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1.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524167

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread despite the global efforts taken to control it. The 3C-like protease (3CLpro), the major protease of SARS-CoV-2, is one of the most interesting targets for antiviral drug development because it is highly conserved among SARS-CoVs and plays an important role in viral replication. Herein, we developed high throughput screening for SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitor based on AlphaScreen. We screened 91 natural product compounds and found that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an FDA-approved drug, inhibited 3CLpro activity. The 3CLpro inhibitory effect of ATRA was confirmed in vitro by both immunoblotting and AlphaScreen with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 24.7 ± 1.65 µM. ATRA inhibited the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in VeroE6/TMPRSS2 and Calu-3 cells, with IC50 = 2.69 ± 0.09 µM in the former and 0.82 ± 0.01 µM in the latter. Further, we showed the anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect of ATRA on the currently circulating variants of concern (VOC); alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. These results suggest that ATRA may be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tretinoin/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
mBio ; 12(5): e0233521, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430167

ABSTRACT

Newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a global pandemic with astonishing mortality and morbidity. The high replication and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 are remarkably distinct from those of previous closely related coronaviruses, and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The innate immune defense is a physical barrier that restricts viral replication. We report here that the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp5 main protease targets RIG-I and mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein via two distinct mechanisms for inhibition. Specifically, Nsp5 cleaves off the 10 most-N-terminal amino acids from RIG-I and deprives it of the ability to activate MAVS, whereas Nsp5 promotes the ubiquitination and proteosome-mediated degradation of MAVS. As such, Nsp5 potently inhibits interferon (IFN) induction by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in an enzyme-dependent manner. A synthetic small-molecule inhibitor blunts the Nsp5-mediated destruction of cellular RIG-I and MAVS and processing of SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural proteins, thus restoring the innate immune response and impeding SARS-CoV-2 replication. This work offers new insight into the immune evasion strategy of SARS-CoV-2 and provides a potential antiviral agent to treat CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. IMPORTANCE The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2, which is rapidly evolving with better transmissibility. Understanding the molecular basis of the SARS-CoV-2 interaction with host cells is of paramount significance, and development of antiviral agents provides new avenues to prevent and treat COVID-19 diseases. This study describes a molecular characterization of innate immune evasion mediated by the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp5 main protease and subsequent development of a small-molecule inhibitor.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , A549 Cells , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , HCT116 Cells , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Immunoblotting , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Mice , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/physiology , Ubiquitination , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/physiology
3.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 49, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398883

ABSTRACT

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) sense viral RNA and activate antiviral immune responses. Herein we investigate their functions in human epithelial cells, the primary and initial target of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A deficiency in MDA5, RIG-I or mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) enhanced viral replication. The expression of the type I/III interferon (IFN) during infection was impaired in MDA5-/- and MAVS-/-, but not in RIG-I-/-, when compared to wild type (WT) cells. The mRNA level of full-length angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cellular entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, was ~ 2.5-fold higher in RIG-I-/- than WT cells. These data demonstrate MDA5 as the predominant SARS-CoV-2 sensor, IFN-independent induction of ACE2 and anti-SARS-CoV-2 role of RIG-I in epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cell Line , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , Humans , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferons/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Signal Transduction , Virus Replication
4.
Cytokine ; 148: 155697, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385382

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 is a great threat to global public health. However, the relationship between the viral pathogen SARS-CoV-2 and host innate immunity has not yet been well studied. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 encodes a viral protease called 3C-like protease. This protease is responsible for cleaving viral polyproteins during replication. In this investigation, 293T cells were transfected with SARS-CoV-2 3CL and then infected with Sendai virus (SeV) to induce the RIG-I like receptor (RLR)-based immune pathway. q-PCR, luciferase reporter assays, and western blotting were used for experimental analyses. We found that SARS-CoV-2 3CL significantly downregulated IFN-ß mRNA levels. Upon SeV infection, SARS-CoV-2 3CL inhibited the nuclear translocation of IRF3 and p65 and promoted the degradation of IRF3. This effect of SARS-CoV-2 3CL on type I IFN in the RLR immune pathway opens up novel ideas for future research on SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon-beta/biosynthesis , Proteolysis , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon-beta/genetics , NF-kappa B/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Response Elements/genetics , Sendai virus/physiology , Signal Transduction
5.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389523

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is highly pathogenic in humans and poses a great threat to public health worldwide. Clinical data shows a disturbed type I interferon (IFN) response during the virus infection. In this study, we discovered that the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 plays an important role in the inhibition of interferon beta (IFN-ß) production. N protein repressed IFN-ß production induced by poly(I:C) or upon Sendai virus (SeV) infection. We noted that N protein also suppressed IFN-ß production, induced by several signaling molecules downstream of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) pathway, which is the crucial pattern recognition receptor (PRR) responsible for identifying RNA viruses. Moreover, our data demonstrated that N protein interacted with the RIG-I protein through the DExD/H domain, which has ATPase activity and plays an important role in the binding of immunostimulatory RNAs. These results suggested that SARS-CoV-2 N protein suppresses the IFN-ß response through targeting the initial step, potentially the cellular PRR-RNA-recognition step in the innate immune pathway. Therefore, we propose that the SARS-CoV-2 N protein represses IFN-ß production by interfering with RIG-I.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , A549 Cells , Animals , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Receptors, Immunologic , Signal Transduction
6.
Cell Signal ; 87: 110121, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370457

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused a worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. In less than a year and a half, more than 200 million people have been infected and more than four million have died. Despite some improvement in the treatment strategies, no definitive treatment protocol has been developed. The pathogenesis of the disease has not been clearly elucidated yet. A clear understanding of its pathogenesis will help develop effective vaccines and drugs. The immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 is characteristic with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan involvement with impaired Type I interferon response and hyperinflammation. The destructive systemic effects of COVID-19 cannot be explained simply by the viral tropism through the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 receptors. In addition, the recently identified mutations cannot fully explain the defect in all cases of Type I interferon synthesis. We hypothesize that retinol depletion and resulting impaired retinoid signaling play a central role in the COVID-19 pathogenesis that is characteristic for dysregulated immune system, defect in Type I interferon synthesis, severe inflammatory process, and destructive systemic multiorgan involvement. Viral RNA recognition mechanism through RIG-I receptors can quickly consume a large amount of the body's retinoid reserve, which causes the retinol levels to fall below the normal serum levels. This causes retinoid insufficiency and impaired retinoid signaling, which leads to interruption in Type I interferon synthesis and an excessive inflammation. Therefore, reconstitution of the retinoid signaling may prove to be a valid strategy for management of COVID-19 as well for some other chronic, degenerative, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Vitamin A/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , Viral Tropism/physiology , Vitamin A/blood
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 688758, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304592

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a known global threat, and most recently the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has claimed more than 2 million human lives. Delays and interference with IFN responses are closely associated with the severity of disease caused by CoV infection. As the most abundant viral protein in infected cells just after the entry step, the CoV nucleocapsid (N) protein likely plays a key role in IFN interruption. We have conducted a comprehensive comparative analysis and report herein that the N proteins of representative human and animal CoVs from four different genera [swine acute diarrhea syndrome CoV (SADS-CoV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV)] suppress IFN responses by multiple strategies. In particular, we found that the N protein of SADS-CoV interacted with RIG-I independent of its RNA binding activity, mediating K27-, K48- and K63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I and its subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation, thus inhibiting the host IFN response. These data provide insight into the interaction between CoVs and host, and offer new clues for the development of therapies against these important viruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferons/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferons/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/immunology , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Phosphorylation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Swine , Ubiquitination/physiology
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 688758, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295641

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a known global threat, and most recently the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has claimed more than 2 million human lives. Delays and interference with IFN responses are closely associated with the severity of disease caused by CoV infection. As the most abundant viral protein in infected cells just after the entry step, the CoV nucleocapsid (N) protein likely plays a key role in IFN interruption. We have conducted a comprehensive comparative analysis and report herein that the N proteins of representative human and animal CoVs from four different genera [swine acute diarrhea syndrome CoV (SADS-CoV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV)] suppress IFN responses by multiple strategies. In particular, we found that the N protein of SADS-CoV interacted with RIG-I independent of its RNA binding activity, mediating K27-, K48- and K63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I and its subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation, thus inhibiting the host IFN response. These data provide insight into the interaction between CoVs and host, and offer new clues for the development of therapies against these important viruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferons/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferons/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/immunology , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Phosphorylation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Swine , Ubiquitination/physiology
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 662989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256380

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen of current COVID-19 pandemic, and insufficient production of type I interferon (IFN-I) is associated with the severe forms of the disease. Membrane (M) protein of SARS-CoV-2 has been reported to suppress host IFN-I production, but the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 M protein was confirmed to suppress the expression of IFNß and interferon-stimulated genes induced by RIG-I, MDA5, IKKϵ, and TBK1, and to inhibit IRF3 phosphorylation and dimerization caused by TBK1. SARS-CoV-2 M could interact with MDA5, TRAF3, IKKϵ, and TBK1, and induce TBK1 degradation via K48-linked ubiquitination. The reduced TBK1 further impaired the formation of TRAF3-TANK-TBK1-IKKε complex that leads to inhibition of IFN-I production. Our study revealed a novel mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 M for negative regulation of IFN-I production, which would provide deeper insight into the innate immunosuppression and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Interferon Type I/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , I-kappa B Kinase/metabolism , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , Proteolysis , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Signal Transduction , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3/metabolism
10.
Biochem J ; 478(10): 1853-1859, 2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232077

ABSTRACT

The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spurred new interest in interferon signaling in response to viral pathogens. Much of what we know about the signaling molecules and associated signal transduction induced during the host cellular response to viral pathogens has been gained from research conducted from the 1990's to the present day, but certain intricacies of the mechanisms involved, still remain unclear. In a recent study by Vaughn et al. the authors examine one of the main mechanisms regulating interferon induction following viral infection, the RIG-I/MAVS/IRF3 pathway, and find that similar to PKR both DICER interacting proteins, PACT and TRBP, regulate RIG-I signaling in an opposing manner. More specifically, the reported findings demonstrate, like others, that PACT stimulates RIG-I-mediated signaling in a manner independent of PACT dsRNA-binding ability or phosphorylation at sites known to be important for PACT-dependent PKR activation. In contrast, they show for the first time that TRBP inhibits RIG-I-mediated signaling. RIG-I inhibition by TRBP did not require phosphorylation of sites shown to be important for inhibiting PKR, nor did it involve PACT or PKR, but it did require the dsRNA-binding ability of TRBP. These findings open the door to a complex co-regulation of RIG-I, PKR, MDA5, miRNA processing, and interferon induction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , Interferons/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Nuclear Receptor Coactivators/genetics , Nuclear Receptor Coactivators/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism
11.
Cell Rep ; 35(6): 109091, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213072

ABSTRACT

It is urgent and important to understand the relationship of the widespread severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with host immune response and study the underlining molecular mechanism. N6-methylation of adenosine (m6A) in RNA regulates many physiological and disease processes. Here, we investigate m6A modification of the SARS-CoV-2 gene in regulating the host cell innate immune response. Our data show that the SARS-CoV-2 virus has m6A modifications that are enriched in the 3' end of the viral genome. We find that depletion of the host cell m6A methyltransferase METTL3 decreases m6A levels in SARS-CoV-2 and host genes, and m6A reduction in viral RNA increases RIG-I binding and subsequently enhances the downstream innate immune signaling pathway and inflammatory gene expression. METTL3 expression is reduced and inflammatory genes are induced in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These findings will aid in the understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis and the design of future studies regulating innate immunity for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Methyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adenosine/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Methylation , Methyltransferases/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction
13.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125490

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has resulted in the current pandemic. The lack of highly efficacious antiviral drugs that can manage this ongoing global emergency gives urgency to establishing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. We characterized the role of the nucleocapsid protein (N) of SARS-CoV-2 in modulating antiviral immunity. Overexpression of SARS-CoV-2 N resulted in the attenuation of retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptor-mediated interferon (IFN) production and IFN-induced gene expression. Similar to the SARS-CoV-1 N protein, SARS-CoV-2 N suppressed the interaction between tripartate motif protein 25 (TRIM25) and RIG-I. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 N inhibited polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]-mediated IFN signaling at the level of Tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interfered with the association between TBK1 and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), subsequently preventing the nuclear translocation of IRF3. We further found that both type I and III IFN production induced by either the influenza virus lacking the nonstructural protein 1 or the Zika virus were suppressed by the SARS-CoV-2 N protein. Our findings provide insights into the molecular function of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein with respect to counteracting the host antiviral immune response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interferons/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Poly C/pharmacology , Poly I/pharmacology , Promoter Regions, Genetic , /metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Tripartite Motif Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Up-Regulation , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus/metabolism
14.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(4): 945-953, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104474

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the pathogenic agent of COVID-19, which has evolved into a global pandemic. Compared with some other respiratory RNA viruses, SARS-CoV-2 is a poor inducer of type I interferon (IFN). Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 nsp12, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), suppresses host antiviral responses. SARS-CoV-2 nsp12 attenuated Sendai virus (SeV)- or poly(I:C)-induced IFN-ß promoter activation in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited IFN promoter activation triggered by RIG-I, MDA5, MAVS, and IRF3 overexpression. Nsp12 did not impair IRF3 phosphorylation but suppressed the nuclear translocation of IRF3. Mutational analyses suggested that this suppression was not dependent on the polymerase activity of nsp12. Given these findings, our study reveals that SARS-CoV-2 RdRp can antagonize host antiviral innate immunity and thus provides insights into viral pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , Interferon-beta/genetics , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Mutation , Phosphorylation , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Sendai virus/metabolism
15.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050647

ABSTRACT

Viral dysregulation or suppression of innate immune responses is a key determinant of virus-induced pathogenesis. Important sensors for the detection of virus infection are the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), which, in turn, are antagonized by many RNA viruses and DNA viruses. Among the different escape strategies are viral mechanisms to dysregulate the post-translational modifications (PTMs) that play pivotal roles in RLR regulation. In this review, we present the current knowledge of immune evasion by viral pathogens that manipulate ubiquitin- or ISG15-dependent mechanisms of RLR activation. Key viral strategies to evade RLR signaling include direct targeting of ubiquitin E3 ligases, active deubiquitination using viral deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), and the upregulation of cellular DUBs that regulate RLR signaling. Additionally, we summarize emerging new evidence that shows that enzymes of certain coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the current COVID-19 pandemic, actively deISGylate key molecules in the RLR pathway to escape type I interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral responses. Finally, we discuss the possibility of targeting virally-encoded proteins that manipulate ubiquitin- or ISG15-mediated innate immune responses for the development of new antivirals and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Immune Evasion , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Viruses/immunology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Receptors, Immunologic , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/metabolism
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 299, 2020 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997814

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has quickly spread worldwide and has affected more than 10 million individuals. A typical feature of COVID-19 is the suppression of type I and III interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral immunity. However, the molecular mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 evades antiviral immunity remains elusive. Here, we reported that the SARS-CoV-2 membrane (M) protein inhibits the production of type I and III IFNs induced by the cytosolic dsRNA-sensing pathway mediated by RIG-I/MDA-5-MAVS signaling. In addition, the SARS-CoV-2 M protein suppresses type I and III IFN induction stimulated by SeV infection or poly (I:C) transfection. Mechanistically, the SARS-CoV-2 M protein interacts with RIG-I, MAVS, and TBK1, thus preventing the formation of the multiprotein complex containing RIG-I, MAVS, TRAF3, and TBK1 and subsequently impeding the phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and activation of IRF3. Consequently, ectopic expression of the SARS-CoV-2 M protein facilitates the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. Taken together, these results indicate that the SARS-CoV-2 M protein antagonizes type I and III IFN production by targeting RIG-I/MDA-5 signaling, which subsequently attenuates antiviral immunity and enhances viral replication. This study provides insight into the interpretation of SARS-CoV-2-induced antiviral immune suppression and illuminates the pathogenic mechanism of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferon Type I/biosynthesis , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , Interferons/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferons/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
17.
Virus Res ; 278: 197843, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833528

ABSTRACT

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), a newly emerging enteric coronavirus, is considered to be associated with swine acute diarrhea syndrome (SADS) which has caused significantly economic losses to the porcine industry. Interactions between SADS-CoV and the host innate immune response is unclear yet. In this study, we used IPEC-J2 cells as a model to explore potential evasion strategies employed by SADS-CoV. Our results showed that SADS-CoV infection failed to induce IFN-ß production, and inhibited poly (I:C) and Sendai virus (SeV)-triggered IFN-ß expression. SADS-CoV also blocked poly (I:C)-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF-3 and NF-κB. Furthermore, SADS-CoV did not interfere with the activity of IFN-ß promoter stimulated by IRF3, TBK1 and IKKε, but counteracted its activation induced by IPS-1 and RIG-I. Collectively, this study is the first investigation that shows interactions between SADS-CoV and the host innate immunity, which provides information of the molecular mechanisms underlying SASD-CoV infection.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon-beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon-beta/genetics , Interferon-beta/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Signal Transduction , Swine
18.
Science ; 369(6508): 1249-1255, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654484

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A major virulence factor of SARS-CoVs is the nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1), which suppresses host gene expression by ribosome association. Here, we show that Nsp1 from SARS-CoV-2 binds to the 40S ribosomal subunit, resulting in shutdown of messenger RNA (mRNA) translation both in vitro and in cells. Structural analysis by cryo-electron microscopy of in vitro-reconstituted Nsp1-40S and various native Nsp1-40S and -80S complexes revealed that the Nsp1 C terminus binds to and obstructs the mRNA entry tunnel. Thereby, Nsp1 effectively blocks retinoic acid-inducible gene I-dependent innate immune responses that would otherwise facilitate clearance of the infection. Thus, the structural characterization of the inhibitory mechanism of Nsp1 may aid structure-based drug design against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Innate , Protein Biosynthesis , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Humans , Interferon-beta/genetics , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Structure, Secondary , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/chemistry , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 41(9): 1178-1196, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-549299

ABSTRACT

ß-Sitosterol (24-ethyl-5-cholestene-3-ol) is a common phytosterol Chinese medical plants that has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study we investigated the effects of ß-sitosterol on influenza virus-induced inflammation and acute lung injury and the molecular mechanisms. We demonstrate that ß-sitosterol (150-450 µg/mL) dose-dependently suppresses inflammatory response through NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in influenza A virus (IAV)-infected cells, which was accompanied by decreased induction of interferons (IFNs) (including Type I and III IFN). Furthermore, we revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of ß-sitosterol resulted from its inhibitory effect on retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling, led to decreased STAT1 signaling, thus affecting the transcriptional activity of ISGF3 (interferon-stimulated gene factor 3) complexes and resulting in abrogation of the IAV-induced proinflammatory amplification effect in IFN-sensitized cells. Moreover, ß-sitosterol treatment attenuated RIG-I-mediated apoptotic injury of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) via downregulation of pro-apoptotic factors. In a mouse model of influenza, pre-administration of ß-sitosterol (50, 200 mg·kg-1·d-1, i.g., for 2 days) dose-dependently ameliorated IAV-mediated recruitment of pathogenic cytotoxic T cells and immune dysregulation. In addition, pre-administration of ß-sitosterol protected mice from lethal IAV infection. Our data suggest that ß-sitosterol blocks the immune response mediated by RIG-I signaling and deleterious IFN production, providing a potential benefit for the treatment of influenza.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sitosterols/therapeutic use , A549 Cells , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Apoptosis/drug effects , Dogs , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Plants/chemistry , STAT1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Sitosterols/analysis
20.
J Infect Dis ; 221(4): 647-659, 2020 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) poses an ongoing threat to public health worldwide. The studies of MERS patients with severe disease and experimentally infected animals showed that robust viral replication and intensive proinflammatory response in lung tissues contribute to high pathogenicity of MERS-CoV. We sought to identify pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling pathway(s) that mediates the inflammatory cascade in human macrophages upon MERS-CoV infection. METHODS: The potential signaling pathways were manipulated individually by pharmacological inhibition, small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) depletion, and antibody blocking. The MERS-CoV-induced proinflammatory response was evaluated by measuring the expression levels of key cytokines and/or chemokines. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, flow cytometry analysis, and Western blotting were applied to evaluate the activation of related PRRs and engagement of adaptors. RESULTS: MERS-CoV replication significantly upregulated C-type lectin receptor (CLR) macrophage-inducible Ca2+-dependent lectin receptor (Mincle). The role of Mincle for MERS-CoV-triggered cytokine/chemokine induction was established based on the results of antibody blockage, siRNA depletion of Mincle and its adaptor spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), and Syk pharmacological inhibition. The cytokine and/or chemokine induction was significantly attenuated by siRNA depletion of retinoic acid-inducible-I-like receptors (RLR) or adaptor, indicating that RLR signaling also contributed to MERS-CoV-induced proinflammatory response. CONCLUSIONS: The CLR and RLR pathways are activated and contribute to the proinflammatory response in MERS-CoV-infected macrophages.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins , Chemokines/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/genetics , Lung/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcriptome , Tretinoin/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
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