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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4191, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799570

ABSTRACT

Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) provide effective protection against diseases spread through airborne infectious droplets and particles. The widespread use of FFRs during the COVID-19 pandemic has not only led to supply shortages, but the disposal of single-use facemasks also threatens the environment with a new kind of plastic pollution. While limited reuse of filtering facepiece respirators has been permitted as a crisis capacity strategy, there are currently no standard test methods available for decontamination before their repeated use. The decontamination of respirators can compromise the structural and functional integrity by reducing the filtration efficiency and breathability. Digital segmentation of X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) scans of the meltblown nonwoven layers of a specific N95 respirator model (Venus-4400) after treatment with one and five cycles of liquid hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet radiation, moist heat, and aqueous soap solution enabled us to perform filtration simulations of decontaminated respirators. The computed filtration efficiencies for 0.3 µm particles agreed well with experimental measurements, and the distribution of particle penetration depths was correlated with the structural changes resulting from decontamination. The combination of X-ray microCT imaging with numerical simulations thus provides a strategy for quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of decontamination treatments for a specific respirator model.


Subject(s)
Decontamination/methods , Masks , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Detergents/chemistry , Equipment Reuse , Filtration , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Masks/virology , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ultraviolet Rays , X-Ray Microtomography
2.
Euro Surveill ; 27(11)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753316

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe shortage of FFP2 and FFP3 respirators posed a serious threat to the operation of the healthcare system at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.AimOur aim was to develop and validate a large-scale facility that uses hydrogen peroxide vapour for the decontamination of used respirators.MethodsA multidisciplinary and multisectoral ad hoc group of experts representing various organisations was assembled to implement the collection and transport of used FFP2 and FFP3 respirators from hospitals covering 86% of the Finnish population. A large-scale decontamination facility using hydrogen peroxide vapour was designed and constructed. Microbiological tests were used to confirm efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination together with a test to assess the effect of decontamination on the filtering efficacy and fit of respirators. Bacterial and fungal growth in stored respirators was determined by standard methods.ResultsLarge-scale hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination of a range of FFP2 and FFP3 respirator models effectively reduced the recovery of biological indicators: Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus atrophaeus spores, as well as model virus bacteriophage MS2. The filtering efficacy and facial fit after hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination were not affected by the process. Microbial growth in the hydrogen peroxide vapour-treated respirators indicated appropriate microbial cleanliness.ConclusionsLarge-scale hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination was validated. After effective decontamination, no significant changes in the key properties of the respirators were detected. European Union regulations should incorporate a facilitated pathway to allow reuse of appropriately decontaminated respirators in a severe pandemic when unused respirators are not available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrogen Peroxide , Decontamination/methods , Finland , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Pandemics , Ventilators, Mechanical
4.
Arch Virol ; 167(4): 1175-1179, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748474

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) amplicon contamination was discovered due to next-generation sequencing (NGS) reads mapping in the negative controls. Environmental screening was undertaken to determine the source of contamination, which was suspected to be evaporation during polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays while using the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ARTIC protocol. A decontamination strategy is hereby documented to assist laboratories that may experience similar amplicon contamination. Routine molecular laboratory environmental screening as a quality control is highly recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laboratories , COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742435

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus pandemic has increased worldwide consumption of individual protective devices. Single-use surgical masks are one of the most used devices to prevent the transmission of the COVID-19 virus. Nevertheless, the improper management of such protective equipment threatens our environment with a new form of plastic pollution. With the intention of contributing to a responsible policy of recycling, in the present work, five decontamination methods for used surgical masks that can be easily replicated with common household equipment are described. The decontamination procedures were hot water at 40 °C and 80 °C; autoclave; microwave at 750 W; and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. After each decontamination procedure, the bacterial load reduction of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was recorded to verify the effectiveness of these methods and, moreover, bacterial filtration efficiency and breathability tests were performed to evaluate mask performances. The best results were obtained with the immersion in 80 °C water and the microwave-assisted sterilization. Both methods achieved a high degree of mask decontamination without altering the filtration efficiency and breathability, in accordance with the quality standard. The proposed decontamination methods represent a useful approach to reduce the environmental impact of this new waste material. Moreover, these procedures can be easily reproduced with common household equipment to increase the recycling efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Household Articles , COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Filtration , Humans , Masks
6.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(7): e0214821, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741570

ABSTRACT

UV light is a tool associated with the denaturation of cellular components, DNA damage, and cell disruption. UV treatment is widely used in the decontamination process; however, predicting a sufficient UV dose by using traditional methods is doubtful. In this study, an in-house UVC apparatus was designed to investigate the process of the inactivation of five indicator bacteria when the initial cell concentrations and irradiation intensities varied. Both linear and nonlinear mathematical models were applied to predict the inactivation kinetics. In comparison with the Weibull and modified Chick-Watson models, the Chick-Watson model provided a good fit of the experimental data for five bacteria, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis. The specific death rate (kd) significantly increased when the irradiation intensity (I) increased from 1.41 W/m2 to 3.02 W/m2 and 4.83 W/m2 (P < 0.05). Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in the kd values among the groups of tested Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and B. subtilis spores, but the kd values differed among groups (P < 0.05). The death rate coefficient (k) varied from species to species. The k values of the tested Gram-positive bacteria were higher than those of the Gram-negative bacteria. The thick peptidoglycan layer in the Gram-positive membrane was responsible for UVC resistance. The high guanine-cytosine (GC) content in bacteria also contributed to UV resistance due to the less photoreactive sites on the nucleotides. This investigation provides a good understanding of bacterial inactivation induced by UVC treatment. IMPORTANCE Prevention and control measures for microbial pathogens have attracted worldwide attention due to the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. UV treatments are used as a commercial control to prevent microbial contamination in diverse applications. Microorganisms exhibit different UV sensitivities, which are often measured by the UV doses required for decreasing the number of microbial contaminants in the logarithmic order. The maximum efficacy of UV is usually observed at 254 nm (residing in the UVC range of the light spectrum). UV technology is a nonthermal physical decontamination measure that does not require any chemicals and consumes low levels of energy while leaving insignificant amounts of chemical residues or toxic compounds. Therefore, obtaining the microbial death kinetics and their intrinsic parameters provided in this study together with the UV photoreaction rate enables advancement in the design of UV treatment systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Decontamination , Bacteria/radiation effects , Disinfection/methods , Gram-Negative Bacteria/radiation effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/radiation effects , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Ultraviolet Rays
7.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 54(5): 376-379, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737129

ABSTRACT

Elemental mercury exposure can result in significant toxicity. Source decontamination and remediation are often required after larger elemental mercury exposures, but the details of these processes are infrequently reported. In the case described herein, a 64-year-old woman and her husband were exposed to elemental mercury in their home after the husband purchased it online for the purpose of recreational barometer calibration. After the mercury reportedly spilled during the calibration process, a vacuum cleaner was used to decontaminate the affected surface; this led to extensive mercury contamination of the home. The couple was relocated from the home while remediation occurred over the course of several weeks. Vacuum cleaning of an elemental mercury spill can lead to extensive volatilization and recirculation of mercury vapor. For smaller mercury spills, careful removal of visible mercury beads by using an eyedropper, cardboard, and masking tape is recommended. Larger spills require professional decontamination and remediation and may necessitate involvement of governmental resources. Vacuum cleaning should not be used as an initial method of decontamination after elemental mercury exposure. Careful attention to source decontamination can reduce the emotional and financial costs associated with extensive remediation after elemental mercury exposure.


Subject(s)
Mercury , Decontamination , Environmental Exposure , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Spouses , United States
8.
J Hosp Infect ; 122: 168-172, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global COVID-19 pandemic, accompanied by spikes in the number of patients in hospitals, required substantial amounts of respiratory protective devices (respirators), thereby causing shortages. Disinfection of used respirators by applying ultraviolet C (UVC) light may enable safe reuse, reducing shortages. AIM: To determine whether UVC disinfection is applicable to enable repeated safe reuse of respirators. METHODS: The UVC chamber, equipped with low-pressure mercury discharge lamps emitting at 254 nm, was used to determine the sporicidal and virucidal effects. Respirators challenged with spores and viruses were exposed to various UVC energy levels. Deactivation of the biological agents was studied as well as UVC effects on particle filtration properties and respirator fit. FINDINGS: A 5 log10 reduction of G. thermophilus spore viability by a UVC dose of 1.1 J/cm2 was observed. By simulating spores present in the middle of the respirators, a 5 log10 reduction was achieved at a UVC dose of 10 J/cm2. SARS-CoV-2 viruses were inactivated by 4 log10 upon exposure to 19.5 mJ/cm2 UVC. In case UVC must be transmitted through all layers of the respirators to reach the spores and virus, a reduction of >5 log10 was achieved using a UVC dose of 10 J/cm2. Exposure to a six-times higher UVC dose did not significantly affect the integrity of the fit nor aerosol filtering capacity of the respirator. CONCLUSION: UVC was shown to be a mild and effective way of respirator disinfection allowing for reuse of the UVC-treated respirators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination , Disinfection , Equipment Reuse , Geobacillus stearothermophilus , Humans , Pandemics , Spores, Bacterial , Ultraviolet Rays , Ventilators, Mechanical
9.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262818, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705625

ABSTRACT

This paper reports a plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS) method for decontamination of PPE (N95 respirators and gowns) using a surface DBD source to meet the increased need of PPE due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A system is presented consisting of a mobile trailer (35 m3) along with several Dielectric barrier discharge sources installed for generating a plasma ROS level to achieve viral decontamination. The plasma ROS treated respirators were evaluated at the CDC NPPTL, and additional PPE specimens and material functionality testing were performed at Texas A&M. The effects of decontamination on the performance of respirators were tested using a modified version of the NIOSH Standard Test Procedure TEB-APR-STP-0059 to determine particulate filtration efficiency. The treated Prestige Ameritech and BYD brand N95 respirators show filtration efficiencies greater than 95% and maintain their integrity. The overall mechanical and functionality tests for plasma ROS treated PPE show no significant variations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Reactive Oxygen Species , Equipment Reuse , Humans , N95 Respirators
10.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 21(2): 868-903, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685168

ABSTRACT

Even during the continuing world pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2), consumers remain exposed to the risk of getting infected by existing, emerging, or re-emerging foodborne and waterborne viruses. SARS-CoV-2 is different in that it is transmitted directly via the airborne route (droplets and aerosols) or indirect contact (surfaces contaminated with SARS-CoV-2). International food and health organizations and national regulatory bodies have provided guidance to protect individuals active in food premises from potential occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2, and have recommended chemicals effective in controlling the virus. Additionally, to exclude transmission of foodborne and waterborne viruses, hygiene practices to remove viral contaminants from surfaces are applied in different stages of the food chain (e.g., food plants, food distribution, storage, retail sector, etc.), while new and enhanced measures effective in the control of all types of viruses are under development. This comprehensive review aims to analyze and compare efficacies of existing cleaning practices currently used in the food industry to remove pathogenic viruses from air, nonfood, and food contact surfaces, as well as from food surfaces. In addition, the classification, modes of transmission, and survival of food and waterborne viruses, as well as SARS-CoV-2 will be presented. The international guidelines and national regulations are summarized in terms of virucidal chemical agents and their applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Chain , Aerosols , COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 38: 102762, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683501

ABSTRACT

Emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may have an impact on the virus's transmissibility and pathogenicity and an increased risk of reinfection. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a promising technique to decontaminate the oral cavity to minimize and inactivate microorganisms' load. This article reports through a case series, a proposal for efficient oral decontamination for hospitalized patients with COVID 19 using aPDT. Samples of oral tissues were obtained after aPDT and analyzed using two methods of RT-qPCR to elucidate qualitative and quantitative viral profiles of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the oral cavity. There was a reduction of viral load in the oral cavity immediately or one hour after the use of aPDT. This method could be a good option to decontaminate the oral cavity to minimize and inactivate microorganism load.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photochemotherapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Decontamination , Humans , Photochemotherapy/methods , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 429: 127709, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654743

ABSTRACT

Dry heat decontamination has been shown to effectively inactivate viruses without compromising the integrity of delicate personal protective equipment (PPE), allowing safe reuse and helping to alleviate shortages of PPE that have arisen due to COVID-19. Unfortunately, current thermal decontamination guidelines rely on empirical data which are often sparse, limited to a specific virus, and unable to provide fundamental insight into the underlying inactivation reaction. In this work, we experimentally quantified dry heat decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 on disposable masks and validated a model that treats the inactivation reaction as thermal degradation of macromolecules. Furthermore, upon nondimensionalization, all of the experimental data collapse onto a unified curve, revealing that the thermally driven decontamination process exhibits self-similar behavior. Our results show that heating surgical masks to 70 °C for 5 min inactivates over 99.9% of SARS-CoV-2. We also characterized the chemical and physical properties of disposable masks after heat treatment and did not observe degradation. The model presented in this work enables extrapolation of results beyond specific temperatures to provide guidelines for safe PPE decontamination. The modeling framework and self-similar behavior are expected to extend to most viruses-including yet-unencountered novel viruses-while accounting for a range of environmental conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Equipment Reuse , Hot Temperature , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 835, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633379

ABSTRACT

With the recent COVID-19 pandemic that has swept the world and the nation, hospitals around the country have experienced shortages in Personal Protective Equipment, specifically N95 filter face-mask respirators (FFRs). This has created the need for facilities to develop sterilization processes to enable reuse of face masks by the health care personnel. Among the various methods of sterilization, UVC light exposure is the easiest to implement given the factors of time, safety, and availability. Face masks and/or other PPE are exposed to UVC light for a specified time to kill any viruses or bacteria that may reside on the surfaces of the masks. A collaborative effort was formed in April of 2020 between Wellstar Health System and Kennesaw State University to (1) setup an appropriate sterilization room at a Wellstar hospital (2) develop the procedural guidelines necessary to ensure quality control and (3) assess employees' perceptions of the N95 FFR decontamination process and efficacy. This paper will first describe the methodology used to validate the layout of the room, which consists of a rudimentary analytical analysis of the UVC photon intensity from bulb-to-mask, computer simulations to determine the lighting power density throughout the room, and experimental measurements to confirm the appropriate energy deposition. This paper will then document the procedures for handling and processing the pre- and post-sterilized masks followed by employee survey findings. It is the hope of the authors that this paper will serve to provide a generic blueprint for hospitals and other organizations to follow if a future need arises for rapid UVC decontamination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Disinfection/methods , N95 Respirators , Pandemics/prevention & control , Ultraviolet Rays , Humans
15.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(2): 217-219, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611566

ABSTRACT

N95 respirators were reprocessed using vaporized hydrogen peroxide to supplement limited supplies during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we found no statistically significant differences in qualitative and quantitative fit or filtration efficiency with reprocessing. Filtration efficiency remained above 95% even at 25 cycles of reprocessing without statistically significant change from cycle 20-25 compared to cycle 0 (P = .10, P = .05, respectively). Vaporous hydrogen peroxide is an effective option to augment N95 respirator supplies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrogen Peroxide , Decontamination , Equipment Reuse , Humans , N95 Respirators , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0257963, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608831

ABSTRACT

In times of crisis, including the current COVID-19 pandemic, the supply chain of filtering facepiece respirators, such as N95 respirators, are disrupted. To combat shortages of N95 respirators, many institutions were forced to decontaminate and reuse respirators. While several reports have evaluated the impact on filtration as a measurement of preservation of respirator function after decontamination, the equally important fact of maintaining proper fit to the users' face has been understudied. In the current study, we demonstrate the complete inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and preservation of fit test performance of N95 respirators following treatment with dry heat. We apply scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, Raman spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements to analyze filter material changes as a consequence of different decontamination treatments. We further compared the integrity of the respirator after autoclaving versus dry heat treatment via quantitative fit testing and found that autoclaving, but not dry heat, causes the fit of the respirator onto the users face to fail, thereby rendering the decontaminated respirator unusable. Our findings highlight the importance to account for both efficacy of disinfection and mask fit when reprocessing respirators to for clinical redeployment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Equipment Reuse , N95 Respirators/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/transmission , Equipment and Supplies , Health Personnel , Hot Temperature , Humans , Pandemics
17.
Biophys J ; 120(14): 2927-2942, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605429

ABSTRACT

A mainstay of personal protective equipment during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is the N95 filtering facepiece respirator. N95 respirators are commonly used to protect healthcare workers from respiratory pathogens, including the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and are increasingly employed by other frontline workers and the general public. Under routine circumstances, these masks are disposable, single-use items, but extended use and reuse practices have been broadly enacted to alleviate critical supply shortages during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Although extended-time single use presents a low risk of pathogen transfer, repeated donning and doffing of potentially contaminated masks presents increased risk of pathogen transfer. Therefore, efficient and safe decontamination methods for N95 masks are needed to reduce the risk of reuse and mitigate local supply shortages. Here, we review the available literature concerning use of germicidal ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light to decontaminate N95 masks. We propose a practical method for repeated point-of-use decontamination using commercially available UV-C cross-linker boxes from molecular biology laboratories to expose each side of the mask to 800-1200 mJ/cm2 of UV-C. We measure the dose that penetrated to the interior of the respirators and model the potential germicidal action on coronaviruses. Our experimental results, in combination with modeled data, suggest that such a UV-C treatment cycle should induce a >3-log-order reduction in viral bioburden on the surface of the respirators and a 2-log-order reduction throughout the interior. We find that a dose 50-fold greater does not impair filtration or fit of 3M 8210 N95 masks, indicating that decontamination can be performed repeatedly. As such, UV-C germicidal irradiation is a practical strategy for small-scale point-of-use decontamination of N95s.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Decontamination , Equipment Reuse , Humans , N95 Respirators
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 729204, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577010

ABSTRACT

Effectively reducing contamination and aerosolized bioburden may limit the risk of disease transmission in closed settings when social distancing is not possible. Unlike uncontrolled ionization and oxidation devices ACTIVE Particle Control™ conditions particles in a highly controlled fashion which provides effective air purification without the generation of ozone or other toxic by-products. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of ACTIVE Particle Control™ on elevator cabin particle load compared to standard ventilation. The intervention trial utilized particle mass tools to determine the difference in particle clearance between standard elevator cabin ventilation and ACTIVE Particle Control™ technology. Cabin particulate contaminants were significantly reduced using ACTIVE Particle Control™ technology in an operating elevator.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollutants/analysis , Decontamination , Elevators and Escalators , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Technology
19.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(1): 40-44, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586126

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The novel severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and is notable for being highly contagious and potentially lethal; and SARS-CoV-2 is mainly spread by droplet transmission. The US healthcare system's response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been challenged by a shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE), especially N95 respirators. Restricted use, reuse, and sanitation of PPE have been widely adopted to provide protection for frontline healthcare workers caring for often critically ill and highly contagious patients. Here, we describe our validated process for N95 respirator sanitation. DESIGN: Process development, validation, and implementation. SETTING: Level 1, urban, academic, medical center. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team developed a novel evidence-based process for N95 respirator reprocessing and sanitation using ultraviolet (UV) light. Dose measurement, structural integrity, moisture content, particle filtration, fit testing, and environmental testing were performed for both quality control and validation of the process. RESULTS: The process achieved UV light dosing for sanitation while maintaining the functional and structural integrity of the N95 respirators, with a daily potential throughput capacity of ∼12,000 masks. This process has supported our health system to provide respiratory PPE to all frontline team members. CONCLUSIONS: This novel method of N95 respirator sanitation can safely enable reuse of the N95 respirators essential for healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19. Our high-throughput process can extend local supplies of this critical PPE until the national supply is replenished.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Decontamination , Equipment Reuse , Humans , Masks , N95 Respirators , SARS-CoV-2 , Sanitation
20.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(11): 1379-1381, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576041

ABSTRACT

An N95 respirator ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and reuse program was rapidly implemented at an academic health system in the United States during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This process continues to be a safe and effective way to slow the consumption rate of N95 respirators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Decontamination , Equipment Reuse , Humans , N95 Respirators , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays , United States/epidemiology
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