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1.
RNA ; 28(7): 917-926, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833463

ABSTRACT

The high mutation rate of SARS-CoV-2 largely complicates our control of the pandemic. In particular, it is currently unclear why the spike (S) gene has an extraordinarily high mutation rate among all SARS-CoV-2 genes. By analyzing the occurrence of fixed synonymous mutations between SARS-CoV-2 and RaTG13, and profiling the DAF (derived allele frequency) of polymorphic synonymous sites among millions of worldwide SARS-CoV-2 strains, we found that both fixed and polymorphic mutations show higher mutation rates in the S gene than other genes. The majority of mutations are C-to-T, representing the APOBEC-mediated C-to-U deamination instead of the previously proposed A-to-I deamination. Both in silico and in vivo evidence indicated that the S gene is more likely to be single-stranded compared to other SARS-CoV-2 genes, agreeing with the APOBEC preference of ssRNA. We conclude that the single-stranded property of the S gene makes it a favorable target for C-to-U deamination, leading to its excessively high mutation rate compared to other non-S genes. In conclusion, APOBEC, rather than ADAR, is the "editor-in-chief" of SARS-CoV-2 RNAs. This work helps us to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the mutation and evolution of SARS-CoV-2, and we believe it will contribute to the control of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , Deamination , Humans , Mutation , Mutation Rate , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(6)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642083

ABSTRACT

Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) are RNA-editing enzymes that may restrict viral infection. We have utilized deep sequencing to determine adenosine to guanine (A→G) mutations, signifying ADAR activity, in clinical samples retrieved from 93 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. A→G mutations were detected in 0.035% (median) of RNA residues and were predominantly nonsynonymous. These mutations were rarely detected in the major viral population but were abundant in minor viral populations in which A→G was more prevalent than any other mutation (P < 0.001). The A→G substitutions accumulated in the spike protein gene at positions corresponding to amino acids 505 to 510 in the receptor binding motif and at amino acids 650 to 655. The frequency of A→G mutations in minor viral populations was significantly associated with low viral load (P < 0.001). We additionally analyzed A→G mutations in 288,247 SARS-CoV-2 major (consensus) sequences representing the dominant viral population. The A→G mutations observed in minor viral populations in the initial patient cohort were increasingly detected in European consensus sequences between March and June 2020 (P < 0.001) followed by a decline of these mutations in autumn and early winter (P < 0.001). We propose that ADAR-induced deamination of RNA is a significant source of mutated SARS-CoV-2 and hypothesize that the degree of RNA deamination may determine or reflect viral fitness and infectivity.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Point Mutation , RNA Editing , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adenosine/metabolism , Adenosine Deaminase/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Deamination , Female , Genetic Fitness , Genome, Viral , Guanine/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Sweden/epidemiology , Viral Load , Virulence
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(1)2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580896

ABSTRACT

ADAR1-mediated deamination of adenosines in long double-stranded RNAs plays an important role in modulating the innate immune response. However, recent investigations based on metatranscriptomic samples of COVID-19 patients and SARS-COV-2-infected Vero cells have recovered contrasting findings. Using RNAseq data from time course experiments of infected human cell lines and transcriptome data from Vero cells and clinical samples, we prove that A-to-G changes observed in SARS-COV-2 genomes represent genuine RNA editing events, likely mediated by ADAR1. While the A-to-I editing rate is generally low, changes are distributed along the entire viral genome, are overrepresented in exonic regions, and are (in the majority of cases) nonsynonymous. The impact of RNA editing on virus-host interactions could be relevant to identify potential targets for therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genome, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , RNA Editing , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adenosine/metabolism , Adenosine Deaminase/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Deamination , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inosine/metabolism , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/immunology , Interferon-beta/genetics , Interferon-beta/immunology , RNA, Double-Stranded/genetics , RNA, Double-Stranded/immunology , RNA, Viral/immunology , RNA-Binding Proteins/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Transcriptome , Vero Cells
4.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(16): 3788-3793, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512989

ABSTRACT

As the world is racing to develop perpetual immunity to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The emergence of new viral strains, together with vaccination and reinfections, are all contributing to a long-term immunity against the deadly virus that has taken over the world since its introduction to humans in late December 2019. The discovery that more than 95 percent of people who recovered from COVID-19 had long-lasting immunity and that asymptomatic people have a different immune response to SARS-CoV-2 than symptomatic people has shifted attention to how our immune system initiates such diverse responses. These findings have provided reason to believe that SARS-CoV-2 days are numbered. Hundreds of research papers have been published on the causes of long-lasting immune responses and variations in the numbers of different immune cell types in COVID 19 survivors, but the main reason of these differences has still not been adequately identified. In this article, we focus on the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which initiates molecular processes that allow our immune system to generate antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. To establish lasting immunity to SARS-CoV-2, we suggest that AID could be the key to unlocking it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytidine Deaminase/genetics , Immunity/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytidine/genetics , Cytidine/immunology , Cytidine Deaminase/immunology , Deamination/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination
6.
Virologie (Montrouge) ; 24(6): 381-418, 2020 12 01.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030336

ABSTRACT

The innate immune response is nonspecific and constitutes the first line of defense against infections by pathogens, mainly by enabling their elimination by phagocytosis or apoptosis. In immune cells, this response is characterized, amongst others, by the synthesis of restriction factors, a class of proteins whose role is to inhibit viral replication. Among them, the proteins of the APOBEC3 (Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing Enzyme Catalytic polypeptide-like 3 or A3) family are major antiviral factors that target a wide range of viruses. One of their targets is the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1): the deaminase activity of some A3 proteins converts a fraction of cytidines of the viral genome into uridines, impairing its expression. Nevertheless, HIV-1 counteracts A3 proteins thanks to its Vif protein, which inhibits them by hijacking several cellular mechanisms. Besides, APOBEC3 proteins help maintaining the genome integrity by inhibiting retroelements but they also contribute to carcinogenesis, as it is the case for A3A and A3B, two major factors in this process. The large range of A3 activities, combined with recent studies showing their implication in the regulation of emerging viruses (Zika, SARS-CoV-2), allow A3 and their viral partners to be considered as therapeutic areas.


Subject(s)
APOBEC Deaminases/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Adult , Amino Acid Motifs , Animals , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Cytidine Deaminase/physiology , DNA Repair , DNA, Viral/metabolism , Deamination , Humans , Mammals/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Models, Molecular , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Mutagenesis , Neoplasms/enzymology , Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasms/genetics , Prognosis , Protein Conformation , RNA Editing , Structure-Activity Relationship , Transcription, Genetic , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/enzymology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Replication
7.
Future Microbiol ; 15: 1343-1352, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883808

ABSTRACT

Aim: The inference of coronavirus evolution is largely based on mutations in SARS-CoV-2 genome. Misinterpretation of these mutations would mislead people about the evolution of SARS-CoV-2. Materials & methods: With 4521 lines of SARS-CoV-2, we obtained 3169 unique point mutation sites. We counted the numbers and calculated the minor allele frequency (MAF) of each mutation type. Results: Nearly half of the point mutations are C-T mismatches and 20% are A-G mismatches. The MAF of C-T and A-G mismatches is significantly higher than MAF of other mutation types. Conclusion: The excessive C-T mismatches do not resemble the random mutation profile. They are likely to be caused by the cytosine-to-uridine deamination system in hosts.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Mutation , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Base Pair Mismatch , COVID-19 , Codon Usage , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytosine/metabolism , Databases, Genetic , Deamination , Gene Frequency , Genome, Viral , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2 , Uridine/metabolism
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