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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248128, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic remains a significant global threat. However, despite urgent need, there remains uncertainty surrounding best practices for pharmaceutical interventions to treat COVID-19. In particular, conflicting evidence has emerged surrounding the use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, alone or in combination, for COVID-19. The COVID-19 Evidence Accelerator convened by the Reagan-Udall Foundation for the FDA, in collaboration with Friends of Cancer Research, assembled experts from the health systems research, regulatory science, data science, and epidemiology to participate in a large parallel analysis of different data sets to further explore the effectiveness of these treatments. METHODS: Electronic health record (EHR) and claims data were extracted from seven separate databases. Parallel analyses were undertaken on data extracted from each source. Each analysis examined time to mortality in hospitalized patients treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and the two in combination as compared to patients not treated with either drug. Cox proportional hazards models were used, and propensity score methods were undertaken to adjust for confounding. Frequencies of adverse events in each treatment group were also examined. RESULTS: Neither hydroxychloroquine nor azithromycin, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with time to mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. No treatment groups appeared to have an elevated risk of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Administration of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and their combination appeared to have no effect on time to mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Continued research is needed to clarify best practices surrounding treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Data Management/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
2.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255520, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has greatly changed people's daily lives, forcing countries to take actions, such as school shutdown, lockdown, isolation, and social distancing measures. It remains unclear how the closures, cancellations, and restrictions of schools and courses as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic affect the engagement of school-aged children and adolescents in relation to physical activity (PA). METHODS: The articles in the databases of EBSCO (including AMED, CINAHL Plus, Health Business, Health Source MEDLINE with Full Text, APA PsycArticles, APA PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus) published during the period from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020 will be retrieved, and the data in the selected articles are extracted, including research methods, demographics, and key results. Search outcomes were reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) will be used to evaluate research quality. Two reviewers are responsible for completing the three tasks, namely selecting the articles that meet the inclusion criteria, extracting data in the articles selected, and evaluating their research quality. All findings, and especially primary outcomes will be summarized in a table format of findings. The results will provide a high-quality synthesis of current evidence for researchers in this subject area. AIM: The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on PA in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years during 2020. 1). What impact has the COVID-19 pandemic had on PA levels in school-aged children and adolescents? 2). Investigating changes in the locations of school-aged children's and adolescents' PA between the pre-COVID-19 period (January 2020) and the COVID-19 period (December 2020). RESULTS: We hope that this study will provide government authorities and health professionals with the necessary information in guiding actions and allocating resources, so that the situation of physical inactivity in school-aged children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic can be improved, thereby enhancing their physical health. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This review was submitted and registered under CRD42020225976 in PROSPERO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Exercise/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adolescent , Child , Data Management/methods , Humans , Schools , Sedentary Behavior
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e26718, 2021 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120328

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to provide a perspective on data sharing practices in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The scientific community has made several important inroads in the fight against COVID-19, and there are over 2500 clinical trials registered globally. Within the context of the rapidly changing pandemic, we are seeing a large number of trials conducted without results being made available. It is likely that a plethora of trials have stopped early, not for statistical reasons but due to lack of feasibility. Trials stopped early for feasibility are, by definition, statistically underpowered and thereby prone to inconclusive findings. Statistical power is not necessarily linear with the total sample size, and even small reductions in patient numbers or events can have a substantial impact on the research outcomes. Given the profusion of clinical trials investigating identical or similar treatments across different geographical and clinical contexts, one must also consider that the likelihood of a substantial number of false-positive and false-negative trials, emerging with the increasing overall number of trials, adds to public perceptions of uncertainty. This issue is complicated further by the evolving nature of the pandemic, wherein baseline assumptions on control group risk factors used to develop sample size calculations are far more challenging than those in the case of well-documented diseases. The standard answer to these challenges during nonpandemic settings is to assess each trial for statistical power and risk-of-bias and then pool the reported aggregated results using meta-analytic approaches. This solution simply will not suffice for COVID-19. Even with random-effects meta-analysis models, it will be difficult to adjust for the heterogeneity of different trials with aggregated reported data alone, especially given the absence of common data standards and outcome measures. To date, several groups have proposed structures and partnerships for data sharing. As COVID-19 has forced reconsideration of policies, processes, and interests, this is the time to advance scientific cooperation and shift the clinical research enterprise toward a data-sharing culture to maximize our response in the service of public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Information Dissemination/methods , COVID-19/virology , Data Management/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246949, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115299

ABSTRACT

We construct a novel database containing hundreds of thousands geotagged messages related to the COVID-19 pandemic sent on Twitter. We create a daily index of social distancing-at the state level-to capture social distancing beliefs by analyzing the number of tweets containing keywords such as "stay home", "stay safe", "wear mask", "wash hands" and "social distancing". We find that an increase in the Twitter index of social distancing on day t-1 is associated with a decrease in mobility on day t. We also find that state orders, an increase in the number of COVID-19 cases, precipitation and temperature contribute to reducing human mobility. Republican states are also less likely to enforce social distancing. Beliefs shared on social networks could both reveal the behavior of individuals and influence the behavior of others. Our findings suggest that policy makers can use geotagged Twitter data-in conjunction with mobility data-to better understand individual voluntary social distancing actions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Physical Distancing , Social Media/trends , Attitude to Health , Data Management/methods , Databases, Factual , Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 5: 24-29, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067368

ABSTRACT

Cancer surveillance is a field focused on collection of data to evaluate the burden of cancer and apply public health strategies to prevent and control cancer in the community. A key challenge facing the cancer surveillance community is the number of manual tasks required to collect cancer surveillance data, thereby resulting in possible delays in analysis and use of the information. To modernize and automate cancer data collection and reporting, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is planning, developing, and piloting a cancer surveillance cloud-based computing platform (CS-CBCP) with standardized electronic reporting from laboratories and health-care providers. With this system, automation of the cancer case collection process and access to real-time cancer case data can be achieved, which could not be done before. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic has illustrated the importance of continuity of operations plans, and the CS-CBCP has the potential to provide such a platform suitable for remote operations of central cancer registries.


Subject(s)
Cloud Computing , Data Collection/methods , Data Management/methods , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Automation , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Computer Systems , Epidemiological Monitoring , Health Policy , Humans , Registries , United States
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(21)2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895400

ABSTRACT

Data on diagnosis of infection in the general population are strategic for different applications in the public and private spheres. Among them, the data related to symptoms and people displacement stand out, mainly considering highly contagious diseases. This data is sensitive and requires data privacy initiatives to enable its large-scale use. The search for population-monitoring strategies aims at social tracking, supporting the surveillance of contagions to respond to the confrontation with COVID-19. There are several data privacy issues in environments where IoT devices are used for monitoring hospital processes. In this research, we compare works related to the subject of privacy in the health area. To this end, this research proposes a taxonomy to support the requirements necessary to control patient data privacy in a hospital environment. According to the tests and comparisons made between the variables compared, the application obtained results that contribute to the scenarios applied. In this sense, we modeled and implemented an application. By the end, a mobile application was developed to analyze the privacy and security constraints with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Computer Security , Confidentiality , Data Management/methods , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Internet of Things , Mobile Applications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Wearable Electronic Devices
7.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e039326, 2020 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894875

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Clinical trial data sharing has the potential to accelerate scientific progress, answer new lines of scientific inquiry, support reproducibility and prevent redundancy. Vivli, a non-profit organisation, operates a global platform for sharing of individual participant-level trial data and associated documents. Sharing of these data collected from each trial participant enables combining of these data to drive new scientific insights or assess reproducibility-not possible with the aggregate or summary data tables historically made available. We report on our initial experience including key metrics, lessons learned and how we see our role in the data sharing ecosystem. We also describe how Vivli is addressing the needs of the COVID-19 challenge through a new dedicated portal that provides a direct search function for COVID-19 studies, availability for fast-tracked request review and data sharing. DATA SUMMARY: The Vivli platform was established in 2018 and has partnered with 28 diverse members from industry, academic institutions, government platforms and non-profit foundations. Currently, 5400 trials representing 3.6 million participants are shared on the platform. From July 2018 to September 2020, Vivli received 201 requests. To date, 106 of 201 requests received approval, 5 have been declined, 27 withdrew and 27 are in the revision stage. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has only magnified the necessity for data sharing. If most data are shared and in a manner that allows interoperability, then we have hope of moving towards a cohesive scientific understanding more quickly not only for COVID-19 but also for all diseases. Conversely, if only isolated pockets of data are shared then society loses the opportunity to close vital gaps in our understanding of this rapidly evolving epidemic. This current challenge serves to highlight the value of data sharing platforms-critical enablers that help researchers build on prior knowledge.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections , Data Management , Information Dissemination/methods , Information Services , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health/trends , Betacoronavirus , Biomedical Research/methods , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Data Management/methods , Data Management/organization & administration , Data Management/trends , Humans , Information Services/organization & administration , Information Services/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2
8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(4): e20355, 2020 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-862923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented challenges to the systematic and timely sharing of COVID-19 field data collection and management. The World Health Organization (WHO) is working with health partners on the rollout and implementation of a robust electronic field data collection platform. The delay in the deployment and rollout of this electronic platform in the WHO African Region, as a consequence of the application of large-scale public health and social measures including movement restrictions and geographical area quarantine, left a gap between data collection and management. This lead to the need to develop interim data management solutions to accurately monitor the evolution of the pandemic and support the deployment of appropriate public health interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to review the design, development, and implementation of the COVID-19 Data Summarization and Visualization (DSV) tool as a rapidly deployable solution to fill this critical data collection gap as an interim solution. METHODS: This paper reviews the processes undertaken to research and develop a tool to bridge the data collection gap between the onset of a COVID-19 outbreak and the start of data collection using a prioritized electronic platform such as Go.Data in the WHO African Region. RESULTS: In anticipation of the implementation of a prioritized tool for field data collection, the DSV tool was deployed in 18 member states for COVID-19 outbreak data management. We highlight preliminary findings and lessons learned from the DSV tool deployment in the WHO African Region. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a rapidly deployable tool for COVID-19 data collection and visualization in the WHO African Region. The lessons drawn on this experience offer an opportunity to learn and apply these to improve future similar public health informatics initiatives in an outbreak or similar humanitarian setting, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Data Management/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Software , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Data Collection/methods , Data Visualization , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , World Health Organization
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