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Eval Program Plann ; 94: 102129, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914355


To address the economic losses caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, countries have implemented, together with policies aimed at stopping the spread of the virus, a mixture of fiscal and monetary measures. This work investigates the effect of containment policies and economic support measures on economic growth in the short run, investigating a time window of six quarters in a cross country perspective. Our results confirm the existence of a negative effect of stringency measures on GDP; we also detect a positive effect from economic support measures. Moreover, looking at the interaction between these two kinds of interventions, our findings suggest that up to a relatively low level of stringency policies, economic support measures are able to positively counterbalance the negative impact of containment and closure policies. When the level of closures became more severe, however, the economic support measures that countries adopt are not able to completely recoup, in the short run, the economic losses due to stringency policies. Results suggest that in order to have a positive net effect, policymakers should take into account the level of stringency measures implemented before investing in economic support.

COVID-19 , Daucus carota , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Program Evaluation
Front Immunol ; 12: 673692, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325525


In a perspective entitled 'From plant survival under severe stress to anti-viral human defense' we raised and justified the hypothesis that transcript level profiles of justified target genes established from in vitro somatic embryogenesis (SE) induction in plants as a reference compared to virus-induced profiles can identify differential virus signatures that link to harmful reprogramming. A standard profile of selected genes named 'ReprogVirus' was proposed for in vitro-scanning of early virus-induced reprogramming in critical primary infected cells/tissues as target trait. For data collection, the 'ReprogVirus platform' was initiated. This initiative aims to identify in a common effort across scientific boundaries critical virus footprints from diverse virus origins and variants as a basis for anti-viral strategy design. This approach is open for validation and extension. In the present study, we initiated validation by experimental transcriptome data available in public domain combined with advancing plant wet lab research. We compared plant-adapted transcriptomes according to 'RegroVirus' complemented by alternative oxidase (AOX) genes during de novo programming under SE-inducing conditions with in vitro corona virus-induced transcriptome profiles. This approach enabled identifying a major complex trait for early de novo programming during SARS-CoV-2 infection, called 'CoV-MAC-TED'. It consists of unbalanced ROS/RNS levels, which are connected to increased aerobic fermentation that links to alpha-tubulin-based cell restructuration and progression of cell cycle. We conclude that anti-viral/anti-SARS-CoV-2 strategies need to rigorously target 'CoV-MAC-TED' in primary infected nose and mouth cells through prophylactic and very early therapeutic strategies. We also discuss potential strategies in the view of the beneficial role of AOX for resilient behavior in plants. Furthermore, following the general observation that ROS/RNS equilibration/redox homeostasis is of utmost importance at the very beginning of viral infection, we highlight that 'de-stressing' disease and social handling should be seen as essential part of anti-viral/anti-SARS-CoV-2 strategies.

Cellular Reprogramming/genetics , Multifactorial Inheritance/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase/genetics , Arabidopsis/genetics , Arabidopsis/growth & development , Cell Cycle/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Daucus carota/genetics , Daucus carota/growth & development , Fermentation , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics , Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism , Oxidoreductases/genetics , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Plant Proteins/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Reactive Nitrogen Species/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Tubulin/genetics , Viruses/pathogenicity