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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 3910291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596204

ABSTRACT

There is a scant literature on the accuracy of dental photographs captured by Digital Single-Lens Reflex (DSLR) and smartphone cameras. The aim was to compare linear measurements of plaster models photographed with DSLR and smartphone's camera with digital models. Thirty maxillary casts were prepared. Vertical and horizontal reference lines were marked on each tooth, with exception to molars. Then, models were scanned with the TRIOS 3 Basic intraoral dental scanner (control). Six photographs were captured for each model: one using DSLR camera (Canon EOS 700D) and five with smartphone (iPhone X) (distance range 16-32 cm). Teeth heights and widths were measured on scans and photographs. The following conclusions could be drawn: (1) the measurements of teeth by means of DSLR and smartphone cameras (at distances of at least 24 cm) and scan did not differ. (2) The measurements of anterior teeth by means of DSLR and smartphone cameras (at all distances tested) and scan exhibited no difference. For documentational purposes, the distortion is negligeable, and both camera devices can be applied. Dentists can rely on DSLR and smartphone cameras (at distances of at least 24 cm) for smile designs providing comparable and reliable linear measurements.


Subject(s)
Photography, Dental/instrumentation , Tooth/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Data Collection/methods , Humans , Smartphone/instrumentation , Smiling/physiology , Young Adult
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(24)2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591121

ABSTRACT

Accidentally clicking on a link is a type of human error known as a slip in which a user unintentionally performs an unintended task. The risk magnitude is the probability of occurrences of such error with a possible substantial effect to which even experienced individuals are susceptible. Phishing attacks take advantage of slip-based human error by attacking psychological aspects of the users that lead to unintentionally clicking on phishing links. Such actions may lead to installing tracking software, downloading malware or viruses, or stealing private, sensitive information, to list a few. Therefore, a system is needed that detects whether a click on a link is intentional or unintentional and, if unintentional, can then prevent it. This paper proposes a micro-behavioral accidental click detection system (ACDS) to prevent slip-based human error. A within-subject-based experiment was conducted with 20 participants to test the potential of the proposed system. The results reveal the statistical significance between the two cases of intentional vs. unintentional clicks using a smartphone. Random tree, random forest, and support vector machine classifiers were used, exhibiting 82.6%, 87.2%, and 91.6% accuracy in detecting unintentional clicks, respectively.


Subject(s)
Computer Security , Software , Accidents , Data Collection , Humans
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25118, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has recognized the importance of assessing population-level mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. During a global crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic, a timely surveillance method is urgently needed to track the impact on public mental health. OBJECTIVE: This brief systematic review focused on the efficiency and quality of data collection of studies conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database using the following search strings: ((COVID-19) OR (SARS-CoV-2)) AND ((Mental health) OR (psychological) OR (psychiatry)). We screened the titles, abstracts, and texts of the published papers to exclude irrelevant studies. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to evaluate the quality of each research paper. RESULTS: Our search yielded 37 relevant mental health surveys of the general public that were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, as of July 10, 2020. All these public mental health surveys were cross-sectional in design, and the journals efficiently made these articles available online in an average of 18.7 (range 1-64) days from the date they were received. The average duration of recruitment periods was 9.2 (range 2-35) days, and the average sample size was 5137 (range 100-56,679). However, 73% (27/37) of the selected studies had Newcastle-Ottawa Scale scores of <3 points, which suggests that these studies are of very low quality for inclusion in a meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The studies examined in this systematic review used an efficient data collection method, but there was a high risk of bias, in general, among the existing public mental health surveys. Therefore, following recommendations to avoid selection bias, or employing novel methodologies considering both a longitudinal design and high temporal resolution, would help provide a strong basis for the formation of national mental health policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Data Collection/standards , Health Surveys/standards , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23467, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many countries across the globe have released their own COVID-19 contact tracing apps. This has resulted in the proliferation of several apps that used a variety of technologies. With the absence of a standardized approach used by the authorities, policy makers, and developers, many of these apps were unique. Therefore, they varied by function and the underlying technology used for contact tracing and infection reporting. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze most of the COVID-19 contact tracing apps in use today. Beyond investigating the privacy features, design, and implications of these apps, this research examined the underlying technologies used in contact tracing apps. It also attempted to provide some insights into their level of penetration and to gauge their public reception. This research also investigated the data collection, reporting, retention, and destruction procedures used by each of the apps under review. METHODS: This research study evaluated 13 apps corresponding to 10 countries based on the underlying technology used. The inclusion criteria ensured that most COVID-19-declared epicenters (ie, countries) were included in the sample, such as Italy. The evaluated apps also included countries that did relatively well in controlling the outbreak of COVID-19, such as Singapore. Informational and unofficial contact tracing apps were excluded from this study. A total of 30,000 reviews corresponding to the 13 apps were scraped from app store webpages and analyzed. RESULTS: This study identified seven distinct technologies used by COVID-19 tracing apps and 13 distinct apps. The United States was reported to have released the most contact tracing apps, followed by Italy. Bluetooth was the most frequently used underlying technology, employed by seven apps, whereas three apps used GPS. The Norwegian, Singaporean, Georgian, and New Zealand apps were among those that collected the most personal information from users, whereas some apps, such as the Swiss app and the Italian (Immuni) app, did not collect any user information. The observed minimum amount of time implemented for most of the apps with regard to data destruction was 14 days, while the Georgian app retained records for 3 years. No significant battery drainage issue was reported for most of the apps. Interestingly, only about 2% of the reviewers expressed concerns about their privacy across all apps. The number and frequency of technical issues reported on the Apple App Store were significantly more than those reported on Google Play; the highest was with the New Zealand app, with 27% of the reviewers reporting technical difficulties (ie, 10% out of 27% scraped reviews reported that the app did not work). The Norwegian, Swiss, and US (PathCheck) apps had the least reported technical issues, sitting at just below 10%. In terms of usability, many apps, such as those from Singapore, Australia, and Switzerland, did not provide the users with an option to sign out from their apps. CONCLUSIONS: This article highlighted the fact that COVID-19 contact tracing apps are still facing many obstacles toward their widespread and public acceptance. The main challenges are related to the technical, usability, and privacy issues or to the requirements reported by some users.


Subject(s)
Attitude , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Mobile Applications , Privacy , Australia , Data Collection , Disease Outbreaks , Geographic Information Systems , Georgia (Republic) , Humans , Italy , New Zealand , Norway , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Switzerland , Technology , United States , Wireless Technology
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7105, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574494

ABSTRACT

We report interim safety and immunogenicity findings from an ongoing phase 1/2 study of BNT162b2 in healthy Japanese adults. Participants were randomized 3:1 to receive 2 intramuscular injections of 30 µg BNT162b2 or placebo 21 days apart. Overall, 160 individuals were randomized: 119 received BNT162b2, and 41 received placebo. Participants were stratified by age: 20-64 years (n = 130) and 65-85 years (n = 30). More than 97% of BNT162b2 recipients received 2 doses. Local reactions and systemic events were generally transient and mild to moderate. Severe adverse events were uncommon; there were no serious adverse events. One month after dose 2, SARS-CoV-2 50% serum neutralizing geometric mean titers were 571 and 366, and geometric mean fold rises were 55.8 and 36.6, in the younger and older age groups, respectively. In summary, BNT162b2 has an acceptable safety profile and produces a robust immune response, regardless of age, in Japanese adults. (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04588480).


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Data Collection , Female , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
7.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 578, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526629

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surgical logbooks are a commonly used tool for quality assurance of surgical training. Electronic logbooks are increasingly applied in low-resource settings, but there is limited research on their quality. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of an app-based surgical e-logbook system shortly after its implementation in a low-income country and to identify potential areas of improvement for the system. METHODS: Entries in the e-logbook system were cross-checked with hospital records and categorized as matched or overreported. Moreover, the hospital records were checked for underreported procedures. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were conducted with users of the e-logbook system. RESULTS: A total of 278 e-logbook database entries and 379 procedures in the hospital records from 14 users were analyzed. Matches were found in the hospital records for 67.3% of the database entries. Moreover, 32.7% of the database entries were overreported and 50.7% of the procedures in the hospital records were underreported. A previous study of an analog surgical logbook system in the same setting estimated that 73.1% of the entries were matches or close matches. Interviews with 12 e-logbook users found overall satisfaction but also identified potential areas of improvement, including the need for more training in the use of the system, modifications to improve user-friendliness, and better access to the necessary technology. CONCLUSIONS: A reliable documentation system is necessary to evaluate the quality of health workforce training. The early evaluation of a surgical e-logbook system in a low-income country showed that the collected data should be approached with caution. The quantitative analysis suggests that the e-logbook system needs to be improved in terms of accuracy. In interviews, users reported that digitalization of the logbook system was a much-needed innovation but also identified important areas of improvement. Recognition of these aspects at an early stage facilitates guidance and adjustment of further implementation and might improve the accuracy of the system.


Subject(s)
Documentation , Hospitals , Data Collection , Electronics , Sierra Leone
8.
Int J Med Inform ; 157: 104622, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507080

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Data extraction from electronic health record (EHR) systems occurs through manual abstraction, automated extraction, or a combination of both. While each method has its strengths and weaknesses, both are necessary for retrospective observational research as well as sudden clinical events, like the COVID-19 pandemic. Assessing the strengths, weaknesses, and potentials of these methods is important to continue to understand optimal approaches to extracting clinical data. We set out to assess automated and manual techniques for collecting medication use data in patients with COVID-19 to inform future observational studies that extract data from the electronic health record (EHR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 4,123 COVID-positive patients hospitalized and/or seen in the emergency department at an academic medical center between 03/03/2020 and 05/15/2020, we compared medication use data of 25 medications or drug classes collected through manual abstraction and automated extraction from the EHR. Quantitatively, we assessed concordance using Cohen's kappa to measure interrater reliability, and qualitatively, we audited observed discrepancies to determine causes of inconsistencies. RESULTS: For the 16 inpatient medications, 11 (69%) demonstrated moderate or better agreement; 7 of those demonstrated strong or almost perfect agreement. For 9 outpatient medications, 3 (33%) demonstrated moderate agreement, but none achieved strong or almost perfect agreement. We audited 12% of all discrepancies (716/5,790) and, in those audited, observed three principal categories of error: human error in manual abstraction (26%), errors in the extract-transform-load (ETL) or mapping of the automated extraction (41%), and abstraction-query mismatch (33%). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest many inpatient medications can be collected reliably through automated extraction, especially when abstraction instructions are designed with data architecture in mind. We discuss quality issues, concerns, and improvements for institutions to consider when crafting an approach. During crises, institutions must decide how to allocate limited resources. We show that automated extraction of medications is feasible and make recommendations on how to improve future iterations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Data Collection , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504697

ABSTRACT

Protecting healthcare professionals is crucial in maintaining a functioning healthcare system. The risk of infection and optimal preventive strategies for healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic remain poorly understood. Here we report the results of a cohort study that included pre- and asymptomatic healthcare workers. A weekly testing regime has been performed in this cohort since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic to identify infected healthcare workers. Based on these observations we have developed a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission that integrates the sources of infection from inside and outside the hospital. The data were used to study how regular testing and a desynchronisation protocol are effective in preventing transmission of COVID-19 infection at work, and compared both strategies in terms of workforce availability and cost-effectiveness. We showed that case incidence among healthcare workers is higher than would be explained solely by community infection. Furthermore, while testing and desynchronisation protocols are both effective in preventing nosocomial transmission, regular testing maintains work productivity with implementation costs.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/economics , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Cross Infection , Data Collection , Delivery of Health Care , Hospitals , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Models, Theoretical , Occupational Exposure , Pandemics , Risk , Stochastic Processes , Switzerland/epidemiology
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 285: 173-178, 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502265

ABSTRACT

COVID-19's rapid spreads has caused a global pandemic. On 19th February 2020, Iran reported its first confirmed cases of infections in Qom City and the number of diagnosed cases and the death toll rose exponentially in March [1-3]. Managing the disease, which is considered a pandemic according to the World Health Organization (WHO) [4], requires definite approaches differing according to various factors in each country, which may also lead to (in)effective dealing with the disease. In addition, using international data and information, and WHO advice, especially in the crisis and therapeutic procedures, is one of the best crisis management strategies [5]. For every plan by governances, the first step is collecting information on epidemic distribution for the purpose of isolating provinces and cities at a national scale. Thus, Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran (MOHME) attempted to collect the minimum required data on the infection-affected patients based on medical records and epidemiological factors, such as demographic data (gender, age and national code), exposure history (close contact with the infected, suspect patients or even having traveled) and signs and symptoms (fever, cough, shortness or difficulties in breathing, fatigue, anorexia, hemoptysis, sputum production, dyspnea, Myalgia, Pharyngalgia, nausea, vomiting, Diarrhea, Headache, Abdominal pain, Dizziness, etc.). Therefore, to ensure accuracy and validity, and to speed up data collection in an area, Information Technology (IT) tools were required [6]. In this regard, developing an information system with a simple format and user-friendly interface in the shortest possible time was the aim. This study presents the local information system developed in March 2020, which has been registering hospitalized Covide-19-affected patients in Iranian hospitals up till now. In other words, this paper introduces features and procedures of one of the national systems as a health registry that includes clinical information on admitted Covid-19 patients in Iranian hospitals from admission to discharge or death. This system is supported by MOHME, and along with outpatient Point of Care Information Systems (POCS), feeds the national and international pandemic reports and decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Data Collection , Hospitals , Humans , Information Systems , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Am J Public Health ; 111(S3): S208-S214, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496723

ABSTRACT

Public Health 3.0 calls for the inclusion of new partners and novel data to bring systemic change to the US public health landscape. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has illuminated significant data gaps influenced by ongoing colonial legacies of racism and erasure. American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations and communities have been disproportionately affected by incomplete public health data and by the COVID-19 pandemic itself. Our findings indicate that only 26 US states were able to calculate COVID-19‒related death rates for AI/AN populations. Given that 37 states have Indian Health Service locations, we argue that public health researchers and practitioners should have a far larger data set of aggregated public health information on AI/AN populations. Despite enormous obstacles, local Tribal facilities have created effective community responses to COVID-19 testing, tracking, and vaccine administration. Their knowledge can lead the way to a healthier nation. Federal and state governments and health agencies must learn to responsibly support Tribal efforts, collect data from AI/AN persons in partnership with Indian Health Service and Tribal governments, and communicate effectively with Tribal authorities to ensure Indigenous data sovereignty. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(S3): S208-S214. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306415).


Subject(s)
Alaskan Natives/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health , United States Indian Health Service/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Data Collection/standards , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20569, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475480

ABSTRACT

The Brazilian Northern region registered a high incidence of COVID-19 cases, particularly in the state of Pará. The present study investigated the risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19 in a Brazilian Amazon region of 100,819 cases. An epidemiological, cross-sectional, analytical and demographic study, analyzing data on confirmed cases for COVID-19 available at the Brazilian Ministry of Health's surveillance platform, was conducted. Variables such as, municipalities of residence, age, gender, signs and symptoms, comorbidities were included and associated with COVID-19 cases and outcomes. The spatial distribution was performed using the ArcGIS program. A total of 100,819 cases were evaluated. Overall, patients had the mean age of 42.3 years, were female (51.2%) and with lethality reaching 4.79% of cases. Main symptoms included fever (66.5%), cough (61.9%) and sore throat (39.8%). Regarding comorbidities, most of the patients presented cardiovascular disease (5.1%) and diabetes (4.2%). Neurological disease increased risk of death by nearly 15 times, followed by obesity (5.16 times) and immunodeficiency (5.09 time). The municipalities with the highest incidence rate were Parauapebas, Canaã dos Carajás and Jacareacanga. Similarity between the Lower Amazon, Marajó and Southwest mesoregions of Pará state were observed concerning the highest morbidity rates. The obtained data demonstrated that the majority of cases occurred among young adults, females, with the classic influenza symptoms and chronic diseases. Finally, data suggest that the highest incidences were no longer in the metropolitan region of the state. The higher lethality rate than in Brazil may be associated with the greater impacts of the disease in this Amazonian population, or factors associated with fragile epidemiological surveillance in the notification of cases of cure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Area Under Curve , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Cough/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Geography , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Regression Analysis , Risk , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409551

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: People with disabilities are disproportionately impacted by disasters, including health emergencies, and responses are not always inclusive or accessible. Disability-inclusive response and recovery efforts require rapid, contextually relevant data, but little was known about either the experience of people with disabilities in the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, or how rapid needs assessments were conducted. METHODS: We reviewed the available results from rapid assessments of impacts of COVID-19 on people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries in Asia and the Pacific. Rapid assessment methods and questions were examined to describe the current approaches and synthesise results. RESULTS: Seventeen surveys met the inclusion criteria. The findings suggest that people with disabilities experienced less access to health, education, and social services and increased violence. The most rapid assessments were conducted by or with disabled person's organisations (DPOs). The rapid assessment methods were varied, resulting in heterogeneous data between contexts. Efforts to standardise data collection in disability surveys are not reflected in practice. CONCLUSIONS: Persons with disabilities were disproportionately impacted by the 'first wave' of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite complex implementation challenges and methodological limitations, persons with disabilities have led efforts to provide evidence to inform disability-inclusive pandemic responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Data Collection , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(8): e00300020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1398995

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This article aims to present general methodological aspects of the Brazilian National Survey on Child Nutrition (ENANI-2019), from the conception of the study design to details of the data collection. This is a household-based population survey with a sample calculated at 15,000 households to identify children under five years of age, conducted in 123 municipalities in Brazil's 26 states and the Federal District. ENANI-2019 includes data on breastfeeding and dietary intake; anthropometric nutritional status of all children and their biological mothers; and nutritional status concerning the following micronutrients: iron (hemoglobin and ferritin), zinc, selenium, and vitamins A, B1, B6, B12, D, E, and folic acid of children from 6 to 59 months of age. A total of 193,212 households were visited, of which 19,951 were eligible, and 12,524 were included in the study. A total of 14,558 children were studied, of whom 13,990 (96.1%) and 13,921 (95.6%) had their body mass and length/stature measured, respectively, and 14,541 (99.9%) underwent 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR). Of the 12,598 children eligible for blood sample collection, 8,739 (69.3%) had at least one laboratory parameter measured. Data were collected from February 2019 to March 2020, when the survey was interrupted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The evidence produced by the ENANI-2019 survey can back the formulation, follow-up, and/or reorientation of food and nutrition policies such as the promotion of breastfeeding and healthy eating and the prevention and control of different forms of malnutrition.


Resumo: O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar aspectos metodológicos gerais do Estudo Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição Infantil (ENANI-2019), desde a concepção do desenho da pesquisa até o detalhamento da coleta dos dados. Trata-se de um inquérito populacional de base domiciliar com amostra calculada de 15 mil domicílios para identificação de crianças menores de 5 anos de idade, realizado em 123 municípios dos 26 estados brasileiros e do Distrito Federal. O ENANI-2019 engloba dados de práticas de aleitamento materno e consumo alimentar; estado nutricional antropométrico das crianças e das mães biológicas; e estado nutricional para os seguintes micronutrientes: ferro (hemoglobina e ferritina), zinco, selênio e as vitaminas A, B1, B6, B12, D, E e folato das crianças de 6 a 59 meses de idade. Foram visitados 193.212 domicílios, dos quais 19.951 eram elegíveis e 12.524 foram incluídos no estudo. Foram estudadas 14.558 crianças, sendo obtidas 13.990 (96,1%) e 13.921 (95,6%) medidas de massa corporal e comprimento/estatura, respectivamente; e realizados 14.541 (99,9%) recordatórios alimentares de 24 horas. Das 12.598 elegíveis para coleta de sangue, 8.739 (69,3%) tiveram pelo menos um parâmetro laboratorial avaliado. Os dados foram coletados de fevereiro de 2019 a março de 2020, quando a pesquisa foi interrompida devido à pandemia de COVID-19. As evidências produzidas pelo ENANI-2019 poderão subsidiar a formulação, o acompanhamento e/ou o redirecionamento de políticas de alimentação e nutrição, tais como as de promoção do aleitamento materno e da alimentação saudável e as de prevenção e controle de diferentes formas de má nutrição.


Resumen: El objetivo de este artículo es presentar aspectos metodológicos generales del Estudio Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición Infantil (ENANI-2019) en Brasil, desde la concepción del diseño de la investigación, hasta el detalle de la recogida de datos. Se trata de una encuesta poblacional de base domiciliaria con una muestra calculada de 15.000 domicilios para la identificación de niños menores de cinco años de edad, realizado en 123 municipios de los 26 estados y en el Distrito Federal. El ENANI-2019 engloba datos de prácticas de lactancia materna y consumo alimentario; estado nutricional antropométrico de los niños y madres biológicas; así como el estado nutricional para los siguientes micronutrientes: hierro (hemoglobina y ferritina), zinc, selenio y vitaminas A, B1, B6, B12, D, E y ácido fólico en niños de 6 a 59 meses de edad. Se visitaron 193.212 domicilios, de los cuales 19.951 eran elegibles y 12.524 se incluyeron en el estudio. Se estudiaron a 14.558 niños, obteniéndose 13.990 (96,1%) y 13.921 (95,6%) medidas de masa corporal y longitud/estatura, respectivamente; y se realizaron 14.541 (99,9%) recordatorios alimentarios de 24 horas. De las 12.598 muestras elegibles para recogida de sangre, 8.739 (69,3%) contaron con por lo menos un parámetro de laboratorio evaluado. Los datos se recogieron de febrero de 2019 a marzo de 2020, cuando se interrumpió la investigación, debido a la pandemia de COVID-19. Las evidencias producidas por el ENANI-2019 podrán apoyar la formulación, seguimiento y/o redirección de políticas de alimentación y nutrición, como las de promoción de la lactancia materna y alimentación saludable, así como las de prevención y control de diferentes formas de mala nutrición.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Nutrition Surveys , Brazil , Nutritional Status , Data Collection , Diet
18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0254432, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398928

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Community engagement (CE) is an effective public health strategy for improving health outcomes. There is limited published knowledge about effective approaches to CE in ensuring effective responses to COVID-19 throughout lockdowns, travel restrictions and social distancing. In this paper, we contribute to bridging this gap by highlighting experience of CE in Vietnam, specifically focusing on migrant workers in Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional qualitative study design was used with qualitative data collection was carried out during August-October 2020. Two districts were purposefully selected from two large industrial zones. Data was collected using in-depth interviews (n = 36) with individuals and households, migrants and owners of dormitories, industrial zone factory representatives, community representatives and health authorities. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis approach. The study received ethics approval from the Hanoi University Institutional Review Board. RESULTS: The government's response to COVID-19 was spearheaded by the multi-sectoral National Steering Committee for the Prevention and Control of COVID-19, chaired by the Vice Prime Minister and comprised different members from 23 ministries. This structure was replicated throughout the province and local levels and all public and private organizations. Different activities were carried out by local communities, following four key principles of infection control: early detection, isolation, quarantine and hospitalization. We found three key determinants of engagement of migrant workers with COVID-19 prevention and control: availability of resources, appropriate capacity strengthening, transparent and continuous communication and a sense of trust in government legitimacy. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our results support the current literature on CE in infection control which highlights the importance of context and suggests that future CE should consider five key components: multi-sectoral collaboration with a whole-of-community approach to strengthen governance structures with context-specific partnerships; mobilization of resources and decentralization of decision making to encourage self-reliance and building of local capacity; capacity building through training and supervision to local institutions; transparent and clear communication of health risks and sensitization of local communities to improve compliance and foster trust in the government measures; and understanding the urgent needs ensuring of social security and engaging all parts of the community, specifically the vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Community Participation/legislation & jurisprudence , Adult , Capacity Building/legislation & jurisprudence , Communication , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection/legislation & jurisprudence , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Trust , Vietnam , Young Adult
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e047157, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398665

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Most research on loneliness comes from the health sciences, statistically seeking to measure the health-related effects of feeling alone or isolated. There is a need to expand on this understanding and explore loneliness as a more complex social phenomenon. In this article, we present a qualitative design for studying the intersection between loneliness, technology and culture. Conceptualising this as the cultural dialectic between loneliness and technology, we aim to unpack the reciprocal ways by which understandings of loneliness shape technology, while technologies also affect society's understandings of loneliness. In elucidating this dialectic, we aim to develop new knowledge and a novel theoretical framework for understanding loneliness and its technological solutions, which, in turn, can enable better solutions to contemporary problems of loneliness. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will adopt a qualitative approach that combines interviews, participant observation and textual analysis to explore loneliness and its technological solutions from the perspectives of policy-makers, producers, professionals and users in Norway and the UK. The data will be analysed through an analytical framework combining insights from discourse theory and philosophical debates on presence, which will allow us to capture and rethink fundamental assumptions about loneliness and technology. Outcomes will be revised understandings of loneliness, relevant to researchers, entrepreneurs, policy-makers, clinicians, educators and the broader public. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project has been evaluated and approved by the data protection officer at Oslo Metropolitan University and by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Additional ethical approval for data collection in the UK has been provided by the University of Oxford Interdivisional Research Ethics Committee. Informed consent will be obtained from all participants. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, international conference presentations and lay media.


Subject(s)
Loneliness , Technology , Administrative Personnel , Data Collection , Humans , Qualitative Research , Research Design
20.
Med Ref Serv Q ; 40(3): 329-336, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397994

ABSTRACT

The explosive growth of digital information in recent years has amplified the information overload experienced by today's health-care professionals. In particular, the wide variety of unstructured text makes it difficult for researchers to find meaningful data without spending a considerable amount of time reading. Text mining can be used to facilitate better discoverability and analysis, and aid researchers in identifying critical trends and connections. This column will introduce key text-mining terms, recent use cases of biomedical text mining, and current applications for this technology in medical libraries.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19 , Data Collection/trends , Data Mining/trends , Research Report/trends , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Data Collection/statistics & numerical data , Data Mining/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting , Humans
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