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1.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(Spec No1): 37-45, 2022 Mar 29.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687678

ABSTRACT

Introduction: NutriCOVer is a global research program sponsored by Nutricia to support initiatives in clinical investigation in 16 countries worldwide. The program's objective is to adapt nutritional care to the needs of patients with COVID-19 who have been discharged from the intensive care unit. In Spain - a reference country for the NutriCOVer program - three research projects are being carried out. These studies analyze the clinical course of COVID-19 patients from a nutritional point of view, evaluating relevant aspects such as the prevalence and evolution of malnutrition and sarcopenia (the NUTRICOVID study), the prevalence and impact of dysphagia (the COVID-19-DN-OD study), or changes in corporal composition measured through nutritional ultrasound and bioimpedance analysis (the NUTRIECOMUSCLE study). In this article, the principal investigators of the three projects discuss the steps taken to develop these studies in the context of a worldwide pandemic: from initial concept, study design, and patient recruitment to problems in the execution of the project in day-to-day practice and publication policies. Also, they offer some insights on the initial results and the implications which these studies may have for current clinical practice.


Introducción: NutriCOVer es un programa de investigación impulsado por Nutricia a nivel global para apoyar iniciativas de investigación clínica en 16 países de todo el mundo. El programa tiene como objetivo adaptar el cuidado nutricional a las necesidades de los pacientes con COVID-19 dados de alta de la unidad de cuidados intensivos. En España se están desarrollando tres proyectos de investigación, siendo un país de referencia dentro del programa NutriCOVer. Estos estudios analizan la evolución de los pacientes tras una COVID-19 grave desde el punto de vista nutricional, evaluando aspectos relevantes como la prevalencia y evolución de la desnutrición y la sarcopenia (estudio NUTRICOVID), la prevalencia y el impacto de la disfagia (estudio COVID-19- DN-OD) y los cambios de la composición corporal medida por ecografía nutricional y bioimpedanciometría (estudio NUTRIECOMUSCLE). En este artículo, los investigadores que lideran estos tres proyectos discuten todos los pasos que han seguido para el desarrollo de los estudios en el contexto de una pandemia mundial: desde la idea inicial, el diseño y el reclutamiento de pacientes hasta los problemas de ejecución que se han encontrado en el día a día o la política de publicación de los resultados. Además, ofrecen algunas impresiones sobre los resultados iniciales y las implicaciones que pueden tener estos estudios para cambiar la práctica clínica habitual.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Malnutrition , Sarcopenia , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Patient Discharge , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/etiology
2.
Nervenarzt ; 93(2): 167-174, 2022 Feb.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669765

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to severe disease courses with multiple organ involvement, respiratory and neurological functional impairments. Swallowing disorders (dysphagia) in this patient group can result from primary damage to the central and peripheral neuronal swallowing network but also from the frequently prolonged intensive care treatment and mechanical ventilation. Clinical observations indicate persistence of dysphagia in post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (long COVID), so that these patients probably also need long-term interventions for rehabilitation of safe and sufficient oral feeding. Therefore, structured disease-specific monitoring of dysphagia symptoms should be integrated into the treatment of COVID-19 patients and respiratory therapy should be an essential part of dysphagia management to re-establish cough effectiveness and breathing-swallowing coordination. Challenges arise from necessary adjustments to established treatment standards to prevent infections. Furthermore, the selection and intensity of therapeutic measures have to be adapted to the capacities and the specific pathophysiology of COVID-19 and long COVID patients to prevent further functional deterioration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 57(2): 422-440, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has renewed interest in the use of ultrasound (US) amongst dysphagia-trained clinicians working with infants and children. US is a portable, minimally intrusive tool which carries reduced risk of aerosol-generation provoked by other instrumental swallowing assessment tools such as fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). For this reason, US could be a valuable addition to the dysphagia assessment toolkit. A recently published rapid review of US evidence for the assessment of swallowing and laryngeal function in the adult population provided a framework for this neonatal and paediatric review. AIMS: This enhanced rapid review aimed to establish the applicability of US as an instrumental assessment tool for sucking, swallowing and laryngeal function in the neonatal and paediatric populations. METHODS & PROCEDURES: A rapid review of six electronic databases was conducted to identify articles using US to assess sucking, swallowing or laryngeal function in the selected populations, compared with varied reference tests. Abstract screening was completed according to pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria with 10% of articles assessed by a second screener. Data was extracted from the included studies using a pre-developed form. A modified QUADAS-2 tool was used to assess study quality. Results from the included studies were summarised and grouped into sucking, swallowing and laryngeal function data. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Twelve studies using US in the assessment of swallowing and/or laryngeal function met inclusion criteria. No studies using US for assessment of sucking met the inclusion criteria. All were peer-reviewed, primary studies across a range of clinical populations and with a wide geographical spread. Five studies had an overall low risk of bias. Seven studies had at least one domain where risk of bias was judged as high. All studies had high applicability. The two studies assessing swallowing differed in terms of aims and use of US. The studies assessing laryngeal function predominately investigated vocal fold movement and laryngeal pathology. Sensitivity and specificity data were provided or calculated from raw data for nine of the laryngeal function studies (respective ranges of 75%-100% and 80%-100%). CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: Emerging evidence exists to support the use of US as adjunct to clinical assessment of swallowing and laryngeal function in the neonatal and paediatric population. A paucity of evidence to support use of US in the assessment of sucking exists. Further research is needed to establish evidence-based assessment and analysis protocols as well as development of paediatric data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Larynx , Adult , Child , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Larynx/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography
6.
Rev Gastroenterol Mex (Engl Ed) ; 87(1): 63-79, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586718

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the COVID-19 disease is transmitted through the inhalation of droplets or aerosols and inoculation via the oronasal or ocular routes, transforming the management of swallowing disorders into a challenge for healthcare teams, given their proximity to the aerodigestive tract and the high probability of aerosol generation during patient evaluation and treatment. AIM: To provide essential guidance for Latin American multidisciplinary teams, regarding the evaluation and treatment of oropharyngeal and esophageal dysphagia, at the different levels of healthcare. The position statement was formulated for the purpose of maintaining medical service continuity, in the context of a pandemic, and minimizing the propagation and infection risks of the virus. METHODS: Thirteen experts in swallowing disorders were summoned by the Latin American Dysphagia Society to formulate a series of clinical suggestions, based on available evidence and clinical experience, for the management of dysphagia, taking the characteristics of Latin American healthcare systems into account. RESULTS: The position statement of the Latin American Dysphagia Society provides a series of clinical suggestions directed at the multidisciplinary teams that manage patients with oropharyngeal and esophageal dysphagia. It presents guidelines for evaluation and treatment in different contexts, from hospitalization to home care. CONCLUSIONS: The present statement should be analyzed by each team or healthcare professional, to reduce the risk for COVID-19 infection and achieve the best therapeutic results, while at the same time, being mindful of the reality of each Latin American country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Am J Emerg Med ; 51: 427.e1-427.e2, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560068

ABSTRACT

There have been more than 178 million global cases of COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, with more than 3.8 million deaths worldwide [1]. COVID-19 can present with a wide variety of symptoms, and one rare manifestation that has been reported in the literature is acute epiglottitis. To date, there have been two reported cases of acute epiglottitis in COVID-19 positive patients [2, 3]. We present a case of a 49-year-old male presenting to a community emergency department with the chief complaint of dysphagia and sore throat, confirmed as acute epiglottitis, in the presence of a positive rapid COVID-19 PCR test.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Epiglottitis/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Deglutition Disorders/virology , Epiglottitis/virology , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/virology , Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome
8.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 403, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To meet the surging demands for intubation and invasive ventilation as more COVID-19 patients begin their recovery, clinicians are challenged to find an ultra-brief and minimally invasive screen for postextubation dysphagia predicting feeding-tube dependence persisting for 72 h after extubation. METHODS: This study examined the predictive validity of a two-item swallowing screen on feeding-tube dependence over 72 h in patients following endotracheal extubation. Intensive-care-unit (ICU) patients (≥ 20 years) successfully extubated after ≥ 48 h endotracheal intubation were screened by trained nurses using the swallowing screen (comprising oral stereognosis and cough-reflex tests) 24 h postextubation. Feeding-tube dependence persisting for 72 h postextubation was abstracted from the medical record by an independent rater. To verify the results and cross-check whether the screen predicted penetration and/or aspiration during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES), participants agreeing to receive FEES were analyzed within 30 min of screening. RESULTS: The results showed that 95/123 participants (77.2%) failed the screen, which predicted ICU patients' prolonged (> 72 h) feeding-tube dependence, yielding sensitivity of 0.83, specificity of 0.35, and accuracy of 0.68. Failed-screen participants had 2.96-fold higher odds of feeding-tube dependence (95% CI, 1.13-7.76). For the 38 participants receiving FEES, the swallowing screen had 0.89 sensitivity to detect feeding-tube dependence and 0.86 sensitivity to predict penetration/aspiration, although specificity had room for improvement (0.36 and 0.21, respectively). CONCLUSION: This ultra-brief swallowing screen is sufficiently sensitive to identify high-risk patients for feeding-tube dependence persisting over 72 h after extubation. Once identified, a further assessment and care are indicated to ensure the prompt return of patients' oral feeding. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03284892, registered on September 15, 2017.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation/adverse effects , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Enteral Nutrition , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Time Factors
9.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 103(2): 336-341, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate dysphagia in patients recovering from SARS-CoV-2 admitted to acute inpatient rehabilitation by summarizing clinical swallow evaluation and videofluoroscopic swallow study findings. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Urban inpatient rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The first inpatients admitted with SARS-CoV-2 (N=40) who participated in a videofluoroscopic swallow study. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient characteristics upon admission (duration of intubation, tracheostomy status, comorbidities, videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) completion at previous level of care); admission International Dysphagia Diet level (IDDSI); Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MASA), Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), dysphagia severity rating; penetration aspiration scale (PAS) rated during VFSS; and IDDSI level recommended after completion of VFSS. RESULTS: Twenty percent of patients had been evaluated by videofluoroscopy in acute care. Nineteen of 37 (51%) individuals were upgraded to IDDSI level 7 regular diet with level 0 thin liquids and achieved a FOIS of 7 after the completion of the VFSS. Five individuals (13%) received a diet downgrade or remained on the same diet recommendations from their admission. Total numerical score (TNS) of less than 170 on the MASA predicted presence of aspiration in 27% of patients (6 of 22). Seventy-two percent of the sample (16 of 22) had a TNS less than 170 but did not demonstrate any instances of aspiration. The odds of patients having a PAS of 3 or greater increased by approximately 15% (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.27; P=.013). Thus, with each additional day of intubation during acute care stay, there was a 15% greater likelihood of having airway invasion. CONCLUSIONS: Instrumental swallow evaluations are imperative to diagnose and treat dysphagia in the post-coronavirus disease population. Because of the heterogeneity of this population, high incidence of prolonged intubation, and limitations of the clinical swallowing evaluation, instrumental assessments need to be performed on a more consistent basis as infection prevention protocols evolve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Cineradiography/methods , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Aged , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Female , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 74(11-12): 367-378, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547874

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which causes the COVID-19 disease can lead to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It poses a serious challenge to the health care system, especially intensive care. Neurological patients, usually of advanced age and with a myriad of comorbidities, are at particular risk through the impact of the new coronavirus on their condition and nutritional capacity. Stroke is a leader in morbidity and mortality data, with a focus on dysphagia and its complications due to COVID-19 disease and acute cerebrovascular accident. In the acute phase of stroke, 30-50% of patients suffer from dysphagia, which still shows a prevalence of 10% six months later. Dysphagia results in decreased or insufficient fluid and nutrient uptake, supp-lemented by inactivity, leading to malnutrition and sarcopenia, which worsens overall condition, outcome, and rehabilitation efficiency. Screening and early detection of swallowing disorders is a fundamental issue in order to develop a personalized and timely-initiated nutritional therapy strategy. Nutritional therapy plays a key role in frequent intensive care due to COVID-19 disease, where it increases the chances of recovery and reduces the length of stay in the intensive care unit and mortality. This is especially true in critically ill patients requiring prolonged ventilation. In COVID-19 diagnosed patients, screening for dysphagia, bedside assessment, and instrumental examination, followed by swallowing rehabilitation, are of paramount importance. Stroke can also be a complication of the COVID-19 infection. Care for cerebrovascular patients has also adapted to the pandemic, "triazination" has become systemic, and dysphagia screening for stroke patients and nutritional therapy adapted to it have also shed new light.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Stroke , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Humans , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/epidemiology
11.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(2): 532-550, 2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545666

ABSTRACT

Purpose Our aim was to critically review recent literature on the use of telehealth for dysphagia during the COVID-19 pandemic and enhance this information in order to provide evidence- and practice-based clinical guidance during and after the pandemic. Method We conducted a rapid systematized review to identify telehealth adaptations during COVID-19, according to peer-reviewed articles published from January to August 2020. Of the 40 articles identified, 11 met the inclusion criteria. Full-text reviews were completed by three raters, followed by qualitative synthesis of the results and description of practical recommendations for the use of telehealth for dysphagia. Results Seven articles were guidelines articles, three were editorials, and one was a narrative review. One article focused on telehealth and dysphagia during COVID-19. The remaining 10 mentioned telehealth in varying degrees while focusing on dysphagia management during the pandemic. No articles discussed pediatrics in depth. The most common procedure for which telehealth was recommended was the clinical swallowing assessment (8/11), followed by therapy (7/11). Six articles characterized telehealth as a second-tier service delivery option. Only one article included brief guidance on telehealth-specific factors, such as legal safeguards, safety, privacy, infrastructure, and facilitators. Conclusions Literature published during the pandemic on telehealth for dysphagia is extremely limited and guarded in endorsing telehealth as an equivalent service delivery model. We have presented prepandemic and emerging current evidence for the safety and reliability of dysphagia telemanagement, in combination with practical guidelines to facilitate the safe adoption of telehealth during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Speech-Language Pathology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Humans , Pandemics , Pediatrics/methods , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(2): 598-608, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545664

ABSTRACT

Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically increased the use of telehealth. Prior studies of telehealth clinical swallowing evaluations provide positive evidence for telemanagement of swallowing. However, the reliability of these measures in clinical practice, as opposed to well-controlled research conditions, remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the reliability of outcome measures derived from clinical swallowing tele-evaluations in real-world clinical practice (e.g., variability in devices and Internet connectivity, lack of in-person clinician assistance, or remote patient/caregiver training). Method Seven raters asynchronously judged clinical swallowing tele-evaluations of 12 movement disorders patients. Outcomes included the Timed Water Swallow Test (TWST), Test of Masticating and Swallowing Solids (TOMASS), and common observations of oral intake. Statistical analyses were performed to examine inter- and intrarater reliability, as well as qualitative analyses exploring patient and clinician-specific factors impacting reliability. Results Forty-four trials were included for reliability analyses. All rater dyads demonstrated "good" to "excellent" interrater reliability for measures of the TWST (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] ≥ .93) and observations of oral intake (≥ 77% agreement). The majority of TOMASS outcomes demonstrated "good" to "excellent" interrater reliability (ICCs ≥ .84), with the exception of the number of bites (ICCs = .43-.99) and swallows (ICCs = .21-.85). Immediate and delayed intrarater reliability were "excellent" for most raters across all tasks, ranging between ICCs of .63 and 1.00. Exploratory factors potentially impacting reliability included infrequent instances of suboptimal video quality, reduced camera stability, camera distance, and obstruction of the patient's mouth during tasks. Conclusions Subjective observations of oral intake and objective measures taken from the TWST and the TOMASS can be reliably measured via telehealth in clinical practice. Our results provide support for the feasibility and reliability of telehealth for outpatient clinical swallowing evaluations during COVID-19 and beyond. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13661378.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Deglutition/physiology , Speech-Language Pathology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Female , Humans , Lewy Body Disease/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple System Atrophy/complications , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/complications , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/standards
15.
Surg Endosc ; 35(9): 5124-5129, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Flexible endoscopy allows use of the vessel-tissue sealer Ligasure™ (Covidien, Massachusetts, USA) to perform diverticulotomy. Few studies have used this endoscopic approach in the uncommon disorder Zenker's diverticulum. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of flexible endoscopy treatment assisted by Ligasure™. METHODS: The single-center prospective and descriptive study included patients treated by flexible endoscopy using Ligasure™ for resection of Zenker's diverticulum. Consecutive patients were included from March 2009 to April 2018. Patients were censored until the end of follow-up or death. Complications, symptoms before treatment, type of sedation, and number of interventions needed to resolve Zenker's diverticulum were analyzed. Bleeding complications were considered when a case required a second endoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 46 symptomatic patients with Zenker's diverticulum were included in the final analysis (41.3% women, median age of 73.7 ± 11 years). The median follow-up period was 37.21 ± 28 months. Of all cases, 58.7% were considered small (< 3 cm). Solid or semi-solid food-related dysphagia was present in 55.6% of patients previously to the procedure. The technique was successful in a single procedure in 78.3% of cases. However, the success rate increased to 89.1% with a second procedure, and we had a complication rate of 4.3% with this technique. Most patients (79.66%) were managed as out-patients or with short (< 24 h) admission. CONCLUSION: In this large case series, treatment of Zenker's diverticulum based on flexible endoscopy assisted by Ligasure™ was a safe and effective procedure with a high success rate in a few endoscopy sessions and low complication rate.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders , Zenker Diverticulum , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Endoscopes , Endoscopy , Esophagoscopy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Zenker Diverticulum/surgery
16.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 37(1): 110-116, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of post-extubation dysphagia and associated factors in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) . Our study assessed the prevalence of post-extubation dysphagia and body composition in patients with COVID-19 discharged from an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed in post-ICU extubated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 in two referral hospitals. A total of 112 patients were evaluated and included; swallowing assessment and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were performed after extubation and discharge from the ICU. To identify associations between dysphagia, lower phase angle (PhA) (<4.8°) and hydration (extracellular water/total body water < 0.390) logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The incidence of post-extubation dysphagia was 41% (n = 46). From these, 65% (n = 30) had severe swallowing impairment. Overhydration and PhA were significantly different in patients with dysphagia, and segmental hydration in the trunk and legs was higher than in arms. PhA <4.8° (odds ratio [OR], 12.2; 95% CI, 4.3-34.1; P < .05) and overhydration measured by BIA (OR, 9.1; 95% CI, 3.4-24.5; P < .05) were associated with post-extubation dysphagia in multivariate analysis. PhA (<4.8°) was associated with a lower rate of swallowing recovery at hospital discharge (log-rank test = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: A high incidence of post-extubation dysphagia was found in patients with COVID-19. Low PhA and overhydration were associated with the presence of dysphagia. Lower PhA was an independent factor for swallowing recovery at discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Sleep Breath ; 24(3): 791-799, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453831

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published evidence elucidating the prevalence of dysphagia and detail alterations in swallowing function in patients with OSAS. METHODS: Computerized literature searches were performed from four search engines. The studies were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies were screened using Covidence (Cochrane tool) and followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement standards (PRISMA-2009). A total 2645 studies were initially retrieved, of which a total of 17 studies met inclusion criteria. Two reviewers, blinded to each other, evaluated level and strength of evidence using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence and QualSyst, respectively. RESULTS: Dysphagia prevalence ranged from 16 to 78% among the eligible studies. Studies varied in operational definitions defining swallowing dysfunction (dysphagia) and method used to assess swallowing function. Approximately 70% of eligible studies demonstrated strong methodological quality. The majority of studies (n = 11; 65%) reported pharyngeal swallowing impairments in patients with OSAS, including delayed initiation of pharyngeal swallow and penetration/aspiration. CONCLUSION: This systematic review describes swallowing function in patients with OSAS. However, due to the variability in defining OSAS and dysphagia, in the assessment method used to determine dysphagia, and heterogeneity of study designs, true prevalence is difficult to determine. Clinicians involved in the management of OSAS patients should employ validated assessment measures to determine if swallow dysfunction is present.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition/physiology , Oropharynx/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Humans , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology
18.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 58(2): 179-189, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451034

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Telerehabilitation is the provision of rehabilitation remotely through Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Recently, there has been an increase of interest in its application thanks to increasing a new technology. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence of the literature regarding the management of neurogenic dysphagia via telerehabilitation, compared to face-to-face rehabilitation treatment. The secondary aim was to create recommendations on telerehabilitation sessions for patients diagnosed with neurogenic dysphagia. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The databases were: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus. A total of 235 records emerged from bibliographic research, manual search of full text and from gray literature, published until January 2021. Two blinded authors carried out titles and abstract screening and followed by full-text analysis. Sixteen articles were included in the systematic review and assessed through critical appraisal tools. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The research shows that the majority of the studies on neurogenic dysphagia involved the Clinical Swallow Examination via telerehabilitation, compared with the in-person modality. Significant levels of agreement and high satisfaction from clinicians and patients are reported to support the use of telerehabilitation. Based on the results of this systematic review and qualitative analysis, the authors developed practical recommendations for the management of telerehabilitation sessions for patients with neurogenic dysphagia. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the presence of barriers, telerehabilitation allowed healthcare provision and increasing access to care and services with specialized professionals, remote rehabilitation can be a valid resource during the health emergency due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Telemedicine , Telerehabilitation , COVID-19/complications , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Telerehabilitation/methods
20.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(1): 507-513, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380427

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients affected by COVID-19 are assumed to be at high risk of developing swallowing disorders. However, to our best knowledge, data on the characteristics and incidence of dysphagia associated with COVID-19 are lacking, especially in non-intubated patients. Therefore, we investigated the onset of swallowing disorders in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection who have not been treated with invasive ventilation, in order to evaluate how the virus affected swallowing function regardless of orotracheal intubation. METHODS: We evaluated 41 patients admitted to the COVID department of our Hospital when they had already passed the acute phase of the disease and were therefore asymptomatic but still positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR. We examined patients' clinical history and performed the Volume-Viscosity Swallow Test (VVST). Each patient also answered the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ). After 6 months, we performed a follow-up in patients with swallowing disorders. RESULTS: Eight of 41 patients (20%) presented with dysphagia symptoms during hospitalization and 2 of them (25%) still presented a SDQ high score and swallowing disorders with liquid consistency after 6 months. CONCLUSION: Non-intubated patients can experience various grades of swallowing impairment that probably directly related to pulmonary respiratory function alterations and viral direct neuronal lesive activity. Although these symptoms show natural tendency to spontaneous resolution, their impact on a general physical impaired situation should not be underestimated, since it can adversely affect patients' recovery from COVID-19 worsening health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
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