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1.
BJOG ; 129(2): 256-266, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women have been identified as a potentially at-risk group concerning COVID-19 infection, but little is known regarding the susceptibility of the fetus to infection. Co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 has been identified as a prerequisite for infection, and expression across different tissues is known to vary between children and adults. However, the expression of these proteins in the fetus is unknown. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a single cell data repository. The data were then validated at both gene and protein level by performing RT-qPCR and two-colour immunohistochemistry on a library of second-trimester human fetal tissues. FINDINGS: TMPRSS2 is present at both gene and protein level in the predominantly epithelial fetal tissues analysed. ACE2 is present at significant levels only in the fetal intestine and kidney, and is not expressed in the fetal lung. The placenta also does not co-express the two proteins across the second trimester or at term. INTERPRETATION: This dataset indicates that the lungs are unlikely to be a viable route of SARS-CoV2 fetal infection. The fetal kidney, despite presenting both the proteins required for the infection, is anatomically protected from the exposure to the virus. However, the gastrointestinal tract is likely to be susceptible to infection due to its high co-expression of both proteins, as well as its exposure to potentially infected amniotic fluid. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: This work provides detailed mechanistic insight into the relative protection & vulnerabilities of the fetus & placenta to SARS-CoV-2 infection by scRNAseq & protein expression analysis for ACE2 & TMPRSS2. The findings help to explain the low rate of vertical transmission.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Profiling , Placenta/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Disease Susceptibility/metabolism , Female , Fetal Research , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Profiling/statistics & numerical data , Genetic Testing/methods , Gestational Age , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Protective Factors , Ribonucleoproteins, Small Cytoplasmic/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
Database (Oxford) ; 20222022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713645

ABSTRACT

Rapid response to the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requires fast dissemination of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomic sequence data in order to align diagnostic tests and vaccines with the natural evolution of the virus as it spreads through the world. To facilitate this, the National Library of Medicine's National Center for Biotechnology Information developed an automated pipeline for the deposition and quick processing of SARS-CoV-2 genome assemblies into GenBank for the user community. The pipeline ensures the collection of contextual information about the virus source, assesses sequence quality and annotates descriptive biological features, such as protein-coding regions and mature peptides. The process promotes standardized nomenclature and creates and publishes fully processed GenBank files within minutes of deposition. The software has processed and published 982 454 annotated SARS-CoV-2 sequences, as of 21 October 2021. This development addresses the needs of the scientific community as the sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 genomes increases and will facilitate unrestricted access to and usability of SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequence data, providing important reagents for scientific and public health activities in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Database URL https://submit.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sarscov2/genbank/.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(1): e1010242, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622379

ABSTRACT

In-depth analysis of SARS-CoV-2 quasispecies is pivotal for a thorough understating of its evolution during infection. The recent deployment of COVID-19 vaccines, which elicit protective anti-spike neutralizing antibodies, has stressed the importance of uncovering and characterizing SARS-CoV-2 variants with mutated spike proteins. Sequencing databases have allowed to follow the spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants that are circulating in the human population, and several experimental platforms were developed to study these variants. However, less is known about the SARS-CoV-2 variants that are developed in the respiratory system of the infected individual. To gain further insight on SARS-CoV-2 mutagenesis during natural infection, we preformed single-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from nose-throat swabs of infected individuals. Interestingly, intra-host SARS-CoV-2 variants with mutated S genes or N genes were detected in all individuals who were analyzed. These intra-host variants were present in low frequencies in the swab samples and were rarely documented in current sequencing databases. Further examination of representative spike variants identified by our analysis showed that these variants have impaired infectivity capacity and that the mutated variants showed varied sensitivity to neutralization by convalescent plasma and to plasma from vaccinated individuals. Notably, analysis of the plasma neutralization activity against these variants showed that the L1197I mutation at the S2 subunit of the spike can affect the plasma neutralization activity. Together, these results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 intra-host variants should be further analyzed for a more thorough characterization of potential circulating variants.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Genome, Viral , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
5.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103806, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To identify host genetic variants (SNPs) associated with COVID-19 disease severity, a number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been conducted. Since most of the identified variants are located at non-coding regions, such variants are presumed to affect the expression of neighbouring genes, thereby influencing COVID-19 disease severity. However, it remains largely unknown which genes are influenced by such COVID-19 GWAS loci. METHODS: CRISPRi (interference)-mediated gene expression analysis was performed to identify genes functionally regulated by COVID-19 GWAS loci by targeting regions near the loci (SNPs) in lung epithelial cell lines. The expression of CRISPRi-identified genes was investigated using COVID-19-contracted human and monkey lung single-nucleus/cell (sn/sc) RNA-seq datasets. FINDINGS: CRISPRi analysis indicated that a region near rs11385942 at chromosome 3p21.31 (locus of highest significance with COVID-19 disease severity at intron 5 of LZTFL1) significantly affected the expression of LZTFL1 (P<0.05), an airway cilia regulator. A region near rs74956615 at chromosome 19p13.2 (locus located at the 3' untranslated exonic region of RAVER1), which is associated with critical illness in COVID-19, affected the expression of RAVER1 (P<0.05), a coactivator of MDA5 (IFIH1), which induces antiviral response genes, including ICAM1. The sn/scRNA-seq datasets indicated that the MDA5/RAVER1-ICAM1 pathway was activated in lung epithelial cells of COVID-19-resistant monkeys but not those of COVID-19-succumbed humans. INTERPRETATION: Patients with risk alleles of rs11385942 and rs74956615 may be susceptible to critical illness in COVID-19 in part through weakened airway viral clearance via LZTFL1-mediated ciliogenesis and diminished antiviral immune response via the MDA5/RAVER1 pathway, respectively. FUNDING: NIH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Genetic Loci , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Ribonucleoproteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19/metabolism , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3/metabolism , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Genome-Wide Association Study , Haplorhini , Humans , RNA-Seq , Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism
6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D1-D10, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607482

ABSTRACT

The 2022 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue contains 185 papers, including 87 papers reporting on new databases and 85 updates from resources previously published in the Issue. Thirteen additional manuscripts provide updates on databases most recently published elsewhere. Seven new databases focus specifically on COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2, including SCoV2-MD, the first of the Issue's Breakthrough Articles. Major nucleic acid databases reporting updates include MODOMICS, JASPAR and miRTarBase. The AlphaFold Protein Structure Database, described in the second Breakthrough Article, is the stand-out in the protein section, where the Human Proteoform Atlas and GproteinDb are other notable new arrivals. Updates from DisProt, FuzDB and ELM comprehensively cover disordered proteins. Under the metabolism and signalling section Reactome, ConsensusPathDB, HMDB and CAZy are major returning resources. In microbial and viral genomes taxonomy and systematics are well covered by LPSN, TYGS and GTDB. Genomics resources include Ensembl, Ensembl Genomes and UCSC Genome Browser. Major returning pharmacology resource names include the IUPHAR/BPS guide and the Therapeutic Target Database. New plant databases include PlantGSAD for gene lists and qPTMplants for post-translational modifications. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research website (https://academic.oup.com/nar). Our latest update to the NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection brings the total number of entries to 1645. Following last year's major cleanup, we have updated 317 entries, listing 89 new resources and trimming 80 discontinued URLs. The current release is available at http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/c/.


Subject(s)
Databases, Factual , Molecular Biology , Animals , COVID-19 , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Databases, Protein , Genome, Microbial , Genome, Viral , Humans , Mice , Plants/genetics , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction
7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D161-D164, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546007

ABSTRACT

GenBank® (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive, public database that contains 15.3 trillion base pairs from over 2.5 billion nucleotide sequences for 504 000 formally described species. Recent updates include resources for data from the SARS-CoV-2 virus, including a SARS-CoV-2 landing page, NCBI Datasets, NCBI Virus and the Submission Portal. We also discuss upcoming changes to GI identifiers, a new data management interface for BioProject, and advice for providing contextual metadata in submissions.


Subject(s)
Databases, Nucleic Acid , Viruses/genetics , Genome, Viral , National Library of Medicine (U.S.) , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States , User-Computer Interface
8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0101721, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522923

ABSTRACT

A big challenge for the control of COVID-19 pandemic is the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs) or variants of interest (VOIs) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which may be more transmissible and/or more virulent and could escape immunity obtained through infection or vaccination. A simple and rapid test for SARS-CoV-2 variants is an unmet need and is of great public health importance. In this study, we designed and analytically validated a CRISPR-Cas12a system for direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs. We further evaluated the combination of ordinary reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and CRISPR-Cas12a to improve the detection sensitivity and developed a universal system by introducing a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) near the target mutation sites through PCR primer design to detect mutations without PAM. Our results indicated that the CRISPR-Cas12a assay could readily detect the signature spike protein mutations (K417N/T, L452R/Q, T478K, E484K/Q, N501Y, and D614G) to distinguish alpha, beta, gamma, delta, kappa, lambda, and epsilon variants of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, the open reading frame 8 (ORF8) mutations (T/C substitution at nt28144 and the corresponding change of amino acid L/S) could differentiate L and S lineages of SARS-CoV-2. The low limit of detection could reach 10 copies/reaction. Our assay successfully distinguished 4 SARS-CoV-2 strains of wild type and alpha (B.1.1.7), beta (B.1.351), and delta (B.1.617.2) variants. By testing 32 SARS-CoV-2-positive clinical samples infected with the wild type (n = 5) and alpha (n = 11), beta (n = 8), and delta variants (n = 8), the concordance between our assay and sequencing was 100%. The CRISPR-based approach is rapid and robust and can be adapted for screening the emerging mutations and immediately implemented in laboratories already performing nucleic acid amplification tests or in resource-limited settings. IMPORTANCE We described CRISPR-Cas12-based multiplex allele-specific assay for rapid SARS-CoV-2 variant genotyping. The new system has the potential to be quickly developed, continuously updated, and easily implemented for screening of SARS-CoV-2 variants in resource-limited settings. This approach can be adapted for emerging mutations and implemented in laboratories already conducting SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification tests using existing resources and extracted nucleic acid.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/virology , CRISPR-Cas Systems , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Alleles , COVID-19/diagnosis , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Humans , Mass Screening , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Public Health , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D102-D105, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506544

ABSTRACT

The Bioinformation and DDBJ (DNA Data Bank of Japan) Center (DDBJ Center; https://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp) operates archival databases that collect nucleotide sequences, study and sample information, and distribute them without access restriction to progress life science research as a member of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC), in collaboration with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the European Bioinformatics Institute. Besides the INSDC databases, the DDBJ Center also provides the Genomic Expression Archive for functional genomics data and the Japanese Genotype-phenotype Archive for human data requiring controlled access. Additionally, the DDBJ Center started a new public repository, MetaboBank, for experimental raw data and metadata from metabolomics research in October 2020. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the DDBJ Center openly shares SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences in collaboration with Shizuoka Prefecture and Keio University. The operation of DDBJ is based on the National Institute of Genetics (NIG) supercomputer, which is open for large-scale sequence data analysis for life science researchers. This paper reports recent updates on the archival databases and the services of DDBJ.


Subject(s)
Databases, Genetic , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Genome, Microbial , Japan , Metabolomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transcriptome
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(D1): D92-D96, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387961

ABSTRACT

GenBank® (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive, public database that contains 9.9 trillion base pairs from over 2.1 billion nucleotide sequences for 478 000 formally described species. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. Recent updates include new resources for data from the SARS-CoV-2 virus, updates to the NCBI Submission Portal and associated submission wizards for dengue and SARS-CoV-2 viruses, new taxonomy queries for viruses and prokaryotes, and simplified submission processes for EST and GSS sequences.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/statistics & numerical data , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Genomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/methods , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Internet , Molecular Sequence Annotation/methods , Pandemics
12.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 1835056, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315820

ABSTRACT

In a general computational context for biomedical data analysis, DNA sequence classification is a crucial challenge. Several machine learning techniques have used to complete this task in recent years successfully. Identification and classification of viruses are essential to avoid an outbreak like COVID-19. Regardless, the feature selection process remains the most challenging aspect of the issue. The most commonly used representations worsen the case of high dimensionality, and sequences lack explicit features. It also helps in detecting the effect of viruses and drug design. In recent days, deep learning (DL) models can automatically extract the features from the input. In this work, we employed CNN, CNN-LSTM, and CNN-Bidirectional LSTM architectures using Label and K-mer encoding for DNA sequence classification. The models are evaluated on different classification metrics. From the experimental results, the CNN and CNN-Bidirectional LSTM with K-mer encoding offers high accuracy with 93.16% and 93.13%, respectively, on testing data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/statistics & numerical data , Neural Networks, Computer , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/statistics & numerical data , Base Sequence , Computational Biology , DNA, Viral/classification , DNA, Viral/genetics , Databases, Nucleic Acid/statistics & numerical data , Deep Learning , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/classification
13.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(7): 486-495, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine transmission and evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in shipboard quarantine of the Diamond Princess cruise ship. METHODS: We obtained the full SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences of 28 samples from the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data database. The samples were collected between 10 and 25 February 2020 and came for individuals who had been tested for SARS-CoV-2 during the quarantine on the cruise ship. These samples were later sequenced in either Japan or the United States of America. We analysed evolution dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 using computational tools of phylogenetics, natural selection pressure and genetic linkage. FINDINGS: The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in the cruise most likely originated from either a single person infected with a virus variant identical to the WIV04 isolates, or simultaneously with another primary case infected with a virus containing the 11083G > T mutation. We identified a total of 24 new viral mutations across 64.2% (18/28) of samples, and the virus evolved into at least five subgroups. Increased positive selection of SARS-CoV-2 were statistically significant during the quarantine (Tajima's D: -2.03, P < 0.01; Fu and Li's D: -2.66, P < 0.01; and Zeng's E: -2.37, P < 0.01). Linkage disequilibrium analysis confirmed that ribonucleic acid (RNA) recombination with the11083G > T mutation also contributed to the increase of mutations among the viral progeny. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the 11083G > T mutation of SARS-CoV-2 spread during shipboard quarantine and arose through de novo RNA recombination under positive selection pressure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Disease Outbreaks , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Phylogeny , Quarantine , RNA/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ships
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14151, 2021 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303792

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been spreading worldwide with rapidly increased number of deaths. Hyperinflammation mediated by dysregulated monocyte/macrophage function is considered to be the key factor that triggers severe illness in COVID-19. However, no specific targeting molecule has been identified for detecting or treating hyperinflammation related to dysregulated macrophages in severe COVID-19. In this study, previously published single-cell RNA-sequencing data of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells from thirteen COVID-19 patients were analyzed with publicly available databases for surface and imageable targets. Immune cell composition according to the severity was estimated with the clustering of gene expression data. Expression levels of imaging target molecules for inflammation were evaluated in macrophage clusters from single-cell RNA-sequencing data. In addition, candidate targetable molecules enriched in severe COVID-19 associated with hyperinflammation were filtered. We found that expression of SLC2A3, which can be imaged by [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose, was higher in macrophages from severe COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, by integrating the surface target and drug-target binding databases with RNA-sequencing data of severe COVID-19, we identified candidate surface and druggable targets including CCR1 and FPR1 for drug delivery as well as molecular imaging. Our results provide a resource in the development of specific imaging and therapy for COVID-19-related hyperinflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Molecular Imaging/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Drug Delivery Systems , Gene Expression , Glucose Transporter Type 3/genetics , Glucose Transporter Type 3/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Macrophages/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Receptors, CCR1 , Receptors, Formyl Peptide , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295803

ABSTRACT

The virus responsible for the COVID-19 global health crisis, SARS-CoV-2, has been shown to utilize the ACE2 protein as an entry point to its target cells. The virus has been shown to rely on the actions of TMPRSS2 (a serine protease), as well as FURIN (a peptidase), for the critical priming of its spike protein. It has been postulated that variations in the sequence and expression of SARS-CoV-2's receptor (ACE2) and the two priming proteases (TMPRSS2 and FURIN) may be critical in contributing to SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. This study aims to examine the different expression levels of FURIN in various tissues and age ranges in light of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels using the LungMAP database. Furthermore, we retrieved expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) of the three genes and their annotation. We analyzed the frequency of the retrieved variants in data from various populations and compared it to the Egyptian population. We highlight FURIN's potential interplay with the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and showcase a myriad of variants of the three genes that are differentially expressed across populations. Our findings provide insights into potential genetic factors that impact SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in different populations and shed light on the varying expression patterns of FURIN.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Furin , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/genetics , Computational Biology , Female , Furin/biosynthesis , Furin/genetics , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5553173, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288476

ABSTRACT

Real-time genome monitoring of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic outbreak is of utmost importance for designing diagnostic tools, guiding antiviral treatment and vaccination strategies. In this study, we present an accurate method for temporal and geographical comparison of mutational events based on GISAID database genome sequencing. Among 42523 SARS-CoV-2 genomes analyzed, we found 23202 variants compared to the reference genome. The Ti/Tv (transition/transversion) ratio was used to filter out possible false-positive errors. Transition mutations generally occurred more frequently than transversions. Our clustering analysis revealed remarkable hotspot mutation patterns for SARS-CoV-2. Mutations were clustered based on how their frequencies changed over time according to each geographical location. We observed some clusters showing a clear variation in mutation frequency and continuously evolving in the world. However, many mutations appeared in specific periods without a clear pattern over time. Various important nonsynonymous mutations were observed, mainly in Oceania and Asia. More than half of these mutations were observed only once. Four hotspot mutations were found in all geographical locations at least once: T265I (NSP2), P314L (NSP12), D614G (S), and Q57H (ORF3a). The current analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes provides valuable information on the geographical and temporal mutational evolution of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Mutation , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Humans
17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(D1): D121-D124, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284886

ABSTRACT

The International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC; http://www.insdc.org/) has been the core infrastructure for collecting and providing nucleotide sequence data and metadata for >30 years. Three partner organizations, the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) at the National Institute of Genetics in Mishima, Japan; the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory's European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) in Hinxton, UK; and GenBank at National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, USA have been collaboratively maintaining the INSDC for the benefit of not only science but all types of community worldwide.


Subject(s)
Databases, Nucleic Acid , Metadata/statistics & numerical data , Nucleotides/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/statistics & numerical data , Sequence Analysis, RNA/statistics & numerical data , Academies and Institutes , Base Sequence , Europe , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , International Cooperation , Japan , Nucleotides/metabolism , United States
18.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 83, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While genome-wide associations studies (GWAS) have successfully elucidated the genetic architecture of complex human traits and diseases, understanding mechanisms that lead from genetic variation to pathophysiology remains an important challenge. Methods are needed to systematically bridge this crucial gap to facilitate experimental testing of hypotheses and translation to clinical utility. RESULTS: Here, we leveraged cross-phenotype associations to identify traits with shared genetic architecture, using linkage disequilibrium (LD) information to accurately capture shared SNPs by proxy, and calculate significance of enrichment. This shared genetic architecture was examined across differing biological scales through incorporating data from catalogs of clinical, cellular, and molecular GWAS. We have created an interactive web database (interactive Cross-Phenotype Analysis of GWAS database (iCPAGdb)) to facilitate exploration and allow rapid analysis of user-uploaded GWAS summary statistics. This database revealed well-known relationships among phenotypes, as well as the generation of novel hypotheses to explain the pathophysiology of common diseases. Application of iCPAGdb to a recent GWAS of severe COVID-19 demonstrated unexpected overlap of GWAS signals between COVID-19 and human diseases, including with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis driven by the DPP9 locus. Transcriptomics from peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients demonstrated that DPP9 was induced in SARS-CoV-2 compared to healthy controls or those with bacterial infection. Further investigation of cross-phenotype SNPs associated with both severe COVID-19 and other human traits demonstrated colocalization of the GWAS signal at the ABO locus with plasma protein levels of a reported receptor of SARS-CoV-2, CD209 (DC-SIGN). This finding points to a possible mechanism whereby glycosylation of CD209 by ABO may regulate COVID-19 disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, connecting genetically related traits across phenotypic scales links human diseases to molecular and cellular measurements that can reveal mechanisms and lead to novel biomarkers and therapeutic approaches. The iCPAGdb web portal is accessible at http://cpag.oit.duke.edu and the software code at https://github.com/tbalmat/iCPAGdb .


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Linkage Disequilibrium , Multifactorial Inheritance , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans
20.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(12): 5823-5827, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221608

ABSTRACT

The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a critical regulatory role in the host response to the viral infection. However, little is understood about the transcriptome architecture, especially lncRNAs pattern during the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the present study, using publicly available RNA sequencing data of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) samples from COVID-19 patients and healthy individuals, three interesting findings highlighted: (a) More than half of the interactions between lncRNAs-PCGs of BALF samples established by three trans-acting lncRNAs (HOTAIRM1, PVT1 and AL392172.1), which also exhibited the high affinity for binding to the SARS-CoV-2 genome, suggesting the major regulatory role of these lncRNAs during the SARS-CoV-2 infection. (b) lncRNAs of MALAT1 and NEAT1 are possibly contributed to the inflammation development in the SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. (c) In contrast to the 3' part of the SARS-CoV-2 genome, the 5' part can interact with many human lncRNAs. Therefore, the mRNA-based vaccines will not show any side effects because of the off-label interactions with the human lncRNAs. Overall, the putative functionalities of lncRNAs can be promising to design the non-coding RNA-based drugs and to inspect the efficiency of vaccines to overcome the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology
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