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1.
Biochem J ; 478(23): 4071-4092, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556088

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic reminds us that in spite of the scientific progress in the past century, there is a lack of general antiviral strategies. In analogy to broad-spectrum antibiotics as antibacterial agents, developing broad spectrum antiviral agents would buy us time for the development of vaccines and treatments for future viral infections. In addition to targeting viral factors, a possible strategy is to understand host immune defense mechanisms and develop methods to boost the antiviral immune response. Here we summarize the role of NAD+-consuming enzymes in the immune defense against viral infections, with the hope that a better understanding of this process could help to develop better antiviral therapeutics targeting these enzymes. These NAD+-consuming enzymes include PARPs, sirtuins, CD38, and SARM1. Among these, the antiviral function of PARPs is particularly important and will be a focus of this review. Interestingly, NAD+ biosynthetic enzymes are also implicated in immune responses. In addition, many viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 contain a macrodomain-containing protein (NSP3 in SARS-CoV-2), which serves to counteract the antiviral function of host PARPs. Therefore, NAD+ and NAD+-consuming enzymes play crucial roles in immune responses against viral infections and detailed mechanistic understandings in the future will likely facilitate the development of general antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Immunity, Innate , NAD/metabolism , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/metabolism , Armadillo Domain Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Humans , NAD/immunology , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/metabolism , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Sirtuins/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/immunology
2.
Tissue Barriers ; 10(3): 2000300, 2022 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500942

ABSTRACT

Cell junctions maintain the blood-tissue barriers to preserve vascular and tissue integrity. Viral infections reportedly modulate cell-cell junctions to facilitate their invasion. However, information on the effect of COVID-19 infection on the gene expression of cell junction and cytoskeletal proteins is limited. Using the Gene Expression Omnibus and Reactome databases, we analyzed the data on human lung A549, NHBE, and Calu-3 cells for the expression changes in cell junction and cytoskeletal proteins by SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2) infection. The analysis revealed changes in 3,660 genes in A549, 100 genes in NHBE, and 592 genes in Calu-3 cells with CoV-2 infection. Interestingly, EGOT (9.8-, 3- and 8.3-fold; p < .05) and CSF3 (4.3-, 33- and 56.3-fold; p < .05) were the only two genes significantly elevated in all three cell lines (A549, NHBE and Calu-3, respectively). On the other hand, 39 genes related to cell junctions and cytoskeleton were modulated in lung cells, with DLL1 demonstrating alterations in all cells. Alterations were also seen in several miRNAs associated with the cell junction and cytoskeleton genes modulated in the analysis. Further, matrix metalloproteinases involved in disease pathologies, including MMP-3, -9, and -12 demonstrated elevated expression on CoV-2 infection (p < .05). The study findings emphasize the integral role of cell junction and cytoskeletal genes in COVID-19, suggesting their therapeutic potential. Our analysis also identified a distinct EGOT gene that has not been previously implicated in COVID-19. Further studies on these newly identified genes and miRNAs could lead to advances in the pathogenesis and therapeutics of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Computational Biology , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Intercellular Junctions , Lung/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cell Res ; 31(12): 1244-1262, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493090

ABSTRACT

The infusion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) potentially improves clinical symptoms, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled (29 patients/group) phase II clinical trial to validate previous findings and explore the potential mechanisms. Patients treated with umbilical cord-derived MSCs exhibited a shorter hospital stay (P = 0.0198) and less time required for symptoms remission (P = 0.0194) than those who received placebo. Based on chest images, both severe and critical patients treated with MSCs showed improvement by day 7 (P = 0.0099) and day 21 (P = 0.0084). MSC-treated patients had fewer adverse events. MSC infusion reduced the levels of C-reactive protein, proinflammatory cytokines, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and promoted the maintenance of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. To explore how MSCs modulate the immune system, we employed single-cell RNA sequencing analysis on peripheral blood. Our analysis identified a novel subpopulation of VNN2+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor-like (HSPC-like) cells expressing CSF3R and PTPRE that were mobilized following MSC infusion. Genes encoding chemotaxis factors - CX3CR1 and L-selectin - were upregulated in various immune cells. MSC treatment also regulated B cell subsets and increased the expression of costimulatory CD28 in T cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition, an in vivo mouse study confirmed that MSCs suppressed NET release and reduced venous thrombosis by upregulating kindlin-3 signaling. Together, our results underscore the role of MSCs in improving COVID-19 patient outcomes via maintenance of immune homeostasis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunomodulation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Venous Thrombosis/metabolism , Venous Thrombosis/pathology
4.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(8): 1277-1293.e6, 2021 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293647

ABSTRACT

Immune deactivation of phagocytes is a central event in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Herein, we identify a master regulatory role of IL-6 signaling on LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) and reveal that uncoupling of these two processes during sepsis induces immunoparalysis in monocytes/macrophages. In particular, we demonstrate that activation of LAP by the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus depends on ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase. Physiologically, autocrine IL-6/JAK2/Ninein axis orchestrates microtubule organization and dynamics regulating ERK recruitment to the phagosome and LC3+ phagosome (LAPosome) formation. In sepsis, loss of IL-6 signaling specifically abrogates microtubule-mediated trafficking of ERK, leading to defective activation of LAP and impaired killing of bacterial and fungal pathogens by monocytes/macrophages, which can be selectively restored by IL-6 supplementation. Our work uncovers a molecular pathway linking IL-6 signaling with LAP and provides insight into the mechanisms underlying immunoparalysis in sepsis.


Subject(s)
Interleukin-6/metabolism , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Phagocytosis/immunology , Signal Transduction , Aspergillus fumigatus/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Janus Kinase 2/metabolism , Macrophages , Monocytes , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Phagocytes , Phagocytosis/physiology , Sepsis/metabolism
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