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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123691

ABSTRACT

We previously discovered that exogenously expressed GFP-tagged cytoplasmic human myxovirus resistance protein (MxA), a major antiviral effector of Type I and III interferons (IFNs) against several RNA- and DNA-containing viruses, existed in the cytoplasm in phase-separated membraneless biomolecular condensates of varying sizes and shapes with osmotically regulated disassembly and reassembly. In this study we investigated whether cytoplasmic IFN-α-induced endogenous human MxA structures were also biomolecular condensates, displayed hypotonic osmoregulation and the mechanisms involved. Both IFN-α-induced endogenous MxA and exogenously expressed GFP-MxA formed cytoplasmic condensates in A549 lung and Huh7 hepatoma cells which rapidly disassembled within 1-2 min when cells were exposed to 1,6-hexanediol or to hypotonic buffer (~40-50 mOsm). Both reassembled into new structures within 1-2 min of shifting cells to isotonic culture medium (~330 mOsm). Strikingly, MxA condensates in cells continuously exposed to culture medium of moderate hypotonicity (in the range one-fourth, one-third or one-half isotonicity; range 90-175 mOsm) first rapidly disassembled within 1-3 min, and then, in most cells, spontaneously reassembled 7-15 min later into new structures. This spontaneous reassembly was inhibited by 2-deoxyglucose (thus, was ATP-dependent) and by dynasore (thus, required membrane internalization). Indeed, condensate reassembly was preceded by crowding of the cytosolic space by large vacuole-like dilations (VLDs) derived from internalized plasma membrane. Remarkably, the antiviral activity of GFP-MxA against vesicular stomatitis virus survived hypoosmolar disassembly and subsequent reassembly. The data highlight the exquisite osmosensitivity of MxA condensates, and the preservation of antiviral activity in the face of hypotonic stress.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/genetics , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/metabolism , Osmoregulation , Biomolecular Condensates , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(11): e1010930, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098781

ABSTRACT

The antiviral endoribonuclease, RNase L, is activated by the mammalian innate immune response to destroy host and viral RNA to ultimately reduce viral gene expression. Herein, we show that RNase L and RNase L-mediated mRNA decay are primarily localized to the cytoplasm. Consequently, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) translocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus upon RNase L activation due to the presence of intact nuclear RNA. The re-localization of RBPs to the nucleus coincides with global alterations to RNA processing in the nucleus. While affecting many host mRNAs, these alterations are pronounced in mRNAs encoding type I and type III interferons and correlate with their retention in the nucleus and reduction in interferon protein production. Similar RNA processing defects also occur during infection with either dengue virus or SARS-CoV-2 when RNase L is activated. These findings reveal that the distribution of RBPs between the nucleus and cytosol is dictated by the availability of RNA in each compartment. Thus, viral infections that trigger RNase L-mediated cytoplasmic RNA in the cytoplasm also alter RNA processing in the nucleus, resulting in an ingenious multi-step immune block to protein biogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Mammals
3.
Cells ; 11(10)2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862726

ABSTRACT

Most cells express several integrins. The integrins are able to respond to various cellular functions and needs by modifying their own activation state, but in addition by their ability to regulate each other by activation or inhibition. This crosstalk or transdominant regulation is strictly controlled. The mechanisms resulting in integrin crosstalk are incompletely understood, but they often involve intracellular signalling routes also used by other cell surface receptors. Several studies show that the integrin cytoplasmic tails bind to a number of cytoskeletal and adaptor molecules in a regulated manner. Recent work has shown that phosphorylations of integrins and key intracellular molecules are of pivotal importance in integrin-cytoplasmic interactions, and these in turn affect integrin activity and crosstalk. The integrin ß-chains play a central role in regulating crosstalk. In addition to Integrin-integrin crosstalk, crosstalk may also occur between integrins and related receptors, including other adhesion receptors, growth factor and SARS-CoV-2 receptors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Integrins , Cell Adhesion , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Humans , Integrins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580424

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a gammacoronavirus, is an economically important virus to the poultry industry, as well as a significant welfare issue for chickens. As for all positive strand RNA viruses, IBV infection causes rearrangements of the host cell intracellular membranes to form replication organelles. Replication organelle formation is a highly conserved and vital step in the viral life cycle. Here, we investigate the localization of viral RNA synthesis and the link with replication organelles in host cells. We have shown that sites of viral RNA synthesis and virus-related dsRNA are associated with one another and, significantly, that they are located within a membrane-bound compartment within the cell. We have also shown that some viral RNA produced early in infection remains within these membranes throughout infection, while a proportion is trafficked to the cytoplasm. Importantly, we demonstrate conservation across all four coronavirus genera, including SARS-CoV-2. Understanding more about the replication of these viruses is imperative in order to effectively find ways to control them.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/metabolism , Intracellular Membranes/metabolism , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/growth & development , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/growth & development , Infectious bronchitis virus/metabolism , RNA, Double-Stranded/metabolism , Viral Replication Compartments/metabolism
5.
Proteins ; 90(1): 164-175, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340286

ABSTRACT

TMEM106B is an integral membrane protein of late endosomes and lysosomes involved in neuronal function, its overexpression being associated with familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and point mutation linked to hypomyelination. It has also been identified in multiple screens for host proteins required for productive SARS-CoV-2 infection. Because standard approaches to understand TMEM106B at the sequence level find no homology to other proteins, it has remained a protein of unknown function. Here, the standard tool PSI-BLAST was used in a nonstandard way to show that the lumenal portion of TMEM106B is a member of the late embryogenesis abundant-2 (LEA-2) domain superfamily. More sensitive tools (HMMER, HHpred, and trRosetta) extended this to predict LEA-2 domains in two yeast proteins. One is Vac7, a regulator of PI(3,5)P2 production in the degradative vacuole, equivalent to the lysosome, which has a LEA-2 domain in its lumenal domain. The other is Tag1, another vacuolar protein, which signals to terminate autophagy and has three LEA-2 domains in its lumenal domain. Further analysis of LEA-2 structures indicated that LEA-2 domains have a long, conserved lipid-binding groove. This implies that TMEM106B, Vac7, and Tag1 may all be lipid transfer proteins in the lumen of late endocytic organelles.


Subject(s)
Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins/chemistry , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism , Computational Biology/methods , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Humans , Lysosomes , Membrane Glycoproteins/chemistry , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/chemistry , Vacuoles/metabolism
6.
Inflamm Res ; 70(8): 847-858, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recognizing only sharp elevation in a short period of time, the COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 propagation is more and more marked in the whole world. Induced inflammation afterwards infection engenders a high infiltration of immune cells and cytokines that triggers matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activation. These endopeptidases are mediators of the lung extracellular matrix (ECM), a basic element for alveoli structure and gas exchange. METHODS: When immune cells, MMPs, secreted cytokines and several other mediators are gathered a pathological matrix remodeling occurs. This phenomenon tends to tissue destruction in the first place and a pulmonary hypertrophy and fibrosis in the second place. FINDINGS: After pathological matrix remodeling establishment, pathological diseases take place even after infection state. Since post COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis is an emerging complication of the disease, there is an urge to better understand and characterize the implication of ECM remodeling during SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: Targeting MMPs and their inhibitors could be a probable solution for occurred events since there are many cured patients that remain with severe sequels even after the end of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Cell Communication , Cell Lineage , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Fibrosis/immunology , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypertrophy , Immune System , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lung/physiopathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Pulmonary Gas Exchange
7.
Pharm Res ; 38(3): 473-478, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117456

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has left scientists and clinicians no choice but a race to find solutions to save lives while controlling the rapid spreading. Messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines have become the front-runners because of their safety profiles, precise and reproducible immune response with more cost-effective and faster production than other types of vaccines. However, the physicochemical properties of naked mRNA necessitate innovative delivery technologies to ferry these 'messengers' to ribosomes inside cells by crossing various barriers and subsequently induce an immune response. Intracellular delivery followed by endosomal escape represents the key strategies for cytoplasmic delivery of mRNA vaccines to the target. This Perspective provides insights into how state-of-the-art nanotechnology helps break the delivery barriers and advance the development of mRNA vaccines. The challenges remaining and future perspectives are outlined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Drug Carriers , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles , Ribosomes/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacokinetics , Drug Compounding , Humans , Nanomedicine , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry
8.
Brain Res ; 1758: 147344, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068877

ABSTRACT

Modelling cell infection in-a-dish can represent a useful tool to understand the susceptibility of different cell types towards severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to decipher its neurotropism. In this perspective, retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2) and glioblastoma cell lines, U-87 MG and U-373 MG, were infected with a SARS-CoV-2 strain, at various multiplicity-of-infection (MOI). We first demonstrated that the common entry genes - needed for invading epithelial cells - were expressed. RA-differentiation induced an upregulation of ace2 and tmprss2 gene expression while inducing downregulation of ctsb and ctsl. Using in situ hybridization and confocal analysis, SARS-CoV-2 gene S RNA was detected intracellularly at MOI 5.0, and localized in both soma and neuritic-like or glial-like processes. The infection was confirmed by quantification of viral gene E RNA and showed a dose-dependency, with few infected cells at MOI 0.1. After 24 h of infection, no cytopathic effect was observed in SH-SY5Y abilities to maintain neuritic processes or in U-373 MG for the uptake of glutamate. Unlike the permissive Vero E6 cells, no significant apoptosis death was detected following SARS-CoV-2 infection of neuroblastoma or glioblastoma cells. This study demonstrates the susceptibility of neuronal- and glial-like cell lines towards SARS-CoV-2 infection at high MOIs. Once inside the cells, the virus does not seem to rapidly replicate nor exert major cytopathic effect. Overall, our results strengthen the idea that SARS-CoV-2 has a tropism for nervous cells that express commonly described entry genes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Glioblastoma/virology , Neuroblastoma/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Glioblastoma/pathology , Humans , Models, Biological , Neuroblastoma/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
9.
J Virol ; 95(3)2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920894

ABSTRACT

Torovirus (ToV) has recently been classified into the new family Tobaniviridae, although historically, it belonged to the Coronavirus (CoV) family. The nucleocapsid (N) proteins of CoVs are predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, where the viruses replicate, but in some cases the proteins are partially located in the nucleolus. Many studies have investigated the subcellular localization and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking signals of the CoV N proteins, but little is known about ToV N proteins. Here, we studied the subcellular localization of the bovine ToV (BToV) N protein (BToN) and characterized its nucleocytoplasmic trafficking signals. Unlike other CoVs, BToN in infected cells was transported mainly to the nucleolus during early infection but was distributed predominantly in the nucleoplasm rather than in the nucleolus during late infection. Interestingly, a small quantity of BToN was detected in the cytoplasm during infection. Examination of a comprehensive set of substitution or deletion mutants of BToN fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) revealed that clusters of arginine (R) residues comprise nuclear/nucleolar localization signals (NLS/NoLS), and the C-terminal region served as a chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1)-independent nuclear export signal (NES). Moreover, recombinant viruses with mutations in the NLS/NoLS, but retaining nuclear accumulation, were successfully rescued and showed slightly reduced growth ability, while the virus that lost the NLS/NoLS-mediated nuclear accumulation of BToN was not rescued. These results indicate that BToN uniquely accumulates mainly in nuclear compartments during infection, regulated by an R-rich NLS/NoLS and a CRM1-independent NES, and that the BToN accumulation in the nuclear compartment driven by NLS/NoLS is important for virus growth.IMPORTANCE ToVs are diarrhea-causing pathogens detected in many species, including humans. BToV has spread worldwide, leading to economic loss, and there is currently no treatment or vaccine available. Positive-stranded RNA viruses, including ToVs, replicate in the cytoplasm, and their structural proteins generally accumulate in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, BToN accumulated predominantly in the nucleus/nucleolus during all infectious processes, with only a small fraction accumulating in the cytoplasm despite being a major structural protein. Furthermore, we identified unique nucleocytoplasmic trafficking signals and demonstrated the importance of NLS/NoLS for virus growth. This study is the first to undertake an in-depth investigation of the subcellular localization and intracellular trafficking signals of BToN. Our findings additionally suggest that the NLS/NoLS-mediated nuclear accumulation of BToN is important for virus replication. An understanding of the unique features of BToV may provide novel insights into the assembly mechanisms of not only ToVs but also other positive-stranded RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Torovirus/physiology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Nucleolus/metabolism , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Humans , Mutation , Nuclear Export Signals , Nuclear Localization Signals , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Torovirus/growth & development , Torovirus/metabolism , Virus Replication/genetics
10.
Biol Direct ; 15(1): 19, 2020 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874053

ABSTRACT

The spike glycoprotein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, has attracted attention for its vaccine potential and binding capacity to host cell surface receptors. Much of this research focus has centered on the ectodomain of the spike protein. The ectodomain is anchored to a transmembrane region, followed by a cytoplasmic tail. Here we report a distant sequence similarity between the cysteine-rich cytoplasmic tail of the coronavirus spike protein and the hepcidin protein that is found in humans and other vertebrates. Hepcidin is thought to be the key regulator of iron metabolism in humans through its inhibition of the iron-exporting protein ferroportin. An implication of this preliminary observation is to suggest a potential route of investigation in the coronavirus research field making use of an already-established literature on the interplay of local and systemic iron regulation, cytokine-mediated inflammatory processes, respiratory infections and the hepcidin protein. The question of possible homology and an evolutionary connection between the viral spike protein and hepcidin is not assessed in this report, but some scenarios for its study are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Hepcidins/genetics , Iron/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Cation Transport Proteins/metabolism , Cysteine/chemistry , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Hepcidins/chemistry , Humans , Hypoxia , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Pandemics , Protein Domains , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Tetraodontiformes
11.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110197, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716873

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have a metabolic origin given strong links with risk factors such as lipids and glucose and co-morbidities such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein mediates viral cellular entry via the ACE2 receptor. The cytoplasmic tail of this spike protein is heavily palmitoylated. Emerging studies suggest that SARS-CoV-2 alters lipid metabolism in the lung epithelial cells by modulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), possibly contributing to lipotoxicity, inflammation and untoward respiratory effects. Disruption of this process may affect palmitoylation of SARS-CoV spike protein and thus infectivity and viral assembly. COVID-19 is also increasingly being recognized as a vascular disease, with several studies noting prominent systemic endothelial dysfunction. The pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction may also be linked to COVID-19-mediated metabolic and inflammatory effects. Herein, exercise will be compared to fenofibrate as a possible therapeutic strategy to bolster resilience against (and help manage recovery from) COVID-19. This paper will explore the hypothesis that exercise may be a useful adjuvant in a setting of COVID-19 management/rehabilitation due to its effects on PPARα and vascular endothelial function.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Exercise Therapy/methods , PPAR alpha/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Exercise , Fenofibrate/chemistry , Humans , Inflammation , Lipid Metabolism , Lipoylation , Lung/metabolism , Obesity/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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