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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e25859, 2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197891

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically changed life in the United States, as the country has recorded over 23 million cases and 383,000 deaths to date. In the leadup to widespread vaccine deployment, testing and surveillance are critical for detecting and stopping possible routes of transmission. Contact tracing has become an important surveillance measure to control COVID-19 in the United States, and mobile health interventions have found increased prominence in this space. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the use and usability of MyCOVIDKey, a mobile-based web app to assist COVID-19 contact tracing efforts, during the 6-week pilot period. METHODS: A 6-week study was conducted on the Vanderbilt University campus in Nashville, Tennessee. The study participants, consisting primarily of graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and faculty in the Chemistry Department at Vanderbilt University, were asked to use the MyCOVIDKey web app during the course of the study period. Paradata were collected as users engaged with the MyCOVIDKey web app. At the end of the study, all participants were asked to report on their user experience in a survey, and the results were analyzed in the context of the user paradata. RESULTS: During the pilot period, 45 users enrolled in MyCOVIDKey. An analysis of their enrollment suggests that initial recruiting efforts were effective; however, participant recruitment and engagement efforts at the midpoint of the study were less effective. App use paralleled the number of users, indicating that incentives were useful for recruiting new users to sign up but did not result in users attempting to artificially inflate their use as a result of prize offers. Times to completion of key tasks were low, indicating that the main features of the app could be used quickly. Of the 45 users, 30 provided feedback through a postpilot survey, with 26 (58%) completing it in its entirety. The MyCOVIDKey app as a whole was rated 70.0 on the System Usability Scale, indicating that it performed above the accepted threshold for usability. When the key-in and self-assessment features were examined on their own, it was found that they individually crossed the same thresholds for acceptable usability but that the key-in feature had a higher margin for improvement. CONCLUSIONS: The MyCOVIDKey app was found overall to be a useful tool for COVID-19 contact tracing in a university setting. Most users suggested simple-to-implement improvements, such as replacing the web app framework with a native app format or changing the placement of the scanner within the app workflow. After these updates, this tool could be readily deployed and easily adapted to other settings across the country. The need for digital contact tracing tools is becoming increasingly apparent, particularly as COVID-19 case numbers continue to increase while more businesses begin to reopen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Mobile Applications , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1302, 2022 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133652

ABSTRACT

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is currently one of the most powerful techniques available to study the transcriptional response of thousands of cells to an external perturbation. Here, we perform a pseudotime analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection using publicly available scRNA-seq data from human bronchial epithelial cells and colon and ileum organoids. Our results reveal that, for most genes, the transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 infection follows a non-linear pattern characterized by an initial and a final down-regulatory phase separated by an intermediate up-regulatory stage. A correlation analysis of transcriptional profiles suggests a common mechanism regulating the mRNA levels of most genes. Interestingly, genes encoded in the mitochondria or involved in translation exhibited distinct pseudotime profiles. To explain our results, we propose a simple model where nuclear export inhibition of nsp1-sensitive transcripts will be sufficient to explain the transcriptional shutdown of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Data Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Epithelial Cells
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0270241, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098725

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies; however, optimal diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis remains challenging. We used the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown policy as a natural experiment to explore potential overdiagnosis and overtreatment of acute appendicitis in Thailand. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential overdiagnosis and overtreatment of acute appendicitis in Thailand by examining service utilization before, during, and after the COVID-19 lockdown policy. METHODS: A secondary data analysis of patients admitted with acute appendicitis under the Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) in Thailand over a 6-year period between 2016 and 2021 was conducted. The trend of acute appendicitis was plotted using a 14-day rolling average of daily cases. Patient characteristics, clinical management, and outcomes were descriptively presented and compared among three study periods, namely pre-pandemic, lockdown, and post-lockdown. RESULTS: The number of overall acute appendicitis cases decreased from 25,407 during pre-pandemic to 22,006 during lockdown (13.4% reduction) and 21,245 during post-lockdown (16.4% reduction). This reduction was mostly due to a lower incidence of uncomplicated acute appendicitis, whereas cases of generalized peritonitis were scarcely affected by the pandemic. There was an increasing trend towards the usage of diagnostic computerized tomography for acute appendicitis but no significant difference in treatment modalities and complication rates. CONCLUSION: The stable rates of generalized peritonitis and complications during the COVID-19 lockdown, despite fewer admissions overall, suggest that there may have been overdiagnosis and overtreatment of acute appendicitis in Thailand. Policy makers could use these findings to improve clinical practice for acute appendicitis in Thailand and support the efficient utilization of surgical services in the future, especially during pandemics.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Peritonitis , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Overdiagnosis , Overtreatment , Thailand/epidemiology , Data Analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Retrospective Studies , Acute Disease , Policy , Appendectomy
4.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(6)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087744
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071458

ABSTRACT

Focusing on social media affordances and China's social/political context, the present study analyzed the digital communication practices about COVID-19 vaccines on a popular social media platform-TikTok-which is called DouYin in China. Overall, this study identified five major forces partaking in constructing the discourses, with government agencies and state media being the dominant contributors. Furthermore, video posters demonstrated different patterns of utilizing social media affordances (e.g., hashtags) in disseminating their messages. The top hashtags adopted by state media were more representative of international relations and Taiwan; those by government agencies were of updates on pandemic outbreaks; those by individual accounts were of mainstream values and health education; those by commercial media were of celebrities and health education; those by enterprise accounts were of TikTok built-in marketing hashtags. The posted videos elicited both cognitive and affective feedback from online viewers. Implications of the findings were discussed in the context of health communication and global recovery against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic and Chinese culture.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Communication , Social Media , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Data Analysis
6.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 73(3): 333-340, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2057023

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is having a serious impact around the world. Many countries have experienced a two or three wave pattern in reported cases. The virus's spread in Thailand was a cluster event distributed over multiple locations, multi-spender, and multiple waves of outbreaks. Objective: This study aims to study gender associated with age, risk factors, and nationality during coronavirus pandemic in Thailand. Material and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 2020 to May 2021 (17 months) to determine the number of confirmed cases and identify gender associated with, age, various risk factors and nationality were analyzed by chi square test and binary logistic regression analyses. Results: The results show that the number of cases increased by over 100,000 over the course of three waves of outbreaks. The logistic regression analysis revealed that genders were significantly related with age, various risk factors, and nationality across different waves (p < 0.01). Across the primary risk factors were community risk, community cluster and close contact with a previously confirmed patient on confirmed cases during COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: Significant differences between genders were significantly associated with age, various risk factors, and nationality may be due to weak social distancing policies and the lack of public health interventions. A COVID-19 vaccination plan is needed for people who are at risk of suffering severe symptoms as well as the general population in outbreak areas to increase immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Data Analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thailand/epidemiology
7.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273526, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Results from observational studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have led to the consensus that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) are not effective for COVID-19 prevention or treatment. Pooling individual participant data, including unanalyzed data from trials terminated early, enables more detailed investigation of the efficacy and safety of HCQ/CQ among subgroups of hospitalized patients. METHODS: We searched ClinicalTrials.gov in May and June 2020 for US-based RCTs evaluating HCQ/CQ in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in which the outcomes defined in this study were recorded or could be extrapolated. The primary outcome was a 7-point ordinal scale measured between day 28 and 35 post enrollment; comparisons used proportional odds ratios. Harmonized de-identified data were collected via a common template spreadsheet sent to each principal investigator. The data were analyzed by fitting a prespecified Bayesian ordinal regression model and standardizing the resulting predictions. RESULTS: Eight of 19 trials met eligibility criteria and agreed to participate. Patient-level data were available from 770 participants (412 HCQ/CQ vs 358 control). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. We did not find evidence of a difference in COVID-19 ordinal scores between days 28 and 35 post-enrollment in the pooled patient population (odds ratio, 0.97; 95% credible interval, 0.76-1.24; higher favors HCQ/CQ), and found no convincing evidence of meaningful treatment effect heterogeneity among prespecified subgroups. Adverse event and serious adverse event rates were numerically higher with HCQ/CQ vs control (0.39 vs 0.29 and 0.13 vs 0.09 per patient, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this individual participant data meta-analysis reinforce those of individual RCTs that HCQ/CQ is not efficacious for treatment of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Data Analysis , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects
8.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 301, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear if the impact of frailty on mortality differs between patients with viral pneumonitis due to COVID-19 or other causes. We aimed to determine if a difference exists between patients with and without COVID-19 pneumonitis. METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective, cohort study using the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database included patients aged ≥ 16 years admitted to 153 ICUs between 01/012020 and 12/31/2021 with admission diagnostic codes for viral pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome, and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). The primary outcome was hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 4620 patients were studied, and 3077 (66.6%) had COVID-19. The patients with COVID-19 were younger (median [IQR] 57.0 [44.7-68.3] vs. 66.1 [52.0-76.2]; p < 0.001) and less frail (median [IQR] CFS 3 [2-4] vs. 4 [3-5]; p < 0.001) than non-COVID-19 patients. The overall hospital mortality was similar between the patients with and without COVID-19 (14.7% vs. 14.9%; p = 0.82). Frailty alone as a predictor of mortality showed only moderate discrimination in differentiating survivors from those who died but was similar between patients with and without COVID-19 (AUROC 0.68 vs. 0.66; p = 0.42). Increasing frailty scores were associated with hospital mortality, after adjusting for Australian and New Zealand Risk of Death score and sex. However, the effect of frailty was similar in patients with and without COVID-19 (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.19-1.41 vs. OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.11-1.37). CONCLUSION: The presence of frailty was an independent risk factor for mortality. However, the impact of frailty on outcomes was similar in COVID-19 patients compared to other causes of viral pneumonitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Frailty , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Data Analysis , Frailty/complications , Frailty/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Registries , Retrospective Studies
9.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 403, 2022 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In reports of adverse reactions following vaccination with the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) vaccines, there have been fewer reports of concern for menstrual disorders in female. OBJECTIVE: Our study employed Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to investigate and analyze the relationship between COVID-19 Vaccines and menstrual disorders in female. METHODS: We collected reports of menstrual disorders in VAERS from July 2, 1990 to November 12, 2021, and performed a stratified analysis. The potential relationship between COVID-19 vaccine and reports of menstrual disorders was evaluated using the Reporting Odds Ratio (ROR) method. RESULTS: A total of 14,431 reports of menstrual disorders were included in the study, and 13,118 were associated with COVID-19 vaccine. The ROR was 7.83 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 7.39-8.28). The most commonly reported event was Menstruation irregular (4998 reports), and a higher percentage of female aged 30-49 years reported menstrual disorders (42.55%) after exposure to COVID-19 Vaccines. Both for all reports of menstrual disorders (ROR = 5.82; 95%CI: 4.93-6.95) and excluding reports of unknown age (ROR = 13.02; 95%CI: 10.89-15.56),suggest that female age may be associated with menstrual disorders after vaccination with the COVID-19 Vaccines. CONCLUSION: There is a potential safety signal when the COVID-19 vaccine is administered to young adult female (30-49 years old), resulting in menstrual disorders in. However, due to the well-known limitations of spontaneous reporting data, it is challenging to explicity classify menstrual disorders as an adverse event of the COVID-19 Vaccines, and reports of adverse reactions to COVID-19 Vaccines in this age group should continue to be tracked.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Menstruation Disturbances , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Data Analysis , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines/adverse effects , Young Adult
10.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 34(8): 824-831, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038550

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and presents with mild to severe symptoms. Vaccines have been developed, but COVID-19 persists. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze big data at an early stage to establish an effective infection prevention strategy. To reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection, this study aimed to analyze the infection factors by region within Seoul, Korea and identify the major factors affecting the infection rate. For ease of data aggregation, the study was conducted after a data refinement operation that organized data in the same group into categories, and classified them in detail by specific keywords. Based on the results of this study, if preventive measures are established after identifying the representative infectious factors, periods, and routes of COVID-19 infection, the infection rate could be effectively reduced in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Big Data , Data Analysis , Seoul/epidemiology
11.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(5)2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017730

ABSTRACT

We present a novel self-supervised Contrastive LEArning framework for single-cell ribonucleic acid (RNA)-sequencing (CLEAR) data representation and the downstream analysis. Compared with current methods, CLEAR overcomes the heterogeneity of the experimental data with a specifically designed representation learning task and thus can handle batch effects and dropout events simultaneously. It achieves superior performance on a broad range of fundamental tasks, including clustering, visualization, dropout correction, batch effect removal, and pseudo-time inference. The proposed method successfully identifies and illustrates inflammatory-related mechanisms in a COVID-19 disease study with 43 695 single cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA , COVID-19/genetics , Cluster Analysis , Data Analysis , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , RNA-Seq , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010092

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on public mental health has become increasingly prominent. Therefore, it is of great value to study the spatial-temporal characteristics of public sentiment responses to COVID-19 exposure to improve urban anti-pandemic decision-making and public health resilience. However, the majority of recent studies have focused on the macro scale or large cities, and there is a relative lack of adequate research on the small-city scale in China. To address this lack of research, we conducted a case study of Shaoxing city, proposed a spatial-based pandemic-cognition-sentiment (PCS) conceptual model, and collected microblog check-in data and information on the spatial-temporal trajectory of cases before and after a wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The natural language algorithm of dictionary-based sentiment analysis (DSA) was used to calculate public sentiment strength. Additionally, local Moran's I, kernel-density analysis, Getis-Ord Gi* and standard deviation ellipse methods were applied to analyze the nonlinear evolution and clustering characteristics of public sentiment spatial-temporal patterns at the small-city scale concerning the pandemic. The results reveal that (1) the characteristics of pandemic spread show contagion diffusion at the micro level and hierarchical diffusion at the macro level, (2) the pandemic has a depressive effect on public sentiment in the center of the outbreak, and (3) the pandemic has a nonlinear gradient negative impact on mood in the surrounding areas. These findings could help propose targeted pandemic prevention policies applying spatial intervention to improve residents' mental health resilience in response to future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Data Analysis , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
13.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 65, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human milk banks (HMBs) are essential facilities for the selection, collection, testing, transportation,storage, and distribution of DHM for special medical needs. The aim of this analysis was to analyze the operation status and data over the last 8 years of operation of the first human milk bank (HMB) in East China. METHODS: Data related to the costs, donors, donation, pasteurization, and recipients were extracted from the web-based electronic monitoring system of the HMB for the period August 1, 2013 to July 31, 2021. RESULTS: Over the 8 years of operation, 1,555 qualified donors donated 7,396.5L of qualified milk at a cost of ¥1.94 million($306,051), with the average cost per liter of donor human milk being ¥262.3($41.4). The donors were between 25 and 30 years of age, and the majority (80.1%) were primipara. All the donated milk was pasteurized and subjected to bacteriological tests before and after pasteurization: 95.4% passed the pre-pasteurization tests, and 96.3% passed the post-pasteurization tests. A total of 9,207 newborns received 5,775.2L of pasteurized donor milk. The main reason for the prescription of donor human milk was preterm birth. As a result of continuous quality improvements, January 2016 witnessed a significant increase in the volume of qualified DHM and the number of qualified donors. However, in 2020, as a result of the restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic, the volume of qualified DHM and the number of qualified donors decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Over its 8 years of operation, our HMB has made steady quality improvements in its screening and information processes. Continuous quality improvement is on ongoing need, along with recruiting more qualified donors and collecting donor human milk for vulnerable newborns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Breast Feeding , Data Analysis , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Milk, Human , Pandemics
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987799

ABSTRACT

The compositional analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing datasets is applied to characterize the bacterial structure of airborne samples collected in different locations of a hospital infection disease department hosting COVID-19 patients, as well as to investigate the relationships among bacterial taxa at the genus and species level. The exploration of the centered log-ratio transformed data by the principal component analysis via the singular value decomposition has shown that the collected samples segregated with an observable separation depending on the monitoring location. More specifically, two main sample clusters were identified with regards to bacterial genera (species), consisting of samples mostly collected in rooms with and without COVID-19 patients, respectively. Human pathogenic genera (species) associated with nosocomial infections were mostly found in samples from areas hosting patients, while non-pathogenic genera (species) mainly isolated from soil were detected in the other samples. Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus pettenkoferi, Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum, and jeikeium were the main pathogenic species detected in COVID-19 patients' rooms. Samples from these locations were on average characterized by smaller richness/evenness and diversity than the other ones, both at the genus and species level. Finally, the ρ metrics revealed that pairwise positive associations occurred either between pathogenic or non-pathogenic taxa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Bacteria , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Analysis , Genes, rRNA , Hospitals , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987759

ABSTRACT

Smartphone addiction has become a public health issue. To help reduce smartphone addiction, we assessed the combined effect of 24-Hour Movement Behaviors on smartphone addiction during Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) home confinement in Foshan, China. Data were collected in a sample of 1323 senior middle school students ((mean age ± standard deviation): 16.4 ± 0.9 years; 43.46% males) during the COVID-19 lockdown. Their 24-Hour movement behaviors were assessed by a self-reported questionnaire, The Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version (SAS-SV). The compositional multiple linear regression model and compositional isotemporal substitution model were used to examine the association between the time budget composition of the day and smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction occurred in 671 (50.72%) of the 1323 students. Compared with smartphone-addicted adolescents, non-smartphone-addicted adolescents had more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep duration (SLP), and less sedentary behavior (SB). The distribution of time spent in 24-Hour movement behaviors was significantly associated with smartphone addiction. The negative effect was found for the proportion of time spent in MVPA or SLP (ilr1-MVPA = -0.453, p < 0.001. ilr1-SLP = -3.641, p < 0.001, respectively) relative to the other three behaviors. Conversely, SB was positively associated with the score of smartphone addiction (ilr1-SB = 2.641, p < 0.001). Reallocating one behavior to remaining behaviors was associated with smartphone addiction. Noticeably, the effects of one behavior replacing another behavior and of one behavior being displaced by another behavior were asymmetric. The 24-Hour movement behaviors of adolescents are closely related to smartphone addiction, and future intervention studies should focus on the compositional attribute of 24-Hour movement behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Data Analysis , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Female , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Male
16.
Health Policy ; 126(9): 865-871, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This paper investigates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on depression in the older population, an especially vulnerable group for which to date there is limited empirical research. METHODS: We employ a panel data consisting of seven waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (2010-2020). The breadth and depth of the data considered enabled us to control for individual fixed effects, to adjust for pre-pandemic trends in depression levels and to perform a heterogeneity analysis, depending on the intensity of the lockdown measures implemented and relevant socioeconomic characteristics. RESULTS: We find that, following the COVID-19 pandemic, study participants reported a statistically significant increase in the depressive symptoms by around 0.7 over 8 points as measured by the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) index. The estimated coefficients were larger in November than in July, for individuals who lost their job, retired and women. Interestingly, we observed that mental health has worsened substantially relative to the pre-pandemic period across all income groups of the older population, suggesting a limited role of income as a protective mechanism for mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide compelling evidence that depression levels amongst older adults have worsened considerably following the COVID-19 pandemic, and that factors other than income, such as social interactions, may be highly relevant for well-being in later life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Data Analysis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics
17.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 111(10): 1174-1182, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this retrospective routine data analysis, we investigate the number of emergency department (ED) consultations during the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 in Germany compared to the previous year with a special focus on numbers of myocardial infarction and acute heart failure. METHODS: Aggregated case numbers for the two consecutive years 2019 and 2020 were obtained from 24 university hospitals and 9 non-university hospitals in Germany and assessed by age, gender, triage scores, disposition, care level and by ICD-10 codes including the tracer diagnoses myocardial infarction (I21) and heart failure (I50). RESULTS: A total of 2,216,627 ED consultations were analyzed, of which 1,178,470 occurred in 2019 and 1,038,157 in 2020. The median deviation in case numbers between 2019 and 2020 was - 14% [CI (- 11)-(- 16)]. After a marked drop in all cases in the first COVID-19 wave in spring 2020, case numbers normalized during the summer. Thereafter starting in calendar week 39 case numbers constantly declined until the end of the year 2020. The decline in case numbers predominantly concerned younger [- 16%; CI (- 13)-(- 19)], less urgent [- 18%; CI (- 12)-(- 22)] and non-admitted cases [- 17%; CI (- 13)-(- 20)] in particular during the second wave. During the entire observation period admissions for chest pain [- 13%; CI (- 21)-2], myocardial infarction [- 2%; CI (- 9)-11] and heart failure [- 2%; CI (- 10)-6] were less affected and remained comparable to the previous year. CONCLUSIONS: ED visits were noticeably reduced during both SARS-CoV-2 pandemic waves in Germany but cardiovascular diagnoses were less affected and no refractory increase was noted. However, long-term effects cannot be ruled out and need to be analysed in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Analysis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269774, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978847

ABSTRACT

As countries struggled with SARS-COV2 outbreaks at the beginning of 2021, many citizens found themselves in yet another period of increasing travel restrictions, if not a strict lockdown. At the same time there was concern that further restrictions would prove to be less effective due to a range of reasons including increasing pandemic fatigue or the lack of appropriate supports. In this study we investigate whether restrictions remained effective as a way to limit non-essential travel in order to curb virus transmission. We do this by analysing adherence during periods of increasing and decreasing restrictions in 125 countries during three different 4-month phases, early (March-June 2020), middle (July-October 2020), and late (November 2020-February 2021) over the course of the first year of the pandemic, and prior to significant population-wide vaccination. We use the strength of the relationship between restriction levels and the level of personal mobility associated with non-essential travel in order to determine the degree of adherence to the restrictions imposed. We show that there is evidence of a significant decrease in adherence to restrictions during the middle and late phases of the pandemic, compared with the early phase. Our analysis further suggests that this decrease in adherence is due to changes in mobility rather than changes in restrictions. We conclude, therefore, that restrictions have become less effective at curbing non-essential travel, which may alter the cost-benefit analysis of restrictions and lockdowns, thus highlighting the need for governments to reconsider large-scale restrictions as a containment strategy in the future, in favour of more focused or flexible mitigation approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Data Analysis , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13246, 2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967621

ABSTRACT

This study provides a novel approach to understand human perception changes in their experiences of and interactions with public greenspaces during the early months of COVID-19. Using social media data and machine learning techniques, the study delivers new understandings of how people began to feel differently about their experiences compared to pre-COVID times. The study illuminates a renewed appreciation of nature as well as an emerging but prominent pattern of emotional and spiritual experiences expressed through a social media platform. Given that most park and recreational studies have almost exclusively examined whether park use increased or decreased during the pandemic, this research provides meaningful implications beyond the simple extensional visit pattern and lends weight to the growing evidences on changing perceptions over and the positive psychological impacts of nature. The study highlights the preeminent roles parks and greenspaces play during the pandemic and guides a new direction in future park development to support more natural elements and nature-oriented experiences from which emotional and spiritual well-being outcomes can be drawn.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Analysis , Humans , Machine Learning , Parks, Recreational , Perception
20.
Clin Imaging ; 90: 11-18, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956102

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Common CT abnormalities of pulmonary aspergillosis represent a cavity with air-meniscus sign, nodule, mass, and consolidation having an angio-invasive pattern. This study aims to conduct a systematic review and an individual patient-level image analysis of CT findings of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies reporting CT findings of CAPA as of January 7, 2021. We summarized study-level clinical and CT findings of CAPA and collected individual patient CT images by inviting corresponding authors. The CT findings were categorized into four groups: group 1, typical appearance of COVID-19; group 2, indeterminate appearance of COVID-19; group 3, atypical for COVID-19 without cavities; and group 4, atypical for COVID-19 with cavities. In group 2, cases had only minor discrepant findings including solid nodules, isolated airspace consolidation with negligible ground-glass opacities, centrilobular micronodules, bronchial abnormalities, and cavities. RESULTS: The literature search identified 89 patients from 25 studies, and we collected CT images from 35 CAPA patients (mean age 62.4 ± 14.6 years; 21 men): group 1, thirteen patients (37.1%); group 2, eight patients (22.9%); group 3, six patients (17.1%); and group 4, eight patients (22.9%). Eight of the 14 patients (57.1%) with an atypical appearance had bronchial abnormalities, whereas only one (7.1%) had an angio-invasive fungal pattern. In the study-level analysis, cavities were reported in 12 of 54 patients (22.2%). CONCLUSION: CAPA can frequently manifest as COVID-19 pneumonia without common CT abnormalities of pulmonary aspergillosis. If abnormalities exist on CT images, CAPA may frequently accompany bronchial abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Data Analysis , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
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