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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265016, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745313

ABSTRACT

Serological databases represent an important source of information to perceive COVID-19 impact on health professionals involved in combating the disease. This paper describes SerumCovid, a COVID-19 serological database focused on the diagnosis of health professionals, providing a preliminary analysis to contribute to the understanding of the antibody response to the SARS-CoV-2. The study population comprises 321 samples from 236 healthcare and frontline workers fighting COVID-19 in Vitória de Santo Antão, Brazil. Samples were collected from at least six days of symptoms to more than 100 days. The used immunoenzymatic assays were Euroimmun Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA IgG and IgA. The most common gender in SerumCovid is female, while the most common age group is between 30 and 39 years old. However, no statistical differences were observed in either genders or age categories. The most reported symptoms were fatigue, headaches, and myalgia. Still, some subjects presented positive results for IgA after 130 days. Based on a temporal analysis, we have not identified general patterns as subjects presented high and low values of IgA and IgG with different evolution trends. Unexpectedly, for subjects with both serological tests, the outcome of IgA and IgG tests were the same (either positive or negative) for more than 80% of the samples. Therefore, SerumCovid helps better understand how COVID-19 affected healthcare and frontline workers, which increases knowledge about the infection and enables direct prevention actions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Databases as Topic , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
2.
Dev Cell ; 57(1): 112-145.e2, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587971

ABSTRACT

The human lung plays vital roles in respiration, host defense, and basic physiology. Recent technological advancements such as single-cell RNA sequencing and genetic lineage tracing have revealed novel cell types and enriched functional properties of existing cell types in lung. The time has come to take a new census. Initiated by members of the NHLBI-funded LungMAP Consortium and aided by experts in the lung biology community, we synthesized current data into a comprehensive and practical cellular census of the lung. Identities of cell types in the normal lung are captured in individual cell cards with delineation of function, markers, developmental lineages, heterogeneity, regenerative potential, disease links, and key experimental tools. This publication will serve as the starting point of a live, up-to-date guide for lung research at https://www.lungmap.net/cell-cards/. We hope that Lung CellCards will promote the community-wide effort to establish, maintain, and restore respiratory health.


Subject(s)
Lung/cytology , Lung/physiology , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Databases as Topic , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Regeneration/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis/methods
3.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258645, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518355

ABSTRACT

All approved coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in current use are safe, effective, and reduce the risk of severe illness. Although data on the immunological presentation of patients with COVID-19 is limited, increasing experimental evidence supports the significant contribution of B and T cells towards the resolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Despite the availability of several COVID-19 vaccines with high efficacy, more effective vaccines are still needed to protect against the new variants of SARS-CoV-2. Employing a comprehensive immunoinformatic prediction algorithm and leveraging the genetic closeness with SARS-CoV, we have predicted potential immune epitopes in the structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2. The S and N proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoVs are main targets of antibody detection and have motivated us to design four multi-epitope vaccines which were based on our predicted B- and T-cell epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins. The cardinal epitopes selected for the vaccine constructs are predicted to possess antigenic, non-allergenic, and cytokine-inducing properties. Additionally, some of the predicted epitopes have been experimentally validated in published papers. Furthermore, we used the C-ImmSim server to predict effective immune responses induced by the epitope-based vaccines. Taken together, the immune epitopes predicted in this study provide a platform for future experimental validations which may facilitate the development of effective vaccine candidates and epitope-based serological diagnostic assays.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Epitope Mapping , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Structural Proteins/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Databases as Topic , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/metabolism , Humans , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , Reproducibility of Results , Viral Structural Proteins/chemistry
5.
Cancer Res Treat ; 53(3): 650-656, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403959

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide rapidly and patients with cancer have been considered as a vulnerable group for this infection. This study aimed to examine the expressions of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in tumor tissues of six common cancer types. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in tumors and control samples were obtained from online databases. Survival prognosis and biological functions of these genes were investigated for each tumor type. RESULTS: There was the overexpression of ACE2 in colon and stomach adenocarcinomas compared to controls, meanwhile colon and prostate adenocarcinomas showed a significantly higher expression of TMPRSS2. Additionally, survival prognosis analysis has demonstrated that upregulation of ACE2 in liver hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with higher overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.65; p=0.016) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.66; p=0.007), while overexpression of TMPRSS2 was associated with a 26% reduced risk of death in lung adenocarcinoma (p=0.047) but 50% increased risk of death in breast invasive carcinoma (p=0.015). CONCLUSION: There is a need to take extra precautions for COVID-19 in patients with colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, and lung cancer. Further information on other types of cancer at different stages should be investigated.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiology , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Databases as Topic , Female , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/complications , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Male , Mutation , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Analysis
7.
Cell ; 184(19): 4939-4952.e15, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330684

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic in the United States (U.S.) went largely undetected due to inadequate testing. New Orleans experienced one of the earliest and fastest accelerating outbreaks, coinciding with Mardi Gras. To gain insight into the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in the U.S. and how large-scale events accelerate transmission, we sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in Louisiana. We show that SARS-CoV-2 in Louisiana had limited diversity compared to other U.S. states and that one introduction of SARS-CoV-2 led to almost all of the early transmission in Louisiana. By analyzing mobility and genomic data, we show that SARS-CoV-2 was already present in New Orleans before Mardi Gras, and the festival dramatically accelerated transmission. Our study provides an understanding of how superspreading during large-scale events played a key role during the early outbreak in the U.S. and can greatly accelerate epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/transmission , Databases as Topic , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Louisiana/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Texas , Travel , United States/epidemiology
8.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(9): 2050-2067, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276186

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To summarize how artificial intelligence (AI) is being applied in COVID-19 research and determine whether these AI applications integrated heterogenous data from different sources for modeling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched 2 major COVID-19 literature databases, the National Institutes of Health's LitCovid and the World Health Organization's COVID-19 database on March 9, 2021. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline, 2 reviewers independently reviewed all the articles in 2 rounds of screening. RESULTS: In the 794 studies included in the final qualitative analysis, we identified 7 key COVID-19 research areas in which AI was applied, including disease forecasting, medical imaging-based diagnosis and prognosis, early detection and prognosis (non-imaging), drug repurposing and early drug discovery, social media data analysis, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data analysis, and other COVID-19 research topics. We also found that there was a lack of heterogenous data integration in these AI applications. DISCUSSION: Risk factors relevant to COVID-19 outcomes exist in heterogeneous data sources, including electronic health records, surveillance systems, sociodemographic datasets, and many more. However, most AI applications in COVID-19 research adopted a single-sourced approach that could omit important risk factors and thus lead to biased algorithms. Integrating heterogeneous data for modeling will help realize the full potential of AI algorithms, improve precision, and reduce bias. CONCLUSION: There is a lack of data integration in the AI applications in COVID-19 research and a need for a multilevel AI framework that supports the analysis of heterogeneous data from different sources.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19 , Algorithms , Databases as Topic , Humans , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Proteomics , United States , World Health Organization
9.
Curr Protoc ; 1(5): e149, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242712

ABSTRACT

The goals of PhenX (consensus measures for Phenotypes and eXposures) are to promote the use of standard measurement protocols and to help investigators identify opportunities for collaborative research and cross-study analysis, thus increasing the impact of individual studies. The PhenX Toolkit (https://www.phenxtoolkit.org/) offers high-quality, well-established measurement protocols to assess phenotypes and exposures in studies with human participants. The Toolkit contains protocols representing 29 research domains and 6 specialty collections of protocols that add depth to the Toolkit in specific research areas (e.g., COVID-19, Social Determinants of Health [SDoH], Blood Sciences Research [BSR], Mental Health Research [MHR], Tobacco Regulatory Research [TRR], and Substance Abuse and Addiction [SAA]). Protocols are recommended for inclusion in the PhenX Toolkit by Working Groups of domain experts using a consensus process that includes input from the scientific community. For each PhenX protocol, the Toolkit provides a detailed description, the rationale for inclusion, and supporting documentation. Users can browse protocols in the Toolkit, search the Toolkit using keywords, or use Browse Protocols Tree to identify protocols of interest. The PhenX Toolkit provides data dictionaries compatible with the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP), Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) data submission compatibility, and data collection worksheets to help investigators incorporate PhenX protocols into their study design. The PhenX Toolkit provides resources to help users identify published studies that used PhenX protocols. © 2021 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol: Using the PhenX Toolkit to support or extend study design.


Subject(s)
Databases as Topic , Genome-Wide Association Study/methods , Human Genetics/methods , Interdisciplinary Research/methods , Software/standards , Environmental Exposure , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Phenotype
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6375, 2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142467

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the impact of comorbidity burden on mortality in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We analyzed the COVID-19 data from the nationwide health insurance claims of South Korea. Data on demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and mortality records of patients with COVID-19 were extracted from the database. The odds ratios of mortality according to comorbidities in these patients with and without adjustment for age and sex were calculated. The predictive value of the original Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and the age-adjusted CCI (ACCI) for mortality in these patients were investigated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Among 7590 patients, 227 (3.0%) had died. After age and sex adjustment, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, dementia, chronic pulmonary disease, liver disease, renal disease, and cancer were significant risk factors for mortality. The ROC curve analysis showed that an ACCI threshold > 3.5 yielded the best cut-off point for predicting mortality (area under the ROC 0.92; 95% confidence interval 0.91-0.94). Our study revealed multiple risk factors for mortality in patients with COVID-19. The high predictive power of the ACCI for mortality in our results can support the importance of old age and comorbidities in the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Databases as Topic , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Interdiscip Sci ; 13(1): 103-117, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002180

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease (COVID-19) acknowledged as a pandemic by the WHO and mankind all over the world is vulnerable to this virus. Alternative tools are needed that can help in diagnosis of the coronavirus. Researchers of this article investigated the potential of machine learning methods for automatic diagnosis of corona virus with high accuracy from X-ray images. Two most commonly used classifiers were selected: logistic regression (LR) and convolutional neural networks (CNN). The main reason was to make the system fast and efficient. Moreover, a dimensionality reduction approach was also investigated based on principal component analysis (PCA) to further speed up the learning process and improve the classification accuracy by selecting the highly discriminate features. The deep learning-based methods demand large amount of training samples compared to conventional approaches, yet adequate amount of labelled training samples was not available for COVID-19 X-ray images. Therefore, data augmentation technique using generative adversarial network (GAN) was employed to further increase the training samples and reduce the overfitting problem. We used the online available dataset and incorporated GAN to have 500 X-ray images in total for this study. Both CNN and LR showed encouraging results for COVID-19 patient identification. The LR and CNN models showed 95.2-97.6% overall accuracy without PCA and 97.6-100% with PCA for positive cases identification, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Machine Learning , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Algorithms , COVID-19/virology , Databases as Topic , Humans , Logistic Models , Neural Networks, Computer , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , X-Rays
16.
Phys Eng Sci Med ; 43(4): 1415-1431, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965533

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which first appeared at the end of December 2019, continues to spread rapidly in most countries of the world. Respiratory infections occur primarily in the majority of patients treated with COVID-19. In light of the growing number of COVID-19 cases, the need for diagnostic tools to identify COVID-19 infection at early stages is of vital importance. For decades, chest X-ray (CXR) technologies have proven their ability to accurately detect respiratory diseases. More recently, with the availability of COVID-19 CXR scans, deep learning algorithms have played a critical role in the healthcare arena by allowing radiologists to recognize COVID-19 patients from their CXR images. However, the majority of screening methods for COVID-19 reported in recent studies are based on 2D convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Although 3D CNNs are capable of capturing contextual information compared to their 2D counterparts, their use is limited due to their increased computational cost (i.e. requires much extra memory and much more computing power). In this study, a transfer learning-based hybrid 2D/3D CNN architecture for COVID-19 screening using CXRs has been developed. The proposed architecture consists of the incorporation of a pre-trained deep model (VGG16) and a shallow 3D CNN, combined with a depth-wise separable convolution layer and a spatial pyramid pooling module (SPP). Specifically, the depth-wise separable convolution helps to preserve the useful features while reducing the computational burden of the model. The SPP module is designed to extract multi-level representations from intermediate ones. Experimental results show that the proposed framework can achieve reasonable performances when evaluated on a collected dataset (3 classes to be predicted: COVID-19, Pneumonia, and Normal). Notably, it achieved a sensitivity of 98.33%, a specificity of 98.68% and an overall accuracy of 96.91.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Neural Networks, Computer , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Databases as Topic , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , X-Rays
17.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(5): 355-358, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-958126
18.
Phys Eng Sci Med ; 43(4): 1289-1303, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834082

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 first occurred in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Subsequently, the virus spread throughout the world and as of June 2020 the total number of confirmed cases are above 4.7 million with over 315,000 deaths. Machine learning algorithms built on radiography images can be used as a decision support mechanism to aid radiologists to speed up the diagnostic process. The aim of this work is to conduct a critical analysis to investigate the applicability of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for the purpose of COVID-19 detection in chest X-ray images and highlight the issues of using CNN directly on the whole image. To accomplish this task, we use 12-off-the-shelf CNN architectures in transfer learning mode on 3 publicly available chest X-ray databases together with proposing a shallow CNN architecture in which we train it from scratch. Chest X-ray images are fed into CNN models without any preprocessing to replicate researches used chest X-rays in this manner. Then a qualitative investigation performed to inspect the decisions made by CNNs using a technique known as class activation maps (CAM). Using CAMs, one can map the activations contributed to the decision of CNNs back to the original image to visualize the most discriminating region(s) on the input image. We conclude that CNN decisions should not be taken into consideration, despite their high classification accuracy, until clinicians can visually inspect and approve the region(s) of the input image used by CNNs that lead to its prediction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , Deep Learning , Neural Networks, Computer , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Artifacts , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Confidence Intervals , Databases as Topic , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , X-Rays
20.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 59(5): 102868, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622336

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic by the world health organization and to limit the spread of the disease, many countries in the world, including India, had enforced a lockdown. Despite no restriction over the platelet donation activities, plateletpheresis donors became apprehensive regarding the possible risk of spread of the COVID-19 during the platelet donation and in the hospital premises. Many of them started hesitating for platelet donations. With this, the blood center started having an acute shortage of platelets. Various confidence-building steps were implemented by the blood center to promote voluntary plateletpheresis. The blood center staff and individual donors were educated to prevent the spread of COVID-19. The donor organizations and plateletpheresis donors were informed about the steps to be taken by the blood center during the donation and necessary steps for the prevention of the possible spread of COVID-19. With the help of these measures, the confidence of the individual platelet donors and the donor organizations was restored in the blood center and regular plateletpheresis was continued. These measures may also be useful to other blood centers in the COVID-19 pandemic and this experience may be useful if a similar pandemic lockdown happens in the future.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Medical Oncology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Tertiary Care Centers , Air Conditioning , Blood Donors , COVID-19/prevention & control , Databases as Topic , Food , Health Personnel , Humans , India/epidemiology , Motivation , Physical Distancing , Plateletpheresis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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