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1.
Pharmazie ; 76(5): 195-201, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219141

ABSTRACT

The effects of eight oral anti-coronavirus drugs (lopinavir, ritonavir, chloroquine, darunavir, ribavirin, arbidol, favipiravir, oseltamivir) on the metabolism of four specific glycosides (polydatin, geniposide, quercitrin, glycyrrhizin) and on the activities of three major glycosidases (ß-glucosidase, α-rhamnosidase, ß-glucuronidase) from gut microflora were explored in vitro and determined by LC-MS/MS. The metabolism of polydatin, geniposide, quercitrin and glycyrrhizin was significantly inhibited by one or several anti-coronavirus drugs of 100 µM around 1 h and 4 h (P<0.05), among which darunavir could strongly reduce the production of genipin (70.6% reduction), quercitin (80.6% reduction) and glycyrrhetinic acid (37.9% reduction), which may cause a high risk of herb-drug interactions (HDI). Additionally, chloroquine reduced the production of genipin and quercitin by more than 75% (P<0.05), whereas arbidol had no significant influence on the metabolism of polydatin, quercitrin and glycyrrhizin (P>0.05) so that its risk may be lower. The inhibition of darunavir on ß-glucosidase was relatively strong (IC50 = 193±23 µM), and the inhibition became weaker on ß-glucuronidase and α-rhamnosidase (IC50>500 µM). The consistency between gut microflora and glycosidase system indicated that the inhibition of darunavir on the activity of ß-glucosidase and ß-glucuronidase may be the main reason for affecting the metabolism of geniposide, glycyrrhizin and polydatin in gut microflora. However, for the inhibition of darunavir and chloroquine on the metabolism of quercetrin, there was no correlation between gut microflora and α-rhamnosidase system. Assessing the risk of HDI mediated by glycosidases in gut microflora may be conducive to the safety and efficacy of combining traditional herbal and Western medicine for the treatment of patients with Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Glycosides/metabolism , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/metabolism , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Darunavir/pharmacology , Humans , Patient Safety , Plant Preparations/adverse effects , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
2.
J Chem Inf Model ; 60(12): 5771-5780, 2020 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065771

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has infected several million people and caused thousands of deaths worldwide since December 2019. As the disease is spreading rapidly all over the world, it is urgent to find effective drugs to treat the virus. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is one of the potential drug targets. Therefore, in this context, we used rigorous computational methods, including molecular docking, fast pulling of ligand (FPL), and free energy perturbation (FEP), to investigate potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. We first tested our approach with three reported inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, and our computational results are in good agreement with the respective experimental data. Subsequently, we applied our approach on a database of ∼4600 natural compounds, as well as 8 available HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitors and an aza-peptide epoxide. Molecular docking resulted in a short list of 35 natural compounds, which was subsequently refined using the FPL scheme. FPL simulations resulted in five potential inhibitors, including three natural compounds and two available HIV-1 PR inhibitors. Finally, FEP, the most accurate and precise method, was used to determine the absolute binding free energy of these five compounds. FEP results indicate that two natural compounds, cannabisin A and isoacteoside, and an HIV-1 PR inhibitor, darunavir, exhibit a large binding free energy to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, which is larger than that of 13b, the most reliable SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor recently reported. The binding free energy largely arises from van der Waals interaction. We also found that Glu166 forms H-bonds to all of the inhibitors. Replacing Glu166 by an alanine residue leads to ∼2.0 kcal/mol decreases in the affinity of darunavir to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Our results could contribute to the development of potential drugs inhibiting SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , HIV Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , HIV Protease/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/pharmacology , Darunavir/chemistry , Darunavir/pharmacology , Databases, Factual , Drug Design , Glucosides/chemistry , Glucosides/pharmacology , HIV Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , HIV Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptides/chemistry , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Structure-Activity Relationship , Thermodynamics
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16986, 2020 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851312

ABSTRACT

We performed molecular dynamics simulation of the dimeric SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2) main protease (Mpro) to examine the binding dynamics of small molecular ligands. Seven HIV inhibitors, darunavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and tipranavir, were used as the potential lead drugs to investigate access to the drug binding sites in Mpro. The frequently accessed sites on Mpro were classified based on contacts between the ligands and the protein, and the differences in site distributions of the encounter complex were observed among the ligands. All seven ligands showed binding to the active site at least twice in 28 simulations of 200 ns each. We further investigated the variations in the complex structure of the active site with the ligands, using microsecond order simulations. Results revealed a wide variation in the shapes of the binding sites and binding poses of the ligands. Additionally, the C-terminal region of the other chain often interacted with the ligands and the active site. Collectively, these findings indicate the importance of dynamic sampling of protein-ligand complexes and suggest the possibilities of further drug optimisations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Drug Repositioning/methods , HIV Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites/drug effects , Biophysical Phenomena , COVID-19 , Catalytic Domain/drug effects , Computational Biology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Darunavir/metabolism , Darunavir/pharmacology , HIV Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Humans , Indinavir/metabolism , Indinavir/pharmacology , Lopinavir/metabolism , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nelfinavir/metabolism , Nelfinavir/pharmacology , Pandemics , Ritonavir/metabolism , Ritonavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saquinavir/metabolism , Saquinavir/pharmacology
4.
Mol Divers ; 25(1): 461-471, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756514

ABSTRACT

During formylation of 2-quinolones by DMF/Et3N mixture, the unexpected 3,3'-methylenebis(4-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-ones) were formed. The discussed mechanism was proved as due to the formation of 4-formyl-2-quinolone as intermediate. Reaction of the latter compound with the parent quinolone under the same reaction condition gave also the same product. The structure of the obtained products was elucidated via NMR, IR and mass spectra. X-ray structure analysis proved the anti-form of the obtained compounds, which were stabilized by the formation hydrogen bond. Molecular docking calculations showed that most of the synthesized compounds possessed good binding affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) in comparable to Darunavir.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Protease Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Quinolones/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Darunavir/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Quinolones/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
5.
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen ; 24(5): 716-728, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721423

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To predict potential drugs for COVID-19 by using molecular docking for virtual screening of drugs approved for other clinical applications. BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is the betacoronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. It was listed as a potential global health threat by the WHO due to high mortality, high basic reproduction number, and lack of clinically approved drugs and vaccines. The genome of the virus responsible for COVID-19 has been sequenced. In addition, the three-dimensional structure of the main protease has been determined experimentally. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential drugs that can be repurposed for treatment of COVID-19 by using molecular docking based virtual screening of all approved drugs. METHODS: A list of drugs approved for clinical use was obtained from the SuperDRUG2 database. The structure of the target in the apo form, as well as structures of several target-ligand complexes, were obtained from RCSB PDB. The structure of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro determined from X-ray diffraction data was used as the target. Data regarding drugs in clinical trials for COVID-19 was obtained from clinicaltrials.org. Input for molecular docking based virtual screening was prepared by using Obabel and customized python, bash, and awk scripts. Molecular docking calculations were carried out with Vina and SMINA, and the docked conformations were analyzed and visualized with PLIP, Pymol, and Rasmol. RESULTS: Among the drugs that are being tested in clinical trials for COVID-19, Danoprevir and Darunavir were predicted to have the highest binding affinity for the Main protease (Mpro) target of SARS-CoV-2. Saquinavir and Beclabuvir were identified as the best novel candidates for COVID-19 therapy by using Virtual Screening of drugs approved for other clinical indications. CONCLUSION: Protease inhibitors approved for treatment of other viral diseases have the potential to be repurposed for treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Benzazepines/chemistry , Benzazepines/pharmacology , Cyclopropanes/chemistry , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Darunavir/chemistry , Darunavir/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Indoles/pharmacology , Isoindoles/chemistry , Isoindoles/pharmacology , Lactams, Macrocyclic/chemistry , Lactams, Macrocyclic/pharmacology , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Proline/chemistry , Proline/pharmacology , Saquinavir/chemistry , Saquinavir/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/chemistry , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
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