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2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 24-33, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838843

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections among newborn-mother pairs, neonates with sepsis, and infants with hydrocephalus in Uganda. DESIGN AND METHODS: Three populations-newborn-mother pairs, neonates with sepsis, and infants (≤3 months) with nonpostinfectious (NPIH) or postinfectious (PIH) hydrocephalus-were evaluated for CMV infection at 3 medical centers in Uganda. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to characterize the prevalence of CMV. RESULTS: The overall CMV prevalence in 2498 samples across all groups was 9%. In newborn-mother pairs, there was a 3% prevalence of cord blood CMV positivity and 33% prevalence of maternal vaginal shedding. In neonates with clinical sepsis, there was a 2% CMV prevalence. Maternal HIV seropositivity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 25.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.43-134.26; p = 0.0001), residence in eastern Uganda (aOR 11.06; 95% CI 2.30-76.18; p = 0.003), maternal age <25 years (aOR 4.54; 95% CI 1.40-19.29; p = 0.02), and increasing neonatal age (aOR 1.08 for each day older; 95% CI 1.00-1.16; p = 0.05), were associated risk factors for CMV in neonates with clinical sepsis. We found a 2-fold higher maternal vaginal shedding in eastern (45%) vs western (22%) Uganda during parturition (n = 22/49 vs 11/50, the Fisher exact test; p = 0.02). In infants with PIH, the prevalence in blood was 24% and in infants with NPIH, it was 20%. CMV was present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 13% of infants with PIH compared with 0.5% of infants with NPIH (n = 26/205 vs 1/194, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight that congenital and postnatal CMV prevalence is substantial in this African setting, and the long-term consequences are uncharacterized.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus Infections , Hydrocephalus , Sepsis , Adult , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/congenital , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hydrocephalus/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Risk Factors , Sepsis/epidemiology , Uganda/epidemiology
3.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(3): 1259-1262, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446162

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection all over the world. Its prevalence ranges from 0.2 to 2.2%. Transmission from children to their pregnant mothers is a well-known risk factor, particularly if they attend a childcare centre. This study aims to compare the prevalence of CMV congenital infection (CMV_CI) in Portugal (Lisbon) between two studies, performed respectively in 2019 and 2020. In the 2019 study, performed in two hospitals, we found a 0.67% CMV_CI prevalence, using a pool strategy previously tested with saliva samples. In the 2020 study, using the same pool approach in four hospitals (the previous and two additional), and based on 1277 samples, the prevalence was 0.078%.Conclusion: The close temporal coincidence with COVID-19 lockdown suggests that these measures may have had a significant impact on this reduction, although other explanations cannot be ruled-out. What is Known: • Cytomegalovirus is the leading cause of congenital infection. • Behavioural measures decrease cytomegalovirus seroconversion in pregnant women. What is New: • From 2019 to 2020 there was a significant reduction in the prevalence of congenital CMV infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cytomegalovirus Infections/congenital , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Portugal/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
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