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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237418, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713417

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has crudely demonstrated the need for massive and rapid diagnostics. By the first week of July, more than 10,000,000 positive cases of COVID-19 have been reported worldwide, although this number could be greatly underestimated. In the case of an epidemic emergency, the first line of response should be based on commercially available and validated resources. Here, we demonstrate the use of the miniPCR, a commercial compact and portable PCR device recently available on the market, in combination with a commercial well-plate reader as a diagnostic system for detecting genetic material of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causal agent of COVID-19. We used the miniPCR to detect and amplify SARS-CoV-2 DNA sequences using the sets of initiators recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for targeting three different regions that encode for the N protein. Prior to amplification, samples were combined with a DNA intercalating reagent (i.e., EvaGreen Dye). Sample fluorescence after amplification was then read using a commercial 96-well plate reader. This straightforward method allows the detection and amplification of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids in the range of ~625 to 2×105 DNA copies. The accuracy and simplicity of this diagnostics strategy may provide a cost-efficient and reliable alternative for COVID-19 pandemic testing, particularly in underdeveloped regions where RT-QPCR instrument availability may be limited. The portability, ease of use, and reproducibility of the miniPCR makes it a reliable alternative for deployment in point-of-care SARS-CoV-2 detection efforts during pandemics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems , Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/virology , DNA, Viral/genetics , Data Accuracy , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/economics , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 166: 112436, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665846

ABSTRACT

Our recent experience of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of easy-to-use, quick, cheap, sensitive and selective detection of virus pathogens for the efficient monitoring and treatment of virus diseases. Early detection of viruses provides essential information about possible efficient and targeted treatments, prolongs the therapeutic window and hence reduces morbidity. Graphene is a lightweight, chemically stable and conductive material that can be successfully utilized for the detection of various virus strains. The sensitivity and selectivity of graphene can be enhanced by its functionalization or combination with other materials. Introducing suitable functional groups and/or counterparts in the hybrid structure enables tuning of the optical and electrical properties, which is particularly attractive for rapid and easy-to-use virus detection. In this review, we cover all the different types of graphene-based sensors available for virus detection, including, e.g., photoluminescence and colorimetric sensors, and surface plasmon resonance biosensors. Various strategies of electrochemical detection of viruses based on, e.g., DNA hybridization or antigen-antibody interactions, are also discussed. We summarize the current state-of-the-art applications of graphene-based systems for sensing a variety of viruses, e.g., SARS-CoV-2, influenza, dengue fever, hepatitis C virus, HIV, rotavirus and Zika virus. General principles, mechanisms of action, advantages and drawbacks are presented to provide useful information for the further development and construction of advanced virus biosensors. We highlight that the unique and tunable physicochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials make them ideal candidates for engineering and miniaturization of biosensors.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Graphite , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Viruses/isolation & purification , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Biosensing Techniques/trends , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Colorimetry , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , DNA, Viral/genetics , Electrochemical Techniques , Equipment Design , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Luminescence , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quantum Dots/chemistry , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Virology/methods , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/pathogenicity
3.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 16(3): 457-462, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615460

ABSTRACT

Death due to respiratory infection is commonly encountered at autopsy. With only one opportunity to obtain samples for identification of a causative agent, it is important to ensure that sampling regimes are optimized to provide the greatest detection, without the expense and redundancy that can arise from over-sampling. This study was performed retrospectively using data from Coronial autopsies over the period 2012-2019 from which swabs from the nasopharyngeal region, trachea and lung parenchyma, in addition to samples of lung tissue, had been submitted for multiplex PCR detection of respiratory pathogens. From 97 cases with all four samples, there were 24 with at least one positive result for viral infection. Some cases had multiple positive results and a total of 27 respiratory tract viruses were identified, of which rhinovirus, influenza A virus and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common. Seventeen of the 27 viral infections (63%) were identified in all four samples. However, in nearly all cases (96%) the nasopharyngeal swab detected the infective agent when the multiplex PCR panel had detected infection in any of the four sample types. A nasopharyngeal swab is considered to be an optimal sample for detection of respiratory tract viral infection. As the samples analyzed were acquired before the appearance of the COVID-19 virus, the applicability of this finding for COVID-19 screening is not established.


Subject(s)
DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Lung/virology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nasopharynx/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Specimen Handling , Virology , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Viruses/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Cause of Death , DNA, Viral/classification , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics
4.
Small ; 16(32): e2002169, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612774

ABSTRACT

The ongoing global novel coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19 outbreak has engendered numerous cases of infection and death. COVID-19 diagnosis relies upon nucleic acid detection; however, currently recommended methods exhibit high false-negative rates and are unable to identify other respiratory virus infections, thereby resulting in patient misdiagnosis and impeding epidemic containment. Combining the advantages of targeted amplification and long-read, real-time nanopore sequencing, herein, nanopore targeted sequencing (NTS) is developed to detect SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses simultaneously within 6-10 h, with a limit of detection of ten standard plasmid copies per reaction. Compared with its specificity for five common respiratory viruses, the specificity of NTS for SARS-CoV-2 reaches 100%. Parallel testing with approved real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction kits for SARS-CoV-2 and NTS using 61 nucleic acid samples from suspected COVID-19 cases show that NTS identifies more infected patients (22/61) as positive, while also effectively monitoring for mutated nucleic acid sequences, categorizing types of SARS-CoV-2, and detecting other respiratory viruses in the test sample. NTS is thus suitable for COVID-19 diagnosis; moreover, this platform can be further extended for diagnosing other viruses and pathogens.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Nanopores , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/genetics , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Genes, Viral , Humans , Limit of Detection , Mutation , Nanotechnology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9): 2054-2063, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607956

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected ≈6 million persons worldwide. As SARS-CoV-2 spreads across the planet, we explored the range of human cells that can be infected by this virus. We isolated SARS-CoV-2 from 2 infected patients in Toronto, Canada; determined the genomic sequences; and identified single-nucleotide changes in representative populations of our virus stocks. We also tested a wide range of human immune cells for productive infection with SARS-CoV-2. We confirm that human primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells are not permissive for SARS-CoV-2. As SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread globally, it is essential to monitor single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the virus and to continue to isolate circulating viruses to determine viral genotype and phenotype by using in vitro and in vivo infection models.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Replication/genetics , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , DNA, Viral/genetics , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Genotype , Humans , Kinetics , Pandemics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Whole Genome Sequencing
7.
Microb Pathog ; 145: 104209, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72283

ABSTRACT

As the outbreaks of COVID-19 in worldwide, coronavirus has once again caught the attention of people. Canine coronavirus is widespread among dog population, and sometimes causes even fatal cases. Here, to characterize the prevalence and evolution of current circulating canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains in China, we collected 213 fecal samples from diarrheic pet dogs between 2018 and 2019. Of the 213 samples, we found 51 (23.94%) were positive for CCoV. Co-infection with canine parvovirus (CPV), canine astrovirus (CaAstV), canine kobuvirus (CaKV), Torque teno canis virus (TTCaV) were ubiquitous existed. Mixed infection of different CCoV subtypes exists extensively. Considering the limited sequences data in recent years, we sequenced 7 nearly complete genomes and 10 complete spike gene. Phylogenetic analysis of spike gene revealed a new subtype CCoV-II Variant and CCoV-IIa was the most prevalent subtype currently circulating. Moreover, we identified strain B906_ZJ_2019 shared 93.24% nucleotide identifies with previous strain A76, and both of them clustered with CCoV-II Variant, which were not well clustered with the known subtypes. Recombination analysis of B906_ZJ_2019 indicated that strain B906_ZJ_2019 may a recombinant variant between CCoV-I and CCoV-II, which is consistent with strain A76. Furthermore, amino acid variations widely existed among current CCoV-IIa strains circulating in China and the classic CCoV-IIa strains, in spite of the unknown functions. In a word, we report a useful information as to the etiology and evolution of canine coronavirus in China based on the available sequences, which is urgent for the devise of future effective disease prevention and control strategies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Canine/classification , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/genetics , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Feces/virology , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
Pathog Glob Health ; 114(2): 64-67, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-795

ABSTRACT

The global spread of the 2019-nCoV is continuing and is fast moving, as indicated by the WHO raising the risk assessment to high. In this article, we provide a preliminary phylodynamic and phylogeographic analysis of this new virus. A Maximum Clade Credibility tree has been built using the 29 available whole genome sequences of 2019-nCoV and two whole genome sequences that are highly similar sequences from Bat SARS-like Coronavirus available in GeneBank. We are able to clarify the mechanism of transmission among the countries which have provided the 2019-nCoV sequence isolates from their patients. The Bayesian phylogeographic reconstruction shows that the 2019-2020 nCoV most probably originated from the Bat SARS-like Coronavirus circulating in the Rhinolophus bat family. In agreement with epidemiological observations, the most likely geographic origin of the new outbreak was the city of Wuhan, China, where 2019-nCoV time of the most recent common ancestor emerged, according to molecular clock analysis, around November 25th, 2019. These results, together with previously recorded epidemics, suggest a recurring pattern of periodical epizootic outbreaks due to Betacoronavirus. Moreover, our study describes the same population genetic dynamic underlying the SARS 2003 epidemic, and suggests the urgent need for the development of effective molecular surveillance strategies of Betacoronavirus among animals and Rhinolophus of the bat family.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Animals , Bayes Theorem , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , DNA, Viral/genetics , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/genetics
9.
Lancet ; 395(10224): 565-574, 2020 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-80

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In late December, 2019, patients presenting with viral pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, China. A novel coronavirus was subsequently identified as the causative pathogen, provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). As of Jan 26, 2020, more than 2000 cases of 2019-nCoV infection have been confirmed, most of which involved people living in or visiting Wuhan, and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed. METHODS: We did next-generation sequencing of samples from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cultured isolates from nine inpatients, eight of whom had visited the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan. Complete and partial 2019-nCoV genome sequences were obtained from these individuals. Viral contigs were connected using Sanger sequencing to obtain the full-length genomes, with the terminal regions determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Phylogenetic analysis of these 2019-nCoV genomes and those of other coronaviruses was used to determine the evolutionary history of the virus and help infer its likely origin. Homology modelling was done to explore the likely receptor-binding properties of the virus. FINDINGS: The ten genome sequences of 2019-nCoV obtained from the nine patients were extremely similar, exhibiting more than 99·98% sequence identity. Notably, 2019-nCoV was closely related (with 88% identity) to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, collected in 2018 in Zhoushan, eastern China, but were more distant from SARS-CoV (about 79%) and MERS-CoV (about 50%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 2019-nCoV fell within the subgenus Sarbecovirus of the genus Betacoronavirus, with a relatively long branch length to its closest relatives bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, and was genetically distinct from SARS-CoV. Notably, homology modelling revealed that 2019-nCoV had a similar receptor-binding domain structure to that of SARS-CoV, despite amino acid variation at some key residues. INTERPRETATION: 2019-nCoV is sufficiently divergent from SARS-CoV to be considered a new human-infecting betacoronavirus. Although our phylogenetic analysis suggests that bats might be the original host of this virus, an animal sold at the seafood market in Wuhan might represent an intermediate host facilitating the emergence of the virus in humans. Importantly, structural analysis suggests that 2019-nCoV might be able to bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in humans. The future evolution, adaptation, and spread of this virus warrant urgent investigation. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shandong First Medical University.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , DNA, Viral/genetics , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genomics/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Sequence Alignment
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