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1.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 49(12): E467-E470, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371324

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic has spurred the rapid development of vaccines, with vaccination programmes already underway in many countries. Regional lymphadenopathy is one of the documented side effects of vaccination. We document the fine needle aspiration cytological findings of an enlarged supraclavicular lymph node in a 34-year-old Asian female following the first dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, which appears to be the first such report in a premorbidly well patient with no known history of malignancy. The cytological findings featured a reactive pattern in keeping with follicular hyperplasia, with prominent germinal centre elements including lymphohistiocytic aggregates and tingible-body macrophages. Despite an increased proportion of larger lymphocytes, the overall pattern was in keeping with a reactive pattern, bearing in mind the temporal and geographic relation to the vaccination injection. In instances of localised lymphadenopathy, particularly in supraclavicular or axillary locations, pathologists should be cognizant of the possibility of post-vaccination reactive lymphadenopathy, and seek clinical and radiological hints favouring a benign process, whilst recognising potential morphological overlaps with lymphoproliferative disorders. Awareness of this diagnostic pitfall is especially important as COVID-19 vaccination coverage is ramped up worldwide, leading to an expected increase in incidence of post-vaccination reactive lymphadenopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Adult , Axilla/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytological Techniques , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects
2.
Cytopathology ; 33(1): 93-99, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 represents a major concern for health services worldwide, and has also induced major changes in cytopathology practice. AIM: We aimed to verify the diagnostic performance of cytological evaluation under a new safety protocol during the pandemic compared to the standard pre-pandemic procedure. We also aimed to assess how cytological diagnoses and sampling were impacted during the pandemic period compared to the pandemic-free period in 2019. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytological samples of peritoneal washings taken during the first 10 months of the pandemic emergency in Italy (March 11, 2020 to January 11, 2021) were compared to samples from the preceding 10-month time frame (May 11, 2019 to March 10, 2020). RESULTS: One hundred ninety-five specimens were analysed in the present study. We observed no noticeable differences in cytological diagnoses during the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period. The case numbers by diagnostic category for the pre-pandemic vs pandemic periods, respectively, were as follows: non-diagnostic, 0 vs 0 cases; negative for malignancy, 86 vs 52 cases; atypia of uncertain significance, 7 vs 1 cases; suspicious for malignancy, 0 vs 2 cases; malignant, 42 vs 4 cases. CONCLUSION: While a consistent reduction in the number of cytological examinations has been observed during the COVID-19 period, our institutional safety protocol for processing cytological samples did not affect the diagnostic reliability of peritoneal washing cytology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytodiagnosis , Cytological Techniques , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , Cytological Techniques/methods , Humans , Italy , Neoplasms/pathology , Specimen Handling/methods
4.
J Med Screen ; 28(2): 213-216, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140458

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the secondary impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic disruptions to cervical cancer screening in the United States, stratified by step in the screening process and primary test modality, on cervical cancer burden. METHODS: We conducted a comparative model-based analysis using three independent NCI Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network cervical models to quantify the impact of eight alternative COVID-19-related screening disruption scenarios compared to a scenario of no disruptions. Scenarios varied by the duration of the disruption (6 or 24 months), steps in the screening process being disrupted (primary screening, surveillance, colposcopy, excisional treatment), and primary screening modality (cytology alone or cytology plus human papillomavirus "cotesting"). RESULTS: The models consistently showed that COVID-19-related disruptions yield small net increases in cervical cancer cases by 2027, which are greater for women previously screened with cytology compared with cotesting. When disruptions affected all four steps in the screening process under cytology-based screening, there were an additional 5-7 and 38-45 cases per one million screened for 6- and 24-month disruptions, respectively. In contrast, under cotesting, there were additional 4-5 and 35-45 cases per one million screened for 6- and 24-month disruptions, respectively. The majority (58-79%) of the projected increases in cases under cotesting were due to disruptions to surveillance, colposcopies, or excisional treatment, rather than to primary screening. CONCLUSIONS: Women in need of surveillance, colposcopies, or excisional treatment, or whose last primary screen did not involve human papillomavirus testing, may comprise priority groups for reintroductions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Early Detection of Cancer , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adult , Colposcopy , Cytological Techniques , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , United States , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
5.
Eye Contact Lens ; 47(4): 168-173, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140027

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection on the conjunctiva and tear film. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with confirmed COVID-19 and 31 healthy controls were included in this prospective and observational study. Individuals with COVID-19 formed the patient group, and healthy individuals formed the control group. Conjunctival impression cytology (CIC), TBUT, Schirmer II test, and ocular surface disease index were evaluated in all participants. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed regarding the mean age and gender between the groups (P=0.786 and P=0.122, respectively). The mean TBUT and Schirmer II test results did not differ between the two groups (P=0.496 and P=0.447, respectively). The CIC results revealed decreased density and cell size of goblet cells and moderate to high enlargement, squamous changes, and increased nucleocytoplasmic ratio in nongoblet epithelial cells in the COVID-19 group compared with the control group. Based on the Nelson classification in CIC samples, 60.6% of the COVID-19 group and 19.4% of the control group had changes consistent with grade 2 or above. The presence of neutrophils in CIC was significantly higher in the COVID-19 group (P<0.001), whereas the presence of lymphocyte was similar between the two groups (P=0.247). CONCLUSION: This study revealed the pathological conjunctival alterations in patients with COVID-19 and demonstrated that pathological ocular surface alterations may present even at the beginning of COVID-19 without clinically significant ocular manifestation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Conjunctiva/pathology , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tears/virology , Adult , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cell Count , Cell Size , Conjunctivitis, Viral/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytological Techniques , Dry Eye Syndromes/virology , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Female , Goblet Cells/pathology , Humans , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Young Adult
6.
Vet Rec ; 187(1): 39, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-821836

ABSTRACT

Reviewed by Zoe Miller, a resident in clinical pathology at the Royal Veterinary College.


Subject(s)
Animal Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Cytological Techniques/veterinary , Humans , Skin Diseases/diagnosis
7.
Histopathology ; 78(4): 586-592, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793113

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We describe cytologic and immunohistologic findings in virus transport medium on cases under investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Cytologic findings in cases under investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infection from one hundred consecutive nasopharyngeal swab were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry and SARSCoV-2 RT-PCR determination were performed to detect virus. RESULTS: No viral inclusions were noted in squamous cells obtained from virus transport medium. Immunohistochemical study with monoclonal antibody against SARS-CoV-2 viral nucleoprotein showed positivity in squamous cells. No positivity was present in others cellular components. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 predominantly localizes squamous cells in cytology samples of patients with RT-PCR positive determination of SARSCoV-2. The results of the current study support the notion that the nasopharyngeal region is the anatomical station that SARS-CoV-2 infects first, and the infection can lead to the migration of the virus into the lower airways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Cytological Techniques , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(5): 317-320, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38690

ABSTRACT

The 2019 coronavirus pandemic, which started in Wuhan, China, spread around the globe with dramatic and lethal effects. From the initial Chinese epicenter, the European diaspora taxed the resources of several countries and especially those of Italy, which was forced into a complete social and economic shutdown. Infection by droplets contaminating hands and surfaces represents the main vehicle of diffusion of the virus. The common and strong efforts to contain the pandemic have relevant effects on the management of samples from histopathology laboratories. The current commentary reports and focuses on the protocols and guidelines in use at a large tertiary Italian hospital that accordingly are proposed for adoption in Italian laboratories as a potential model for national guidelines for the coronavirus emergency.


Subject(s)
Containment of Biohazards/methods , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytological Techniques/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , COVID-19 , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytological Techniques/standards , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Italy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
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