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1.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099667

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 non-structural protein 13 (nsp13) helicase is an essential enzyme for viral replication and has been identified as an attractive target for the development of new antiviral drugs. In detail, the helicase catalyzes the unwinding of double-stranded DNA or RNA in a 5' to 3' direction and acts in concert with the replication-transcription complex (nsp7/nsp8/nsp12). In this work, bioinformatics and computational tools allowed us to perform a detailed conservation analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 helicase genome and to further predict the druggable enzyme's binding pockets. Thus, a structure-based virtual screening was used to identify valuable compounds that are capable of recognizing multiple nsp13 pockets. Starting from a database of around 4000 drugs already approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we chose 14 shared compounds capable of recognizing three out of four sites. Finally, by means of visual inspection analysis and based on their commercial availability, five promising compounds were submitted to in vitro assays. Among them, PF-03715455 was able to block both the unwinding and NTPase activities of nsp13 in a micromolar range.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Drug Repositioning , RNA Helicases/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
2.
J Cell Biol ; 221(11)2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051188

ABSTRACT

We report that lysosomal damage is a hitherto unknown inducer of stress granule (SG) formation and that the process termed membrane atg8ylation coordinates SG formation with mTOR inactivation during lysosomal stress. SGs were induced by lysosome-damaging agents including SARS-CoV-2ORF3a, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and proteopathic tau. During damage, mammalian ATG8s directly interacted with the core SG proteins NUFIP2 and G3BP1. Atg8ylation was needed for their recruitment to damaged lysosomes independently of SG condensates whereupon NUFIP2 contributed to mTOR inactivation via the Ragulator-RagA/B complex. Thus, cells employ membrane atg8ylation to control and coordinate SG and mTOR responses to lysosomal damage.


Subject(s)
Autophagy-Related Protein 8 Family/metabolism , DNA Helicases , RNA Helicases , Animals , Cytoplasmic Granules/metabolism , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/metabolism , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , Stress Granules , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 912717, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005867

ABSTRACT

We present evidence suggesting that the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus non-structural protein 13 (Nsp13) modulates the Z-RNA dependent regulated cell death pathways . We show that Z-prone sequences [called flipons] exist in coronavirus and provide a signature (Z-sig) that enables identification of the animal viruses from which the human pathogens arose. We also identify a potential RIP Homology Interaction Motif (RHIM) in the helicase Nsp13 that resembles those present in proteins that initiate Z-RNA-dependent cell death through interactions with the Z-RNA sensor protein ZBP1. These two observations allow us to suggest a model in which Nsp13 down regulates Z-RNA activated innate immunity by two distinct mechanisms. The first involves a novel ATP-independent Z-flipon helicase (flipase) activity in Nsp13 that differs from that of canonical A-RNA helicases. This flipase prevents formation of Z-RNAs that would otherwise activate cell death pathways. The second mechanism likely inhibits the interactions between ZBP1 and the Receptor Interacting Proteins Kinases RIPK1 and RIPK3 by targeting their RHIM domains. Together the described Nsp13 RHIM and flipase activities have the potential to alter the host response to coronaviruses and impact the design of drugs targeting the Nsp13 protein. The Z-sig and RHIM domains may provide a way of identifying previously uncharacterized viruses that are potentially pathogenic for humans.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Animals , Coronavirus/metabolism , DNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA , SARS Virus/metabolism
4.
Antiviral Res ; 206: 105389, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982554

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) helicase NSP13 plays a conserved role in the replication of coronaviruses and has been identified as an ideal target for the development of antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we identify a novel NSP13 helicase inhibitor punicalagin (PUG) through high-throughput screening. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based analysis and molecular docking calculation reveal that PUG directly binds NSP13 on the interface of domains 1A and 2A, with a KD value of 21.6 nM. Further biochemical and structural analyses suggest that PUG inhibits NSP13 on ATP hydrolysis and prevents it binding to DNA substrates. Finally, the antiviral studies show that PUG effectively suppresses the SARS-CoV-2 replication in A549-ACE2 and Vero cells, with EC50 values of 347 nM and 196 nM, respectively. Our work demonstrates the potential application of PUG in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and identifies an allosteric inhibition mechanism for future drug design targeting the viral helicases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Humans , Hydrolyzable Tannins , Molecular Docking Simulation , RNA Helicases/chemistry , Vero Cells
5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 108: 108764, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899851

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is still one of causes inducing severe losses of production in the poultry industry worldwide. Vaccination does not completely prevent IBV infection and spread due to immune failure and viral mutations. ForsythiaeFructus and its compounds have been widely used in a lot of prescriptions of the traditional Chinese medicine for a long history, and it is well-known as safety and efficiency in heat-clearing and detoxifying. This study aims to investigate the anti-IBV activity and mechanism of phillygenin. The results showed that phillygenin inhibited IBV replication by disturbing multiple stages of the virus life cycle, including viral adsorption, invasion, internalization, and release in Vero cells. After being treated with 100, 125 and 150 µg/mL phillygenin, the expression of G3BP1 was significantly increased and the phosphorylation of PKR/eIF2α was activated, which increased stress granule, thereby triggering the antiviral response in Vero cells. The anti-virus activity of PHI was decreased when G3BP1 was interfered by si-RNA, and G3BP1 was down-regulated when PKR/eIF2α was interfered by si-RNA. In conclusion, our findings indicate that phillygenin activates PKR/eIF2α pathway and induces stress granule formation to exert anti-IBV, which holds promise to develop into a novel anti-IBV drug. Further study in vivo is needed to explore phillygenin as a potential and effective drug to prevent IB in poultry.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , DNA Helicases/metabolism , DNA Helicases/pharmacology , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/pharmacology , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Lignans , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins , RNA , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Helicases/pharmacology , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins , Vero Cells
6.
J Virol ; 96(12): e0041222, 2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874504

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and poses a significant threat to global health. N protein (NP), which is a major pathogenic protein among betacoronaviruses, binds to the viral RNA genome to allow viral genome packaging and viral particle release. Recent studies showed that NP antagonizes interferon (IFN) induction and mediates phase separation. Using live SARS-CoV-2 viruses, this study provides solid evidence showing that SARS-CoV-2 NP associates with G3BP1 and G3BP2 in vitro and in vivo. NPSARS-CoV-2 could efficiently suppress G3BP-mediated SG formation and potentiate viral infection by overcoming G3BP1-mediated antiviral innate immunity. G3BP1 conditional knockout mice (g3bp1fl/fL, Sftpc-Cre) exhibit significantly higher lung viral loads after SARS-CoV-2 infection than wild-type mice. Our findings contribute to the growing body of knowledge regarding the pathogenicity of NPSARS-CoV-2 and provide insight into new therapeutics targeting NPSARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE In this study, by in vitro assay and live SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, we provide solid evidence that the SARS-CoV-2 NP associates with G3BP1 and G3BP2 in vitro and in vivo. NPSARS-CoV-2 could efficiently suppress G3BP-mediated SG formation and potentiate viral infection by overcoming antiviral innate immunity mediated by G3BP1 in A549 cell lines and G3BP1 conditional knockout mice (g3bp1-cKO) mice, which provide in-depth evidence showing the mechanism underlying NP-related SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis through G3BPs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Mice , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/metabolism , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Stress Granules , Virus Replication/genetics
7.
J Mol Graph Model ; 114: 108193, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796473

ABSTRACT

Although vaccines that provide protection against severe illness from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been made available, emerging variant strains of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are of concern. A different research direction involves investigation of antiviral therapeutics. In addition to structural proteins, the SARS-CoV-2 non-structural proteins are of interest and this includes the helicase (nsp13). In this study, an initial screen of 300 ligands was performed to identify potential inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 nsp13 examining the nucleoside triphosphatase site (NTPase activity) as the target region. The antiviral activity of polyphenols has been previously reported in the literature and as a result, the phenolic compounds and fatty acids from the OliveNet™ library were utilised. Synthetic compounds with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties were also selected. The structures of the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV helicases, as well as the human RECQ-like DNA helicase, DHX9 helicase, PcrA helicase, hepatitis C NS3 helicase, and mouse Dna2 nuclease-helicase were used for comparison. As expected, sequence and structural homology between the various species was evident. A number of broad-spectrum and well-known inhibitors interacted with the NTPase active site highlighting the need to potentially identify more specific inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2. Acetylcysteine, clavulanic acid and homovanillic acid were identified as potential lead compounds for the SARS-CoV-2 helicase. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed with the leads bound to the SARS-CoV-2 helicase for 200 ns in triplicate, with favourable binding free energies to the NTPase site. Given their availability, further exploration of their potential inhibitory activity could be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nucleoside-Triphosphatase/metabolism , RNA Helicases/chemistry , RNA Helicases/metabolism
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6761, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526072

ABSTRACT

Viral proteins make extensive use of short peptide interaction motifs to hijack cellular host factors. However, most current large-scale methods do not identify this important class of protein-protein interactions. Uncovering peptide mediated interactions provides both a molecular understanding of viral interactions with their host and the foundation for developing novel antiviral reagents. Here we describe a viral peptide discovery approach covering 23 coronavirus strains that provides high resolution information on direct virus-host interactions. We identify 269 peptide-based interactions for 18 coronaviruses including a specific interaction between the human G3BP1/2 proteins and an ΦxFG peptide motif in the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein. This interaction supports viral replication and through its ΦxFG motif N rewires the G3BP1/2 interactome to disrupt stress granules. A peptide-based inhibitor disrupting the G3BP1/2-N interaction dampened SARS-CoV-2 infection showing that our results can be directly translated into novel specific antiviral reagents.


Subject(s)
Integration Host Factors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Humans , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/metabolism , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology
9.
FEBS Lett ; 595(23): 2872-2896, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516705

ABSTRACT

The current work investigated SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid (NCAP or N protein) interactors in A549 human lung cancer cells using a SILAC-based mass spectrometry approach. NCAP interactors included proteins of the stress granule (SG) machinery and immunoregulators. NCAP showed specific interaction with the SG proteins G3BP1, G3BP2, YTHDF3, USP10 and PKR, and translocated to SGs following oxidative stress and heat shock. Treatment of recombinant NCAP with RNA isolated from A549 cells exposed to oxidative stress-stimulated NCAP to undergo liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). RNA degradation using RNase A treatment completely blocked the LLPS property of NCAP as well as its SG association. The RNA intercalator mitoxantrone also disrupted NCAP assembly in vitro and in cells. This study provides insight into the biological processes and biophysical properties of the SARS-CoV-2 NCAP.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , /metabolism , A549 Cells , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Humans , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/metabolism , eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 190: 636-648, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401500

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein undergoes RNA-induced phase separation (LLPS) and sequesters the host key stress granule (SG) proteins, Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3-domain-binding protein 1 and 2 (G3BP1 and G3BP2) to inhibit SG formation. This will allow viral packaging and propagation in host cells. Based on a genomic-guided meta-analysis, here we identify upstream regulatory elements modulating the expression of G3BP1 and G3BP2 (collectively called G3BP1/2). Using this strategy, we have identified FOXA1, YY1, SYK, E2F-1, and TGFBR2 as activators and SIN3A, SRF, and AKT-1 as repressors of G3BP1/2 genes. Panels of the activators and repressors were then used to identify drugs that change their gene expression signatures. Two drugs, imatinib, and decitabine have been identified as putative modulators of G3BP1/2 genes and their regulators, suggesting their role as COVID-19 mitigation agents. Molecular docking analysis suggests that both drugs bind to G3BP1/2 with a much higher affinity than the SARS-CoV-2 N protein. This study reports imatinib and decitabine as candidate drugs against N protein and G3BP1/2 protein.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , DNA Helicases/chemistry , Decitabine/chemistry , Imatinib Mesylate/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/chemistry , RNA Helicases/chemistry , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/chemistry , RNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/antagonists & inhibitors , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , DNA Helicases/antagonists & inhibitors , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Decitabine/pharmacology , Drug Delivery Systems , Genomics , Imatinib Mesylate/pharmacology , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/metabolism , RNA Helicases/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 502, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387327

ABSTRACT

The multifunctional nucleocapsid (N) protein in SARS-CoV-2 binds the ~30 kb viral RNA genome to aid its packaging into the 80-90 nm membrane-enveloped virion. The N protein is composed of N-terminal RNA-binding and C-terminal dimerization domains that are flanked by three intrinsically disordered regions. Here we demonstrate that the N protein's central disordered domain drives phase separation with RNA, and that phosphorylation of an adjacent serine/arginine rich region modulates the physical properties of the resulting condensates. In cells, N forms condensates that recruit the stress granule protein G3BP1, highlighting a potential role for N in G3BP1 sequestration and stress granule inhibition. The SARS-CoV-2 membrane (M) protein independently induces N protein phase separation, and three-component mixtures of N + M + RNA form condensates with mutually exclusive compartments containing N + M or N + RNA, including annular structures in which the M protein coats the outside of an N + RNA condensate. These findings support a model in which phase separation of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein contributes both to suppression of the G3BP1-dependent host immune response and to packaging genomic RNA during virion assembly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Membrane/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , DNA Helicases/genetics , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Humans , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/genetics , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , RNA Helicases/genetics , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/genetics , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
12.
Biophys Chem ; 278: 106677, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363894

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has accelerated the study of existing drugs. The mixture of homologs called ivermectin (avermectin-B1a [HB1a] + avermectin-B1b [HB1b]) has shown antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. However, there are few reports on the behavior of each homolog. We investigated the interaction of each homolog with promising targets of interest associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection from a biophysical and computational-chemistry perspective using docking and molecular dynamics. We observed a differential behavior for each homolog, with an affinity of HB1b for viral structures, and of HB1a for host structures considered. The induced disturbances were differential and influenced by the hydrophobicity of each homolog and of the binding pockets. We present the first comparative analysis of the potential theoretical inhibitory effect of both avermectins on biomolecules associated with COVID-19, and suggest that ivermectin through its homologs, has a multiobjective behavior.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , DNA Helicases/antagonists & inhibitors , Ivermectin/analogs & derivatives , alpha Karyopherins/antagonists & inhibitors , beta Karyopherins/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , DNA Helicases/chemistry , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Humans , Ivermectin/chemistry , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Kinetics , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Thermodynamics , alpha Karyopherins/chemistry , alpha Karyopherins/metabolism , beta Karyopherins/chemistry , beta Karyopherins/metabolism
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(19)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254144

ABSTRACT

Backtracking, the reverse motion of the transcriptase enzyme on the nucleic acid template, is a universal regulatory feature of transcription in cellular organisms but its role in viruses is not established. Here we present evidence that backtracking extends into the viral realm, where backtracking by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) may aid viral transcription and replication. Structures of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp bound to the essential nsp13 helicase and RNA suggested the helicase facilitates backtracking. We use cryo-electron microscopy, RNA-protein cross-linking, and unbiased molecular dynamics simulations to characterize SARS-CoV-2 RdRp backtracking. The results establish that the single-stranded 3' segment of the product RNA generated by backtracking extrudes through the RdRp nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) entry tunnel, that a mismatched nucleotide at the product RNA 3' end frays and enters the NTP entry tunnel to initiate backtracking, and that nsp13 stimulates RdRp backtracking. Backtracking may aid proofreading, a crucial process for SARS-CoV-2 resistance against antivirals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/genetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Cryoelectron Microscopy/methods , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Genome, Viral , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
14.
Arch Med Res ; 52(1): 48-57, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ras-GTPase activating protein SH3-domain-binding proteins (G3BP) are a small family of RNA-binding proteins implicated in regulating gene expression. Changes in expression of G3BPs are correlated to several cancers including thyroid, colon, pancreatic and breast cancer. G3BPs are important regulators of stress granule (SG) formation and function. SG are ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles that respond to cellular stresses to triage mRNA resulting in transcripts being selectively degraded, stored or translated resulting in a change of gene expression which confers a survival response to the cell. These changes in gene expression contribute to the development of drug resistance. Many RNA viruses, including Chikungunya (and potentially Coronavirus), dismantle SG so that the cell cannot respond to the viral infection. Non-structural protein 3 (nsP3), from the Chikungunya virus, has been shown to translocate G3BP away from SG. Interestingly in cancer cells, the formation of SG is correlated to drug-resistance and blocking SG formation has been shown to reestablish the efficacy of the anticancer drug bortezomib. METHODS: Chikungunya nsP3 was transfected into breast cancer cell lines T47D and MCF7 to disrupt SG formation. Changes in the cytotoxicity of bortezomib were measured. RESULTS: Bortezomib cytotoxicity in breast cancer cell lines changed with a 22 fold decrease in its IC50 for T47D and a 7 fold decrease for MCF7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Chikungunya nsP3 disrupts SG formation. As a result, it increases the cytotoxicity of the FDA approved drug, bortezomib. In addition, the increased cytotoxicity appears to correlate to improved bortezomib selectivity when compared to control cell lines.


Subject(s)
Bortezomib/pharmacology , Chikungunya Fever/drug therapy , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Cytoplasmic Granules/metabolism , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/metabolism , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Chikungunya Fever/metabolism , Chikungunya Fever/pathology , Chikungunya virus/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytoplasmic Granules/drug effects , Cytoplasmic Granules/pathology , DNA Helicases/genetics , Down-Regulation , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Female , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA Helicases/genetics , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/genetics , Transfection , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/administration & dosage , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
15.
J Virol ; 94(6)2020 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827743

ABSTRACT

TER94 is a multifunctional AAA+ ATPase crucial for diverse cellular processes, especially protein quality control and chromatin dynamics in eukaryotic organisms. Many viruses, including coronavirus, herpesvirus, and retrovirus, coopt host cellular TER94 for optimal viral invasion and replication. Previous proteomics analysis identified the association of TER94 with the budded virions (BVs) of baculovirus, an enveloped insect large DNA virus. Here, the role of TER94 in the prototypic baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) life cycle was investigated. In virus-infected cells, TER94 accumulated in virogenic stroma (VS) at the early stage of infection and subsequently partially rearranged in the ring zone region. In the virions, TER94 was associated with the nucleocapsids of both BV and occlusion-derived virus (ODV). Inhibition of TER94 ATPase activity significantly reduced viral DNA replication and BV production. Electron/immunoelectron microscopy revealed that inhibition of TER94 resulted in the trapping of nucleocapsids within cytoplasmic vacuoles at the nuclear periphery for BV formation and blockage of ODV envelopment at a premature stage within infected nuclei, which appeared highly consistent with its pivotal function in membrane biogenesis. Further analyses showed that TER94 was recruited to the VS or subnuclear structures through interaction with viral early proteins LEF3 and helicase, whereas inhibition of TER94 activity blocked the proper localization of replication-related viral proteins and morphogenesis of VS, providing an explanation for its role in viral DNA replication. Taken together, these data indicated the crucial functions of TER94 at multiple steps of the baculovirus life cycle, including genome replication, BV formation, and ODV morphogenesis.IMPORTANCE TER94 constitutes an important AAA+ ATPase that associates with diverse cellular processes, including protein quality control, membrane fusion of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum network, nuclear envelope reformation, and DNA replication. To date, little is known regarding the role(s) of TER94 in the baculovirus life cycle. In this study, TER94 was found to play a crucial role in multiple steps of baculovirus infection, including viral DNA replication and BV and ODV formation. Further evidence showed that the membrane fission/fusion function of TER94 is likely to be exploited by baculovirus for virion morphogenesis. Moreover, TER94 could interact with the viral early proteins LEF3 and helicase to transport and further recruit viral replication-related proteins to establish viral replication factories. This study highlights the critical roles of TER94 as an energy-supplying chaperon in the baculovirus life cycle and enriches our knowledge regarding the biological function of this important host factor.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Nucleopolyhedroviruses/physiology , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Nucleus/virology , Cytoplasm/virology , DNA Helicases/metabolism , DNA, Viral/biosynthesis , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Sf9 Cells/virology , Vacuoles/virology , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virion
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4481, 2020 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-7753

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein 13 (SCV nsP13), a superfamily 1 helicase, plays a central role in viral RNA replication through the unwinding of duplex RNA and DNA with a 5' single-stranded tail in a 5' to 3' direction. Despite its putative role in viral RNA replication, nsP13 readily unwinds duplex DNA by cooperative translocation. Herein, nsP13 exhibited different characteristics in duplex RNA unwinding than that in duplex DNA. nsP13 showed very poor processivity on duplex RNA compared with that on duplex DNA. More importantly, nsP13 inefficiently unwinds duplex RNA by increasing the 5'-ss tail length. As the concentration of nsP13 increased, the amount of unwound duplex DNA increased and that of unwound duplex RNA decreased. The accumulation of duplex RNA/nsP13 complexes increased as the concentration of nsP13 increased. An increased ATP concentration in the unwinding of duplex RNA relieved the decrease in duplex RNA unwinding. Thus, nsP13 has a strong affinity for duplex RNA as a substrate for the unwinding reaction, which requires increased ATPs to processively unwind duplex RNA. Our results suggest that duplex RNA is a preferred substrate for the helicase activity of nsP13 than duplex DNA at high ATP concentrations.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA, Double-Stranded/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , DNA/metabolism , DNA Helicases/metabolism , DNA, Single-Stranded/metabolism , DNA, Viral/metabolism , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Hydrolysis , Kinetics , Protein Binding , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Virus Replication/physiology
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