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1.
J Med Chem ; 64(19): 14332-14343, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621195

ABSTRACT

In addition to a variety of viral-glycoprotein receptors (e.g., heparan sulfate, Niemann-Pick C1, etc.), dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), from the C-type lectin receptor family, plays one of the most important pathogenic functions for a wide range of viruses (e.g., Ebola, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), HIV-1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, etc.) that invade host cells before replication; thus, its inhibition represents a relevant extracellular antiviral therapy. We report two novel p-tBu-calixarene glycoclusters 1 and 2, bearing tetrahydroxamic acid groups, which exhibit micromolar inhibition of soluble DC-SIGN binding and provide nanomolar IC50 inhibition of both DC-SIGN-dependent Jurkat cis-cell infection by viral particle pseudotyped with Ebola virus glycoprotein and the HCMV-gB-recombinant glycoprotein interaction with monocyte-derived dendritic cells expressing DC-SIGN. A unique cooperative involvement of sugar, linker, and calixarene core is likely behind the strong avidity of DC-SIGN for these low-valent systems. We claim herein new promising candidates for the rational development of a large spectrum of antiviral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Calixarenes/chemistry , Cell Adhesion Molecules/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycoconjugates/metabolism , Glycoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Hydroxamic Acids/chemistry , Lectins, C-Type/antagonists & inhibitors , Phenols/chemistry , Receptors, Cell Surface/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cell Line , Cytomegalovirus/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Ebolavirus/physiology , Glycoconjugates/chemistry , Glycoconjugates/pharmacology , Glycoproteins/genetics , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Models, Biological , Protein Binding , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
3.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470996

ABSTRACT

Infections with viral pathogens are widespread and can cause a variety of different diseases. In-depth knowledge about viral triggers initiating an immune response is necessary to decipher viral pathogenesis. Inflammasomes, as part of the innate immune system, can be activated by viral pathogens. However, viral structural components responsible for inflammasome activation remain largely unknown. Here we analyzed glycoproteins derived from SARS-CoV-1/2, HCMV and HCV, required for viral entry and fusion, as potential triggers of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis in THP-1 macrophages. All tested glycoproteins were able to potently induce NLRP3 inflammasome activation, indicated by ASC-SPECK formation and secretion of cleaved IL-1ß. Lytic cell death via gasdermin D (GSDMD), pore formation, and pyroptosis are required for IL-1ß release. As a hallmark of pyroptosis, we were able to detect cleavage of GSDMD and, correspondingly, cell death in THP-1 macrophages. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout of NLRP3 and GSDMD in THP-1 macrophages confirmed and strongly support the evidence that viral glycoproteins can act as innate immunity triggers. With our study, we decipher key mechanisms of viral pathogenesis by showing that viral glycoproteins potently induce innate immune responses. These insights could be beneficial in vaccine development and provide new impulses for the investigation of vaccine-induced innate immunity.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammasomes/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Hepacivirus/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/biosynthesis , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Pyroptosis/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , THP-1 Cells
5.
J Autoimmun ; 124: 102727, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446793

ABSTRACT

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease secondary to three cardinal pathological features: immune-system alterations, diffuse microangiopathy, and fibrosis involving the skin and internal organs. The etiology of SSc remains quite obscure; it may encompass multiple host genetic and environmental -infectious/chemical-factors. The present review focused on the potential role of environmental agents in the etiopathogenesis of SSc based on epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory investigations previously published in the world literature. Among infectious agents, some viruses that may persist and reactivate in infected individuals, namely human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), and parvovirus B19 (B19V), and retroviruses have been proposed as potential causative agents of SSc. These viruses share a number of biological activities and consequent pathological alterations, such as endothelial dysfunction and/or fibroblast activation. Moreover, the acute worsening of pre-existing interstitial lung involvement observed in SSc patients with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection might suggest a potential role of this virus in the overall disease outcome. A variety of chemical/occupational agents might be regarded as putative etiological factors of SSc. In this setting, the SSc complicating silica dust exposure represents one of the most promising models of study. Considering the complexity of SSc pathogenesis, none of suggested causative factors may explain the appearance of the whole SSc; it is likely that the disease is the result of a multifactorial and multistep pathogenetic process. A variable combination of potential etiological factors may modulate the appearance of different clinical phenotypes detectable in individual scleroderma patients. The in-deep investigations on the SSc etiopathogenesis may provide useful insights in the broad field of human diseases characterized by diffuse microangiopathy or altered fibrogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Parvoviridae Infections/complications , Retroviridae Infections/complications , Roseolovirus Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Scleroderma, Systemic/etiology , Cytomegalovirus , Herpesvirus 6, Human , Humans , Parvovirus B19, Human , Retroviridae , Scleroderma, Systemic/virology
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379977

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been identified as the pathogen responsible for the outbreak of a severe, rapidly developing pneumonia (Coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19). The virus enzyme, called 3CLpro or main protease (Mpro), is essential for viral replication, making it a most promising target for antiviral drug development. Recently, we adopted the drug repurposing as appropriate strategy to give fast response to global COVID-19 epidemic, by demonstrating that the zonulin octapeptide inhibitor AT1001 (Larazotide acetate) binds Mpro catalytic domain. Thus, in the present study we tried to investigate the antiviral activity of AT1001, along with five derivatives, by cell-based assays. Our results provide with the identification of AT1001 peptide molecular framework for lead optimization step to develop new generations of antiviral agents of SARS-CoV-2 with an improved biological activity, expanding the chance for success in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Oligopeptides/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Cell Line , Cytomegalovirus/drug effects , Drug Repositioning , Herpesvirus 3, Human/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
8.
Transpl Immunol ; 68: 101435, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294281

ABSTRACT

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a rare complication after liver transplantation that characterized by high mortality. We presented a case of aGVHD after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The patient suffered from fever, oral ulcer, rashes and diarrhea and had a co-infection with Cytomegalovirus (CMV). Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis for cluster of differentiation (CD3) cells and skin biopsy indicated aGVHD. His regimens included high dose of steroids, ruxolitinib, basiliximab, local liver radiotherapy and antibiotics prophylaxis, with the withdrawal of tacrolimus and MMF. Unfortunately, he developed an acute rejection followed by cytomegalovirus infection and lung infection. Soon afterwards he was sent to "isolation ward" due to high suspicion for clinical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Fortunately, He was excluded from COVID-19 after nucleic acid and antibody tests. Though closely contact with other COVID-19 patients for a month, the patient was not affected with COVID-19 through his careful protective measures. Finally, the patient recovered after antiviral and antifungal treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient recovered from aGVHD as a close contact.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Cytomegalovirus , Graft vs Host Disease/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Liver Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy , Graft vs Host Disease/diagnosis , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Graft vs Host Disease/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
9.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289029

ABSTRACT

In stark contrast to the rapid development of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine is still lacking. Furthermore, despite virologic suppression and CD4 T-cell count normalization with antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV (PLWH) still exhibit increased morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. Such differences in health outcomes are related to higher risk behaviors, but also to HIV-related immune activation and viral coinfections. Among these coinfections, cytomegalovirus (CMV) latent infection is a well-known inducer of long-term immune dysregulation. Cytomegalovirus contributes to the persistent immune activation in PLWH receiving ART by directly skewing immune response toward itself, and by increasing immune activation through modification of the gut microbiota and microbial translocation. In addition, through induction of immunosenescence, CMV has been associated with a decreased response to infections and vaccines. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the influence of CMV on the immune system, the mechanisms underlying a reduced response to vaccines, and discuss new therapeutic advances targeting CMV that could be used to improve vaccine response in PLWH.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/virology , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytomegalovirus/pathogenicity , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunosenescence , Inflammation , Latent Infection/immunology , Latent Infection/virology , Mice , Vaccines/administration & dosage
10.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(10): 166198, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263225

ABSTRACT

Some maternal infections, contracted before or during pregnancy, can be transmitted to the fetus, during gestation (congenital infection), during labor and childbirth (perinatal infection) and through breastfeeding (postnatal infection). The agents responsible for these infections can be viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi. Among the viruses most frequently responsible for congenital infections are Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex 1-2, Herpes virus 6, Varicella zoster. Moreover Hepatitis B and C virus, HIV, Parvovirus B19 and non-polio Enteroviruses when contracted during pregnancy may involve the fetus or newborn at birth. Recently, new viruses have emerged, SARS-Cov-2 and Zika virus, of which we do not yet fully know the characteristics and pathogenic power when contracted during pregnancy. Viral infections in pregnancy can damage the fetus (spontaneous abortion, fetal death, intrauterine growth retardation) or the newborn (congenital anomalies, organ diseases with sequelae of different severity). Some risk factors specifically influence the incidence of transmission to the fetus: the timing of the infection in pregnancy, the order of the infection, primary or reinfection or chronic, the duration of membrane rupture, type of delivery, socio-economic conditions and breastfeeding. Frequently infected neonates, symptomatic at birth, have worse outcomes than asymptomatic. Many asymptomatic babies develop long term neurosensory outcomes. The way in which the virus interacts with the maternal immune system, the maternal-fetal interface and the placenta explain these results and also the differences that are observed from time to time in the fetal­neonatal outcomes of maternal infections. The maternal immune system undergoes functional adaptation during pregnancy, once thought as physiological immunosuppression. This adaptation, crucial for generating a balance between maternal immunity and fetus, is necessary to promote and support the pregnancy itself and the growth of the fetus. When this adaptation is upset by the viral infection, the balance is broken, and the infection can spread and lead to the adverse outcomes previously described. In this review we will describe the main viral harmful infections in pregnancy and the potential mechanisms of the damages on the fetus and newborn.


Subject(s)
Congenital Abnormalities/etiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Virus Diseases/complications , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Congenital Abnormalities/diagnosis , Congenital Abnormalities/prevention & control , Cytomegalovirus/isolation & purification , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytomegalovirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/transmission , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
11.
J Postgrad Med ; 67(2): 100-102, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215549

ABSTRACT

Therapies used to tide over acute crisis of COVID-19 infection may lower the immunity, which can lead to secondary infection or a reactivation of latent infection. We report a 75-years-old male patient who had suffered from severe COVID-19 infection three weeks earlier and who had been treated with corticosteroids and convalescent plasma along with other supportive therapies. At time of discharge he had developed leukopenia which worsened at 1-week follow up visit. On 18th day post-discharge, he became very sick and was brought to our hospital with complaints of severe persistent dysphagia. During evaluation he was diagnosed to have an acute cytomegalovirus infection and severe oropharyngeal thrush. Both COVID-19 and cytomegalovirus are known to cause synergistic decrease in T cells and NK cells leading to immunosuppression. The patient made complete recovery with a course of intravenous ganciclovir and fluconazole. Persistent leukopenia in high risk and severely ill cases should give rise to a suspicion of COVID-19 and cytomegalovirus co-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/virology , Cytomegalovirus , Leukopenia/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Leukopenia/therapy , Male
13.
Clin Immunol ; 227: 108727, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193258

ABSTRACT

With the global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the important role of natural killer (NK) cells in the control of various viral infections attracted more interest, via non-specific activation, such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and activating receptors, as well as specific activation, such as memory-like NK generation. In response to different viral infections, NK cells fight viruses in different ways, and different NK subsets proliferate. For instance, cytomegalovirus (CMV) induces NKG2C + CD57 + KIR+ NK cells to expand 3-6 months after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces KIR3DS1+/KIR3DL1 NK cells to expand in the acute phase of infection. However, the similarities and differences among these processes and their molecular mechanisms have not been fully discussed. In this article, we provide a summary and comparison of antiviral mechanisms, unique subset expansion and time periods in peripheral blood and tissues under different conditions of CMV, HIV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), COVID-19 and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Accordingly, we also discuss current clinical NK-associated antiviral applications, including cell therapy and NK-related biological agents, and we state the progress and future prospects of NK cell antiviral treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , COVID-19/blood , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/blood , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/virology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/blood , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/immunology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/virology , HIV/immunology , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepatitis B/blood , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B/virology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 626308, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190310

ABSTRACT

We have previously shown that conformational change in the ß2-integrin is a very early activation marker that can be detected with fluorescent multimers of its ligand intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 for rapid assessment of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. In this study, we describe a modified protocol of this assay for sensitive detection of functional antigen-specific CD4+ T cells using a monoclonal antibody (clone m24 Ab) specific for the open, high-affinity conformation of the ß2-integrin. The kinetics of ß2-integrin activation was different on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (several hours vs. few minutes, respectively); however, m24 Ab readily stained both cell types 4-6 h after antigen stimulation. With this protocol, we were able to monitor ex vivo effector and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells specific for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in whole blood or cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of infected or vaccinated individuals. By costaining ß2-integrin with m24 and CD154 Abs, we assessed extremely low frequencies of polyfunctional CD4+ T cell responses. The novel assay used in this study allows very sensitive and simultaneous screening of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell reactivities, with versatile applicability in clinical and vaccination studies.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Integrins/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Carrier Proteins/chemistry , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , HLA Antigens/chemistry , HLA Antigens/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Immunophenotyping , Integrins/genetics , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/chemistry , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Binding , Protein Multimerization , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism
15.
Virology ; 558: 22-27, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122566

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter drives various gene expression and yields sufficient protein for further functional investigation. Receptor binding domain (RBD) on spike protein of the SARS_CoV2 is the most critical portal for virus infection. Thus native conformational RBD protein may facilitate biochemical identification of RBD and provide valuable support of drug and vaccine design for curing COVID-19. We attempted to express RBD under CMV promoter in vitro, but failed. RBD-specific mRNA cannot be detected in cell transfected with recombinant plasmids, in which CMV promoter governs the RBD transcription. Additionally, the pCMV-Tag2B-SARS_CoV2_RBD trans-inactivates CMV promoter transcription activity. Alternatively, we identified that both Chicken ß-actin promoter and Vaccinia virus-specific medium/late (M/L) promoter (pSYN) can highly precede SARS_CoV2 RBD expression. Our findings provided evidence that SARS_CoV2 RBD gene can be driven by Chicken ß-actin promoter or Vaccinia virus-specific medium/late promoter instead of CMV promoter, thus providing valuable information for RBD feature exploration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Actins/genetics , Animals , CHO Cells , Chickens , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cloning, Molecular , Cricetulus , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Domains , Transcription, Genetic , Vaccinia/genetics , Vero Cells
16.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(4): e13586, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088169

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common and significant complications after solid organ transplant (SOT). Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the novel betacoronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19), has become the first global pandemic in 100 years. The world's attention has turned to address this unanticipated development; however, the viral infection that has long plagued outcomes after solid organ transplantation still requires vigilance. With physical distancing as the key intervention to reduce the healthcare burden, and the unease related to healthcare contact within the transplant population given the associated morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 in transplant recipients, providers have struggled to evaluate and streamline essential in-person healthcare contact, including laboratory visits. Owing to this, the COVID-19 pandemic has placed a significant strain on the delivery of CMV prophylaxis and treatment after solid organ transplantation. In this piece, we will describe issues our CMV antiviral stewardship service has encountered in the care of the transplant recipient with CMV during the this unprecedented time and share our expert opinion to approaches to providing optimal, evidenced based care during a pandemic associated with a seemingly unrelated viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytomegalovirus , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Science ; 371(6532)2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066801

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are crucial for protection against invading pathogens. A highly conserved N-linked glycan within the IgG-Fc tail, which is essential for IgG function, shows variable composition in humans. Afucosylated IgG variants are already used in anticancer therapeutic antibodies for their increased activity through Fc receptors (FcγRIIIa). Here, we report that afucosylated IgG (approximately 6% of total IgG in humans) are specifically formed against enveloped viruses but generally not against other antigens. This mediates stronger FcγRIIIa responses but also amplifies brewing cytokine storms and immune-mediated pathologies. Critically ill COVID-19 patients, but not those with mild symptoms, had high concentrations of afucosylated IgG antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), amplifying proinflammatory cytokine release and acute phase responses. Thus, antibody glycosylation plays a critical role in immune responses to enveloped viruses, including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cells, Cultured , Critical Illness , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Female , Fucose/analysis , Glycosylation , HIV/immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Interleukin-6/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Parvovirus B19, Human/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Young Adult
18.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(3): 296-299, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032305

ABSTRACT

Background: Systemic reactivation of herpesviruses may occur in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and is associated with morbidity and mortality. Data on severe Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) and concomitant reactivation of herpesviruses are lacking. Methods: We selected patients admitted to ICU for confirmed COVID-19 who underwent systematic testing for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human-herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) DNAemia while in the ICU. We retrospectively analysed frequency, timing, duration and co-occurrence of viral DNAemia. Results: Thirty-four patients were included. Viremia with EBV, CMV, and HHV-6 was detected in 28 (82%), 5 (15%), and 7 (22%) patients, respectively. EBV reactivation occurred early after ICU admission and was associated with longer ICU length-of-stay. Conclusions: While in the ICU, critically ill patients with COVID-19 are prone to develop reactivations due to various types of herpesviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytomegalovirus/physiology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , Herpesvirus 6, Human/physiology , Latent Infection/complications , Virus Activation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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