype , Inflammation/metabolism , Biological Products/pharmacology
16.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1148268, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317599

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 and autoinflammatory diseases, such as Adult-onset Still's Disease (AOSD), are characterized by hyperinflammation, in which it is observed massive production and uncontrolled secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) family is one the most important processes counteracting hyperinflammation inducing tissue repair and homeostasis restoration. Among SPMs, Protectin D1 (PD1) is able to exert antiviral features, at least in animal models. The aim of this study was to compare the transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with AOSD and COVID-19 and to evaluate the role of PD1 on those diseases, especially in modulating macrophages polarization. Methods: This study enrolled patients with AOSD, COVID-19, and healthy donors HDs, undergoing clinical assessment and blood sample collection. Next-generation deep sequencing was performed to identify differences in PBMCs transcripts profiles. Plasma levels of PD1 were assessed by commercial ELISA kits. Monocyte-derived macrophages were polarized into M1 and M2 phenotypes. We analyzed the effect of PD1 on macrophages differentiation. At 10 days, macrophages were analyzed for surface expression of subtypes markers by flow cytometry. Cytokines production was measured in supernatants by Bio-Plex Assays. Results: In the transcriptomes from AOSD patients and COVID-19 patients, genes involved in inflammation, lipid catabolism, and monocytes activation were specifically dysregulated in AOSD and COVID-19 patients when compared to HDs. Patients affected by COVID-19, hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU), showed higher levels of PD1 when compared to not-ICU hospitalized patients and HDs (ICU COVID-19 vs not-ICU COVID-19, p= 0.02; HDs vs ICU COVID-19, p= 0.0006). PD1 levels were increased in AOSD patients with SS ≥1 compared to patients with SS=0 (p=0.028) and HDs (p=0.048). In vitro treatment with PD1 of monocytes-derived macrophages from AOSD and COVID-19 patients induced a significant increase of M2 polarization vs control (p<0.05). Furthermore, a significant release of IL-10 and MIP-1ß from M2 macrophages was observed when compared to controls (p<0.05). Discussion: PD1 is able to induce pro-resolutory programs in both AOSD and COVID-19 increasing M2 polarization and inducing their activity. In particular, PD1-treated M2 macrophages from AOSD and COVID-19 patients increased the production of IL-10 and enhanced homeostatic restoration through MIP-1ß production.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset , Humans , Transcriptome , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Chemokine CCL4/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Docosahexaenoic Acids/metabolism , Macrophages , Cell Differentiation/genetics
17.
Virol J ; 20(1): 94, 2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic challenge spreading enormously within a few months. COVID-19 is characterized by the over-activation of the immune system causing cytokine storm. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway can regulate the immune response via interaction with various implicated cytokines. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) has been shown to promote inflammation. Given the fact that coronavirus infections induce cytokines secretion leading to inflammatory lung injury, it has been suggested that H-FABP levels are affected by COVID-19 severity. Moreover, endotrophin (ETP), the cleavage product of collagen VI, may be an indicator of an overactive repair process and fibrosis, considering that viral infection may predispose or exacerbate existing respiratory conditions, including pulmonary fibrosis. This study aims to assess the prognostic capacity of circulating IGF-1, HFABP, and ETP, levels for COVID-19 severity progression in Egyptian patients. METHODS: The study cohort included 107 viral RNA-positive patients and an equivalent number of control individuals with no clinical signs of infection. Clinical assessments included profiling of CBC; serum iron; liver and kidney functions; inflammatory markers. Circulating levels of IGF-1; H-FABP, and ETP were estimated using the corresponding ELISA kits. RESULTS: No statistical difference in the body mass index was detected between the healthy and control groups, while the mean age of infected patients was significantly higher (P = 0.0162) than the control. Patients generally showed elevated levels of inflammatory markers including CRP and ESR concomitant with elevated serum ferritin; D dimer and procalcitonin levels, besides the COVID-19 characteristic lymphopenia and hypoxemia were also frequent. Logistic regression analysis revealed that oxygen saturation; serum IGF-1, and H-FABP can significantly predict the infection progression (P < 0.001 each). Both serum IGF-1 and H-FABP as well as O2 saturation showed remarkable prognostic potentials in terms of large AUC values, high sensitivity/specificity values, and wide confidence interval. The calculated threshold for severity prognosis was 25.5 ng/mL; 19.5 ng/mL, 94.5, % and for IGF-1, H-FABP, and O2 saturation; respectively. The calculated thresholds of serum IGF-1; H-FABP, and O2 saturation showed positive and negative value ranges of 79-91% and 72-97%; respectively, with 66-95%, 83-94% sensitivity, and specificity; respectively. CONCLUSION: The calculated cut-off values of serum IGF-1 and H-FABP represent a promising non-invasive prognostic tool that would facilitate the risk stratification in COVID-19 patients, and control the morbidity/mortality associated with progressive infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Humans , Fatty Acid Binding Protein 3 , Prognosis , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokines/metabolism , Biomarkers
18.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1161135, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316970

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In the last decades, a decrease in air quality has been observed, mainly associated with anthropogenic activities. Air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), have been associated with adverse effects on human health, such as exacerbation of respiratory diseases and infections. High levels of PM in the air have recently been associated with increased morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 in some regions of the world. Objective: To evaluate the effect of coarse particulate matter (PM10) on the inflammatory response and viral replication triggered by SARS-CoV-2 using in vitro models. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were treated with PM10 and subsequently exposed to SARS-CoV-2 (D614G strain, MOI 0.1). The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antiviral factors was quantified by qPCR and ELISA. In addition, using the A549 cell line, previously exposed to PM, the viral replication was evaluated by qPCR and plaque assay. Results: SARS-CoV-2 stimulation increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PBMC, such as IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-8, but not antiviral factors. Likewise, PM10 induced significant production of IL-6 in PBMCs stimulated with SARS-CoV-2 and decreased the expression of OAS and PKR. Additionally, PM10 induces the release of IL-1ß in PBMC exposed to SARS-CoV-2 as well as in a co-culture of epithelial cells and PBMCs. Finally, increased viral replication of SARS-CoV-2 was shown in response to PM10. Conclusion: Exposure to coarse particulate matter increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ß and IL-6, and may alter the expression of antiviral factors, which are relevant for the immune response to SARS-CoV-2. These results suggest that pre-exposure to air particulate matter could have a modest role in the higher production of cytokines and viral replication during COVID-19, which eventually could contribute to severe clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Humans , Cytokines/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315805

ABSTRACT

Obesity is on the rise worldwide, and consequently, obesity-related non-communicable diseases are as well. Nutritional overload induces metabolic adaptations in an attempt to restore the disturbed balance, and the byproducts of the mechanisms at hand include an increased generation of reactive species. Obesity-related oxidative stress causes damage to vulnerable systems and ultimately contributes to neoplastic transformation. Dysfunctional obese adipose tissue releases cytokines and induces changes in the cell microenvironment, promoting cell survival and progression of the transformed cancer cells. Other than the increased risk of cancer development, obese cancer patients experience higher mortality rates and reduced therapy efficiency as well. The fact that obesity is considered the second leading preventable cause of cancer prioritizes the research on the mechanisms connecting obesity to cancerogenesis and finding the solutions to break the link. Oxidative stress is integral at different stages of cancer development and advancement in obese patients. Hypocaloric, balanced nutrition, and structured physical activity are some tools for relieving this burden. However, the sensitivity of simultaneously treating cancer and obesity poses a challenge. Further research on the obesity-cancer liaison would offer new perspectives on prevention programs and treatment development.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Obesity , Humans , Obesity/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasms/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
20.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1162739, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314172

ABSTRACT

Cytokines are secretion proteins that mediate and regulate immunity and inflammation. They are crucial in the progress of acute inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. In fact, the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines has been widely tested in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Some of these inhibitors have been used in the treatment of COVID-19 patients to improve survival rates. However, controlling the extent of inflammation with cytokine inhibitors is still a challenge because these molecules are redundant and pleiotropic. Here we review a novel therapeutic approach based on the use of the HSP60-derived Altered Peptide Ligand (APL) designed for RA and repositioned for the treatment of COVID-19 patients with hyperinflammation. HSP60 is a molecular chaperone found in all cells. It is involved in a wide diversity of cellular events including protein folding and trafficking. HSP60 concentration increases during cellular stress, for example inflammation. This protein has a dual role in immunity. Some HSP60-derived soluble epitopes induce inflammation, while others are immunoregulatory. Our HSP60-derived APL decreases the concentration of cytokines and induces the increase of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in various experimental systems. Furthermore, it decreases several cytokines and soluble mediators that are raised in RA, as well as decreases the excessive inflammatory response induced by SARS-CoV-2. This approach can be extended to other inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Chaperonin 60 , Humans , COVID-19 , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Chaperonin 60/pharmacology , Chaperonin 60/therapeutic use
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