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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 3910291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596204

ABSTRACT

There is a scant literature on the accuracy of dental photographs captured by Digital Single-Lens Reflex (DSLR) and smartphone cameras. The aim was to compare linear measurements of plaster models photographed with DSLR and smartphone's camera with digital models. Thirty maxillary casts were prepared. Vertical and horizontal reference lines were marked on each tooth, with exception to molars. Then, models were scanned with the TRIOS 3 Basic intraoral dental scanner (control). Six photographs were captured for each model: one using DSLR camera (Canon EOS 700D) and five with smartphone (iPhone X) (distance range 16-32 cm). Teeth heights and widths were measured on scans and photographs. The following conclusions could be drawn: (1) the measurements of teeth by means of DSLR and smartphone cameras (at distances of at least 24 cm) and scan did not differ. (2) The measurements of anterior teeth by means of DSLR and smartphone cameras (at all distances tested) and scan exhibited no difference. For documentational purposes, the distortion is negligeable, and both camera devices can be applied. Dentists can rely on DSLR and smartphone cameras (at distances of at least 24 cm) for smile designs providing comparable and reliable linear measurements.


Subject(s)
Photography, Dental/instrumentation , Tooth/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Data Collection/methods , Humans , Smartphone/instrumentation , Smiling/physiology , Young Adult
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25118, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has recognized the importance of assessing population-level mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. During a global crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic, a timely surveillance method is urgently needed to track the impact on public mental health. OBJECTIVE: This brief systematic review focused on the efficiency and quality of data collection of studies conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database using the following search strings: ((COVID-19) OR (SARS-CoV-2)) AND ((Mental health) OR (psychological) OR (psychiatry)). We screened the titles, abstracts, and texts of the published papers to exclude irrelevant studies. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to evaluate the quality of each research paper. RESULTS: Our search yielded 37 relevant mental health surveys of the general public that were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, as of July 10, 2020. All these public mental health surveys were cross-sectional in design, and the journals efficiently made these articles available online in an average of 18.7 (range 1-64) days from the date they were received. The average duration of recruitment periods was 9.2 (range 2-35) days, and the average sample size was 5137 (range 100-56,679). However, 73% (27/37) of the selected studies had Newcastle-Ottawa Scale scores of <3 points, which suggests that these studies are of very low quality for inclusion in a meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The studies examined in this systematic review used an efficient data collection method, but there was a high risk of bias, in general, among the existing public mental health surveys. Therefore, following recommendations to avoid selection bias, or employing novel methodologies considering both a longitudinal design and high temporal resolution, would help provide a strong basis for the formation of national mental health policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Data Collection/standards , Health Surveys/standards , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Am J Public Health ; 111(S2): S141-S148, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334834

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the quality of population-level US mortality data in the US Census Bureau Numerical Identification file (Numident) and describe the details of the mortality information as well as the novel person-level linkages available when using the Census Numident. METHODS: We compared all-cause mortality in the Census Numident to published vital statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We provide detailed information on the linkage of the Census Numident to other Census Bureau survey, administrative, and economic data. RESULTS: Death counts in the Census Numident are similar to those from published mortality vital statistics. Yearly comparisons show that the Census Numident captures more deaths since 1997, and coverage is slightly lower going back in time. Weekly estimates show similar trends from both data sets. CONCLUSIONS: The Census Numident is a high-quality and timely source of data to study all-cause mortality. The Census Bureau makes available a vast and rich set of restricted-use, individual-level data linked to the Census Numident for researchers to use. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: The Census Numident linked to data available from the Census Bureau provides infrastructure for doing evidence-based public health policy research on mortality.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death/trends , Censuses , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./statistics & numerical data , Data Collection/methods , Data Collection/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Vital Statistics , Forecasting , Humans , United States
7.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(2): 355-364, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305892

ABSTRACT

Global misinformation and information overload have characterized the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Rumors are unverified pieces of information spreading online or person-to-person that reduce trust in health authorities and create barriers to protective practices. Risk communication and community engagement can increase transparency, build trust, and stop the spread of rumors. Building on previous work on Ebola and Zika viruses using Global Health Security Agenda systems strengthening support, the U.S. Agency for International Development-funded Breakthrough ACTION project developed a process and technology for systematically collecting, analyzing, and addressing COVID-19 rumors in real-time in Côte d'Ivoire. Rumors were submitted through community-based contributors and collected from callers to the national hotlines and then processed on a cloud-hosted database built on the open-source software District Health Information System 2 (DHIS2). Hotline teleoperators and data managers coded rumors in near-real-time according to behavioral theory frameworks within DHIS2 and visualized the findings on custom dashboards. The analysis and response were done in full collaboration with the Government of Côte d'Ivoire and implementing partners to ensure a timely and coordinated response. The system captured both widespread rumors consistent with misinformation in other settings, such as suspicions about case counts and the belief that masks were deliberately contaminated, as well as very localized beliefs related to specific influencers. The qualitative findings provided rapid insights on circulating beliefs, enabling risk communicators to nuance and tailor messaging around COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Information Management/methods , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics , Trust , Communicable Disease Control , Cote d'Ivoire , Data Collection/methods , Databases, Factual , Government , Hotlines , Humans , International Cooperation , Internet , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253154, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cohorts of hospitalized COVID-19 patients have been studied in several countries since the beginning of the pandemic. So far, there is no complete survey of older patients in a German district that includes both outpatients and inpatients. In this retrospective observational cohort study, we aimed to investigate risk factors, mortality, and functional outcomes of all patients with COVID-19 aged 70 and older living in the district of Tübingen in the southwest of Germany. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed all 256 patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in one of the earliest affected German districts during the first wave of the disease from February to April 2020. To ensure inclusion of all infected patients, we analysed reported data from the public health department as well as the results of a comprehensive screening intervention in all nursing homes of the district (n = 1169). Furthermore, we examined clinical data of all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (n = 109). RESULTS: The all-cause mortality was 18%. Screening in nursing homes showed a point-prevalence of 4.6%. 39% of residents showed no COVID-specific symptoms according to the official definition at that time. The most important predictors of mortality were the need for inpatient treatment (odds ratio (OR): 3.95 [95%-confidence interval (CI): 2.00-7.86], p<0.001) and care needs before infection (non-hospitalized patients: OR: 3.79 [95%-CI: 1.01-14.27], p = 0.037, hospitalized patients: OR: 2.89 [95%-CI 1.21-6.92], p = 0.015). Newly emerged care needs were a relevant complication of COVID-19: 27% of previously self-sufficient patients who survived the disease were not able to return to their home environment after discharge from the hospital. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate the importance of a differentiated view of risk groups and long-term effects within the older population. These findings should be included in the political and social debate during the ongoing pandemic to evaluate the true effect of COVID-19 on healthcare systems and individual functional status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Data Collection/methods , Data Collection/statistics & numerical data , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
12.
Public Health Rep ; 136(3): 327-337, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223668

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Few US studies have examined the usefulness of participatory surveillance during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for enhancing local health response efforts, particularly in rural settings. We report on the development and implementation of an internet-based COVID-19 participatory surveillance tool in rural Appalachia. METHODS: A regional collaboration among public health partners culminated in the design and implementation of the COVID-19 Self-Checker, a local online symptom tracker. The tool collected data on participant demographic characteristics and health history. County residents were then invited to take part in an automated daily electronic follow-up to monitor symptom progression, assess barriers to care and testing, and collect data on COVID-19 test results and symptom resolution. RESULTS: Nearly 6500 county residents visited and 1755 residents completed the COVID-19 Self-Checker from April 30 through June 9, 2020. Of the 579 residents who reported severe or mild COVID-19 symptoms, COVID-19 symptoms were primarily reported among women (n = 408, 70.5%), adults with preexisting health conditions (n = 246, 70.5%), adults aged 18-44 (n = 301, 52.0%), and users who reported not having a health care provider (n = 131, 22.6%). Initial findings showed underrepresentation of some racial/ethnic and non-English-speaking groups. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: This low-cost internet-based platform provided a flexible means to collect participatory surveillance data on local changes in COVID-19 symptoms and adapt to guidance. Data from this tool can be used to monitor the efficacy of public health response measures at the local level in rural Appalachia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Collection/methods , Internet-Based Intervention , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Self Report , Symptom Assessment , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Appalachian Region/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Participation , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 20(4): 392-396, 2021 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203685

ABSTRACT

Face-to-face interviews have long been the norm for conducting qualitative interviews in healthcare research. However, the Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated the need to explore alternative methods. This, along with the swift digitalization of healthcare, has led to video, telephone, and online interactions becoming increasingly used. The use of new techniques to carry out interviews through video, telephone, and online applications all come with benefits and drawbacks. In this article, three ways of collecting data through qualitative interviews are described and their uses exemplified through a project investigating the impact of a transition program for adolescents with congenital heart disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Data Collection/methods , Electronic Mail , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnosis , Heart Defects, Congenital/nursing , Online Social Networking , Telephone , Video Recording , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Nursing/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e23984, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133814

ABSTRACT

The collection of data from a personal digital device to characterize current health conditions and behaviors that determine how an individual's health will evolve has been called digital phenotyping. In this paper, we describe the development of and early experiences with a comprehensive digital phenotyping platform: Health Outcomes through Positive Engagement and Self-Empowerment (HOPES). HOPES is based on the open-source Beiwe platform but adds a wider range of data collection, including the integration of wearable devices and further sensor collection from smartphones. Requirements were partly derived from a concurrent clinical trial for schizophrenia that required the development of significant capabilities in HOPES for security, privacy, ease of use, and scalability, based on a careful combination of public cloud and on-premises operation. We describe new data pipelines to clean, process, present, and analyze data. This includes a set of dashboards customized to the needs of research study operations and clinical care. A test use case for HOPES was described by analyzing the digital behavior of 22 participants during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Data Collection/methods , Machine Learning , Wearable Electronic Devices , Computers, Handheld , Humans , Mobile Applications , Phenotype , Research Design , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/therapy , Smartphone
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e22219, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088863

ABSTRACT

Coincident with the tsunami of COVID-19-related publications, there has been a surge of studies using real-world data, including those obtained from the electronic health record (EHR). Unfortunately, several of these high-profile publications were retracted because of concerns regarding the soundness and quality of the studies and the EHR data they purported to analyze. These retractions highlight that although a small community of EHR informatics experts can readily identify strengths and flaws in EHR-derived studies, many medical editorial teams and otherwise sophisticated medical readers lack the framework to fully critically appraise these studies. In addition, conventional statistical analyses cannot overcome the need for an understanding of the opportunities and limitations of EHR-derived studies. We distill here from the broader informatics literature six key considerations that are crucial for appraising studies utilizing EHR data: data completeness, data collection and handling (eg, transformation), data type (ie, codified, textual), robustness of methods against EHR variability (within and across institutions, countries, and time), transparency of data and analytic code, and the multidisciplinary approach. These considerations will inform researchers, clinicians, and other stakeholders as to the recommended best practices in reviewing manuscripts, grants, and other outputs from EHR-data derived studies, and thereby promote and foster rigor, quality, and reliability of this rapidly growing field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Collection/methods , Electronic Health Records , Data Collection/standards , Humans , Peer Review, Research/standards , Publishing/standards , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Aust Health Rev ; 44(5): 723-727, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084111

ABSTRACT

Objective This study analysed screening for COVID-19 before surgery and outcomes of any perioperative testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection during pandemic-restricted surgery. Methods An audit was conducted with routinely collected health data before both elective and non-elective surgery at two large Melbourne hospitals during April and early May 2020. We looked for documented systematic screening for COVID-19 disease and fever (>38°C) and results of SARS-COV-2 testing, and proposed a minimum acceptable documenting rate of 85%. Results The study included 2197 consecutive patients (1279 (58%) undergoing elective surgery, 917 (42%) undergoing non-elective surgery) across most specialities. Although 926 (72%) patients undergoing elective surgery had both systematic screening and temperature documented, approximately half that percentage undergoing non-elective surgery (n=347; 38%) had both documented. However, 871 (95%) of non-elective surgery patients had temperature documented. Acknowledging limited screening, 85 (9.3%) non-elective surgery patients had positive screening, compared with 39 (3.0%) elective surgery patients. All 152 (7%) patients who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 were negative, and no cases were reported from external contact tracing. Conclusions Although 'not documented' does not necessarily equal 'not done', we found that documenting of COVID-19 screening could be improved. Better understanding of implementing screening practices in pandemics and other crises, particularly for non-elective surgery patients, is warranted. What is known about the topic? Little is known about routine screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection among surgical patients. However, it is well established that implementing effective uptake of safety and quality initiatives can be difficult. What does this paper add? We found that although most patients had documented temperature, fewer than 75% had a documented systematic questionnaire screen for COVID, particularly patients undergoing non-elective surgery. What are the implications for practitioners? Clear documenting is important in managing patients. Pandemics and other crises can require rapid changes in practice. Implementing such measures may be less complete than anticipated and may require greater use of evidence-based implementation strategies, particularly in the less predictable care of non-elective surgery patients.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Data Collection/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Preoperative Care/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(2): 131-138, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Social distancing policies are key in curtailing severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread, but their effectiveness is heavily contingent on public understanding and collective adherence. We studied public perception of social distancing through organic, large-scale discussion on Twitter. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: Between March 27 and April 10, 2020, we retrieved English-only tweets matching two trending social distancing hashtags, #socialdistancing and #stayathome. We analyzed the tweets using natural language processing and machine-learning models, and we conducted a sentiment analysis to identify emotions and polarity. We evaluated the subjectivity of tweets and estimated the frequency of discussion of social distancing rules. We then identified clusters of discussion using topic modeling and associated sentiments. RESULTS: We studied a sample of 574,903 tweets. For both hashtags, polarity was positive (mean, 0.148; SD, 0.290); only 15% of tweets had negative polarity. Tweets were more likely to be objective (median, 0.40; IQR, 0-0.6) with ~30% of tweets labeled as completely objective (labeled as 0 in range from 0 to 1). Approximately half of tweets (50.4%) primarily expressed joy and one-fifth expressed fear and surprise. Each correlated well with topic clusters identified by frequency including leisure and community support (ie, joy), concerns about food insecurity and quarantine effects (ie, fear), and unpredictability of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its implications (ie, surprise). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the positive sentiment, preponderance of objective tweets, and topics supporting coping mechanisms, we concluded that Twitter users generally supported social distancing in the early stages of their implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Physical Distancing , Public Opinion , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection/methods , Emotions , Humans , Machine Learning , Retrospective Studies
20.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(4): 707-714, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We sought to gain insight into the prevalence of COVID-19 and the impact stringent social distancing (shielding) has had on a large cohort of rheumatology (RD) follow-up patients from a single large UK centre. METHODS: We linked COVID-19-related deaths, screening and infection rates to our RD population (1.2.20-1.5.20) and audited active rheumatology follow-up patients through survey data communicated via a linked mobile phone SMS message. We assessed epidemiology, effect of stringent social distancing (shielding) and quality of life (HRQoL) by Short Form 12 (SF12). RESULTS: There were 10,387 active follow-up patients, 7911 had linked mobile numbers. 12/10,387 RD patients died from COVID-19 (0.12%); local population 4131/7,415,149 (0.12%). For patients with mobile phones, 1693/7911 (21%) responded and of these, 1605 completed the SF12. Inflammatory arthritis predominated 1174/1693 (69%); 792/1693 (47%) were shielding. Advice on shielding/distancing was followed by 1372/1693(81%). 61/1693 (4%) reported COVID-19 (24/61 shielding); medication distribution was similar in COVID and non-COVID patients. Mental SF12 (MCS) but not physical (PCS) component scores were lower in COVID (60) vs. non-COVID (1545), mean differences: MCS, - 3.3; 95% CI - 5.2 to - 1.4, P < 0.001; PCS, - 0.4; 95% CI, - 2.1 to 1.3). In 1545 COVID-negative patients, those shielding had lower MCS (- 2.1; 95% CI - 2.8 to - 1.4) and PCS (- 3.1, 95% CI - 3.7 to - 2.5), both P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our full RD cohort had no excess of COVID deaths compared to the general local population. Our survey data suggest that shielding adversely affects both mental and physical health in RD. These data broaden our understanding of shielding, indicating need for further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Collection/methods , Physical Distancing , Rheumatology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence
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