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1.
Codas ; 34(6): e20210023, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779817

ABSTRACT

The face-to-face assessment of and training for dysphagia are considered aerosol-generating procedures, and thus are contraindicated for patients who are positive or suspected of having severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Considering the extremely infectious nature of the virus, transmission to other individuals during rehabilitation is possible. Some patients in the intensive care unit and those who are on endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation often have dysphagia. Therefore, assessment and training for oropharyngeal dysphagia are provided by rehabilitation professionals to restore normal feeding before patient discharged. Thus, we aimed to explore the advantages of telerehabilitation in dysphagia management during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. An infected 50-year-old man admitted to the hospital underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation rescue therapy and tracheostomy. Upon gradual respiratory status stabilization, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy was discontinued, and he was weaned off the ventilator. He had difficulty swallowing and coughed after attempting to drink fluids. We considered the application of telerehabilitation for managing dysphagia while minimizing the risk of infection and usage of personal protective equipment. A videoconferencing software on a tablet device provided contactless telerehabilitation, thus reducing the risk of infection and preventing personal protective equipment shortage. Moreover, it facilitates discussion on the issues related to the evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia telerehabilitation. We highlight important considerations for the application of telerehabilitation in the assessment and treatment of dysphagia during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Telerehabilitation , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 55(9): 1160-1168, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The British Society of Gastroenterology has recommended the Edinburgh Dysphagia Score (EDS) to risk-stratify dysphagia referrals during the endoscopy COVID recovery phase. AIMS: External validation of the diagnostic accuracy of EDS and exploration of potential changes to improve its diagnostic performance. METHODS: A prospective multicentre study of consecutive patients referred with dysphagia on an urgent suspected upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer pathway between May 2020 and February 2021. The sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of EDS were calculated. Variables associated with UGI cancer were identified by forward stepwise logistic regression and a modified Cancer Dysphagia Score (CDS) developed. RESULTS: 1301 patients were included from 19 endoscopy providers; 43% male; median age 62 (IQR 51-73) years. 91 (7%) UGI cancers were diagnosed, including 80 oesophageal, 10 gastric and one duodenal cancer. An EDS ≥3.5 had a sensitivity of 96.7 (95% CI 90.7-99.3)% and an NPV of 99.3 (97.8-99.8)%. Age, male sex, progressive dysphagia and unintentional weight loss >3 kg were positively associated and acid reflux and localisation to the neck were negatively associated with UGI cancer. Dysphagia duration <6 months utilised in EDS was replaced with progressive dysphagia in CDS. CDS ≥5.5 had a sensitivity of 97.8 (92.3-99.7)% and NPV of 99.5 (98.1-99.9)%. Area under receiver operating curve was 0.83 for CDS, compared to 0.81 for EDS. CONCLUSIONS: In a national cohort, the EDS has high sensitivity and NPV as a triage tool for UGI cancer. The CDS offers even higher diagnostic accuracy. The EDS or CDS should be incorporated into the urgent suspected UGI cancer pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Female , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/complications , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , Triage
5.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 403, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To meet the surging demands for intubation and invasive ventilation as more COVID-19 patients begin their recovery, clinicians are challenged to find an ultra-brief and minimally invasive screen for postextubation dysphagia predicting feeding-tube dependence persisting for 72 h after extubation. METHODS: This study examined the predictive validity of a two-item swallowing screen on feeding-tube dependence over 72 h in patients following endotracheal extubation. Intensive-care-unit (ICU) patients (≥ 20 years) successfully extubated after ≥ 48 h endotracheal intubation were screened by trained nurses using the swallowing screen (comprising oral stereognosis and cough-reflex tests) 24 h postextubation. Feeding-tube dependence persisting for 72 h postextubation was abstracted from the medical record by an independent rater. To verify the results and cross-check whether the screen predicted penetration and/or aspiration during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES), participants agreeing to receive FEES were analyzed within 30 min of screening. RESULTS: The results showed that 95/123 participants (77.2%) failed the screen, which predicted ICU patients' prolonged (> 72 h) feeding-tube dependence, yielding sensitivity of 0.83, specificity of 0.35, and accuracy of 0.68. Failed-screen participants had 2.96-fold higher odds of feeding-tube dependence (95% CI, 1.13-7.76). For the 38 participants receiving FEES, the swallowing screen had 0.89 sensitivity to detect feeding-tube dependence and 0.86 sensitivity to predict penetration/aspiration, although specificity had room for improvement (0.36 and 0.21, respectively). CONCLUSION: This ultra-brief swallowing screen is sufficiently sensitive to identify high-risk patients for feeding-tube dependence persisting over 72 h after extubation. Once identified, a further assessment and care are indicated to ensure the prompt return of patients' oral feeding. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03284892, registered on September 15, 2017.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation/adverse effects , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Enteral Nutrition , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Time Factors
6.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 103(2): 336-341, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate dysphagia in patients recovering from SARS-CoV-2 admitted to acute inpatient rehabilitation by summarizing clinical swallow evaluation and videofluoroscopic swallow study findings. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Urban inpatient rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The first inpatients admitted with SARS-CoV-2 (N=40) who participated in a videofluoroscopic swallow study. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient characteristics upon admission (duration of intubation, tracheostomy status, comorbidities, videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) completion at previous level of care); admission International Dysphagia Diet level (IDDSI); Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MASA), Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), dysphagia severity rating; penetration aspiration scale (PAS) rated during VFSS; and IDDSI level recommended after completion of VFSS. RESULTS: Twenty percent of patients had been evaluated by videofluoroscopy in acute care. Nineteen of 37 (51%) individuals were upgraded to IDDSI level 7 regular diet with level 0 thin liquids and achieved a FOIS of 7 after the completion of the VFSS. Five individuals (13%) received a diet downgrade or remained on the same diet recommendations from their admission. Total numerical score (TNS) of less than 170 on the MASA predicted presence of aspiration in 27% of patients (6 of 22). Seventy-two percent of the sample (16 of 22) had a TNS less than 170 but did not demonstrate any instances of aspiration. The odds of patients having a PAS of 3 or greater increased by approximately 15% (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.27; P=.013). Thus, with each additional day of intubation during acute care stay, there was a 15% greater likelihood of having airway invasion. CONCLUSIONS: Instrumental swallow evaluations are imperative to diagnose and treat dysphagia in the post-coronavirus disease population. Because of the heterogeneity of this population, high incidence of prolonged intubation, and limitations of the clinical swallowing evaluation, instrumental assessments need to be performed on a more consistent basis as infection prevention protocols evolve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Cineradiography/methods , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Aged , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Female , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 74(11-12): 367-378, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547874

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which causes the COVID-19 disease can lead to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It poses a serious challenge to the health care system, especially intensive care. Neurological patients, usually of advanced age and with a myriad of comorbidities, are at particular risk through the impact of the new coronavirus on their condition and nutritional capacity. Stroke is a leader in morbidity and mortality data, with a focus on dysphagia and its complications due to COVID-19 disease and acute cerebrovascular accident. In the acute phase of stroke, 30-50% of patients suffer from dysphagia, which still shows a prevalence of 10% six months later. Dysphagia results in decreased or insufficient fluid and nutrient uptake, supp-lemented by inactivity, leading to malnutrition and sarcopenia, which worsens overall condition, outcome, and rehabilitation efficiency. Screening and early detection of swallowing disorders is a fundamental issue in order to develop a personalized and timely-initiated nutritional therapy strategy. Nutritional therapy plays a key role in frequent intensive care due to COVID-19 disease, where it increases the chances of recovery and reduces the length of stay in the intensive care unit and mortality. This is especially true in critically ill patients requiring prolonged ventilation. In COVID-19 diagnosed patients, screening for dysphagia, bedside assessment, and instrumental examination, followed by swallowing rehabilitation, are of paramount importance. Stroke can also be a complication of the COVID-19 infection. Care for cerebrovascular patients has also adapted to the pandemic, "triazination" has become systemic, and dysphagia screening for stroke patients and nutritional therapy adapted to it have also shed new light.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Stroke , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Humans , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/epidemiology
8.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(2): 598-608, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545664

ABSTRACT

Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically increased the use of telehealth. Prior studies of telehealth clinical swallowing evaluations provide positive evidence for telemanagement of swallowing. However, the reliability of these measures in clinical practice, as opposed to well-controlled research conditions, remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the reliability of outcome measures derived from clinical swallowing tele-evaluations in real-world clinical practice (e.g., variability in devices and Internet connectivity, lack of in-person clinician assistance, or remote patient/caregiver training). Method Seven raters asynchronously judged clinical swallowing tele-evaluations of 12 movement disorders patients. Outcomes included the Timed Water Swallow Test (TWST), Test of Masticating and Swallowing Solids (TOMASS), and common observations of oral intake. Statistical analyses were performed to examine inter- and intrarater reliability, as well as qualitative analyses exploring patient and clinician-specific factors impacting reliability. Results Forty-four trials were included for reliability analyses. All rater dyads demonstrated "good" to "excellent" interrater reliability for measures of the TWST (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] ≥ .93) and observations of oral intake (≥ 77% agreement). The majority of TOMASS outcomes demonstrated "good" to "excellent" interrater reliability (ICCs ≥ .84), with the exception of the number of bites (ICCs = .43-.99) and swallows (ICCs = .21-.85). Immediate and delayed intrarater reliability were "excellent" for most raters across all tasks, ranging between ICCs of .63 and 1.00. Exploratory factors potentially impacting reliability included infrequent instances of suboptimal video quality, reduced camera stability, camera distance, and obstruction of the patient's mouth during tasks. Conclusions Subjective observations of oral intake and objective measures taken from the TWST and the TOMASS can be reliably measured via telehealth in clinical practice. Our results provide support for the feasibility and reliability of telehealth for outpatient clinical swallowing evaluations during COVID-19 and beyond. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13661378.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Deglutition/physiology , Speech-Language Pathology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Female , Humans , Lewy Body Disease/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple System Atrophy/complications , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/complications , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/standards
10.
Sleep Breath ; 24(3): 791-799, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453831

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published evidence elucidating the prevalence of dysphagia and detail alterations in swallowing function in patients with OSAS. METHODS: Computerized literature searches were performed from four search engines. The studies were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies were screened using Covidence (Cochrane tool) and followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement standards (PRISMA-2009). A total 2645 studies were initially retrieved, of which a total of 17 studies met inclusion criteria. Two reviewers, blinded to each other, evaluated level and strength of evidence using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence and QualSyst, respectively. RESULTS: Dysphagia prevalence ranged from 16 to 78% among the eligible studies. Studies varied in operational definitions defining swallowing dysfunction (dysphagia) and method used to assess swallowing function. Approximately 70% of eligible studies demonstrated strong methodological quality. The majority of studies (n = 11; 65%) reported pharyngeal swallowing impairments in patients with OSAS, including delayed initiation of pharyngeal swallow and penetration/aspiration. CONCLUSION: This systematic review describes swallowing function in patients with OSAS. However, due to the variability in defining OSAS and dysphagia, in the assessment method used to determine dysphagia, and heterogeneity of study designs, true prevalence is difficult to determine. Clinicians involved in the management of OSAS patients should employ validated assessment measures to determine if swallow dysfunction is present.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition/physiology , Oropharynx/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Humans , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology
12.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 37(1): 110-116, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of post-extubation dysphagia and associated factors in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) . Our study assessed the prevalence of post-extubation dysphagia and body composition in patients with COVID-19 discharged from an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed in post-ICU extubated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 in two referral hospitals. A total of 112 patients were evaluated and included; swallowing assessment and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were performed after extubation and discharge from the ICU. To identify associations between dysphagia, lower phase angle (PhA) (<4.8°) and hydration (extracellular water/total body water < 0.390) logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The incidence of post-extubation dysphagia was 41% (n = 46). From these, 65% (n = 30) had severe swallowing impairment. Overhydration and PhA were significantly different in patients with dysphagia, and segmental hydration in the trunk and legs was higher than in arms. PhA <4.8° (odds ratio [OR], 12.2; 95% CI, 4.3-34.1; P < .05) and overhydration measured by BIA (OR, 9.1; 95% CI, 3.4-24.5; P < .05) were associated with post-extubation dysphagia in multivariate analysis. PhA (<4.8°) was associated with a lower rate of swallowing recovery at hospital discharge (log-rank test = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: A high incidence of post-extubation dysphagia was found in patients with COVID-19. Low PhA and overhydration were associated with the presence of dysphagia. Lower PhA was an independent factor for swallowing recovery at discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(1): 507-513, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380427

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients affected by COVID-19 are assumed to be at high risk of developing swallowing disorders. However, to our best knowledge, data on the characteristics and incidence of dysphagia associated with COVID-19 are lacking, especially in non-intubated patients. Therefore, we investigated the onset of swallowing disorders in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection who have not been treated with invasive ventilation, in order to evaluate how the virus affected swallowing function regardless of orotracheal intubation. METHODS: We evaluated 41 patients admitted to the COVID department of our Hospital when they had already passed the acute phase of the disease and were therefore asymptomatic but still positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR. We examined patients' clinical history and performed the Volume-Viscosity Swallow Test (VVST). Each patient also answered the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ). After 6 months, we performed a follow-up in patients with swallowing disorders. RESULTS: Eight of 41 patients (20%) presented with dysphagia symptoms during hospitalization and 2 of them (25%) still presented a SDQ high score and swallowing disorders with liquid consistency after 6 months. CONCLUSION: Non-intubated patients can experience various grades of swallowing impairment that probably directly related to pulmonary respiratory function alterations and viral direct neuronal lesive activity. Although these symptoms show natural tendency to spontaneous resolution, their impact on a general physical impaired situation should not be underestimated, since it can adversely affect patients' recovery from COVID-19 worsening health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(7): e227-e230, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320541

ABSTRACT

Adenocarcinoma of the bladder is a rare form of malignancy accounting for fewer than 2% of bladder tumours. It is most commonly a result of direct invasion from prostatic, rectal or gynaecological primaries and less commonly presents from distant haematological or lymphatic metastasis. We report a rare case of oesophageal carcinoma metastasising to the bladder. It involves a 71-year-old man with progressive dysphagia and diagnostic computerised tomography findings of thickening in the oesophagus, bladder and common bile duct. Subsequent endoscopic biopsies of the oesophageal and bladder abnormalities showed immunohistochemical features consistent with upper gastrointestinal malignancy. This report aims to add to current clinical evidence of this route of metastasis and also highlight some of the key markers used by pathologists in interpretation of specimens. It also emphasises the essential role of a multidisciplinary approach for the diagnosis of such rare conditions.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Hydronephrosis/diagnosis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Aged , Biopsy , Cystoscopy , Esophageal Neoplasms/complications , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/therapy , Esophagus/diagnostic imaging , Esophagus/pathology , Humans , Hydronephrosis/etiology , Male , Palliative Care , Terminal Care , Urinary Bladder/diagnostic imaging , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/secondary , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/therapy , Weight Loss
16.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 148: 110823, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293856

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome, temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) is a novel disease first identified in 2020. Recent cohort studies have described the complex presentation and symptomatology. This paper provides detailed description of the dysphagia and dysphonia symptoms, management, and outcome. OBJECTIVE: To describe dysphagia and dysphonia in PIMS-TS. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single tertiary and quaternary children's hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All 50 children treated for paediatric multisystem inflammatory disease between April and June 2020 were included in this study. MAIN OUTCOME(S) AND MEASURE(S): Dysphonia: GRBAS Perceptual Severity Scores, Vocal Handicap Index scores and the Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale. Dysphagia: Functional Oral Intake Scale. RESULTS: Fifty children met the diagnostic criteria for PIMS-TS. 33 (66%) were male. Median age was 10 years (range: 1-17). 36 (72%) were of Black, Asian or minority ethnic background. Nine (18%) required specialist assessment and management of dysphagia and/or dysphonia. Five (55%) were male with a median age of 9 years 7 months (range: 1-15 years). Symptoms typically resolved within three months. Two children presented with persisting dysphonia three months post-presentation. Neurological, inflammatory, and iatrogenic causes of dysphagia and dysphonia were identified. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Dysphonia and dysphagia are present in children with PIMS-TS. Further data is required to understand pathophysiology, estimate incidence, and determine prognostic factors. This preliminary data highlights the need for dysphagia and dysphonia screening and timely referral for specialist, multidisciplinary assessment and treatment to ensure short-term aspiration risk is managed and long-term, functional outcomes are optimised.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Dysphonia , Child , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Dysphonia/diagnosis , Dysphonia/etiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
17.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 46(6): 1290-1299, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291548

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to (i) investigate post-extubation dysphagia and dysphonia amongst adults intubated with SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) and referred to speech and language therapy (SLT) in acute hospitals across the Republic of Ireland (ROI) between March and June 2020; (ii) identify variables predictive of post-extubation oral intake status and dysphonia and (iii) establish SLT rehabilitation needs and services provided to this cohort. DESIGN: A multi-site prospective observational cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred adults with confirmed COVID-19 who were intubated across eleven acute hospital sites in ROI and who were referred to SLT services between March and June 2020 inclusive. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Oral intake status, level of diet modification and perceptual voice quality. RESULTS: Based on initial SLT assessment, 90% required altered oral intake and 59% required tube feeding with 36% not allowed oral intake. Age (OR 1.064; 95% CI 1.018-1.112), proning (OR 3.671; 95% CI 1.128-11.943) and pre-existing respiratory disease (OR 5.863; 95% CI 1.521-11.599) were predictors of oral intake status post-extubation. Two-thirds (66%) presented with dysphonia post-extubation. Intubation injury (OR 10.471; 95% CI 1.060-103.466) and pre-existing respiratory disease (OR 24.196; 95% CI 1.609-363.78) were predictors of post-extubation voice quality. Thirty-seven per cent required dysphagia intervention post-extubation, whereas 20% needed intervention for voice. Dysphagia and dysphonia persisted in 27% and 37% cases, respectively, at hospital discharge. DISCUSSION: Post-extubation dysphagia and dysphonia were prevalent amongst adults with COVID-19 across the ROI. Predictors included iatrogenic factors and underlying respiratory disease. Prompt evaluation and intervention is needed to minimise complications and inform rehabilitation planning.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation/adverse effects , COVID-19/therapy , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Dysphonia/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Dysphonia/rehabilitation , Female , Humans , Ireland , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Dysphagia ; 37(2): 447-453, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283782

ABSTRACT

A high percentage of patients suffered symptoms also after recovery from the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection. It is not well clear what are the specific long-term sequelae (complications and symptoms). During the acute phase the patients may develop a multi-organ system pathology including aerodigestive tract. As the pathophysiology of COVID-19 emerges, the aim of our study was to describe the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia after COVID-19 disease. From March to July 2020 we enrolled patients recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection who had been previously hospitalized for the disease. They were screened for dysphagia by mean of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (EAT-10). The cases with EAT-10 score > 3 were graded for the aspiration risk by applying the Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS) and were submitted to the Swal-QoL questionnaire. The cases with a GUSS score > 19 were subjected to FEES. 8/117 (7%) patients had positive screening result. 4/8 (50%) revealed an abnormal health related quality of life in oropharyngeal dysphagia with a mean Swal-QoL score of 69.73. The most affected domain was the "time of meals" (mean score 65) following by the "sleep" (mean score 66) and "eating desire" (mean score 72). 1/8 cases showed increased risk for aspiration and did not showed endoscopic signs of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Our results showed that the prevalence of upper dysphagia after hospitalization for SARS-CoV-2 is not anecdotal and that probably this long-lasting sequela has a psychogenic etiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282058

ABSTRACT

A 49-year-old woman presented as an acute admission with persistent vomiting and an inability to tolerate both solids and liquids. Five weeks prior to the admission she had an Elipse swallowable intragastric balloon placed into her stomach as an aid to weight loss. This type of balloon stays inflated inside the stomach for 16 weeks before disintegrating and passing through the gastrointestinal tract. Observations and blood parameters were unremarkable but abdominal radiograph indicated that the balloon had undergone spontaneous hyperinflation-a rare complication. At gastroscopy, the balloon was found to fill the entire stomach volume causing dysphagia. The balloon was punctured endoscopically, contents suctioned and remnants retrieved through the gastroscope. The patient commenced oral intake the following day and was discharged home with no further symptoms at 12-week follow-up.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders , Gastric Balloon , Obesity, Morbid , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Female , Gastric Balloon/adverse effects , Gastroscopy , Humans , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , Vomiting/etiology , Weight Loss
20.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 36(4): 828-832, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279380

ABSTRACT

Oropharyngeal dysphagia is one of the complications of endotracheal intubation. As expected, cases of dysphagia following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reported to date have all been intubated. We here report a case of sarcopenic dysphagia following severe COVID-19 pneumonia in a nonintubated older adult. The patient was an 85-year-old male who was readmitted to the hospital with dysphagia and subsequent aspiration pneumonia in the first week after his discharge from the COVID-19 unit. On physical examination, the patient was sarcopenic and malnourished. Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) revealed aspiration into the airway. Enteral feeding was initiated and the infusion rate gradually increased to achieve the desired protein-energy targets. Control FEES 2 months after discharge showed recovery of swallowing function, with no apparent penetration or aspiration. Clinicians caring for patients with COVID-19 should be aware that dysphagia, which is associated with increased mortality in older adults, may occur even in the absence of intubation. We recommend that the evaluation of dysphagia be part of the clinical assessment in older COVID-19 patients with malnutrition or sarcopenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Pneumonia, Aspiration , Sarcopenia , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Aspiration/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/complications
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