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1.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(9): 837-839, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367091

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 might have an impact on patients with Parkinson disease because of the neuroinvasive potential. Herein, we report the case of a patient with Parkinson disease who developed severe and prolonged oropharyngeal dysphagia after a coronavirus disease 2019 infection. A 73-yr-old male patient with Parkinson disease was diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 and admitted to a tertiary care hospital. Before hospitalization, he was assessed at Hoehn and Yahr stage 4 and showed no symptoms of dysphagia. After admission, the patient gradually recovered; however, he was fed through a nasogastric tube. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study revealed a severe oropharyngeal dysphagia with a severely delayed oral phase. Therefore, he underwent percutaneous gastrostomy tube insertion. After discharge, although he received swallowing therapy for 4 mos, he still had severe dysphagia, which made him dependent on enteral feeding. We speculate that the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on dopaminergic and nondopaminergic mechanisms could lead to the development of dysphagia in this patient. The present case suggests that clinicians must have a high index of suspicion without dismissing the possibility of dysphagia and subsequent aspiration pneumonia in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with Parkinson disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Deglutition Disorders/virology , Parkinson Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Parkinson Disease/virology
2.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252347, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dysphagia appears to be common in patients with severe COVID-19. Information about the characteristics of dysphagia and laryngeal findings in COVID-19 patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) is still limited. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate oropharyngeal swallowing function and laryngeal appearance and function in patients with severe COVID-19. METHOD: A series of 25 ICU patients with COVID-19 and signs of dysphagia were examined with fiberendoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) during the latter stage of ICU care or after discharge from the ICU. Swallowing function and laryngeal findings were assessed with standard rating scales from video recordings. RESULTS: Pooling of secretions was found in 92% of patients. Eleven patients (44%) showed signs of silent aspiration to the trachea on at least one occasion. All patients showed residue after swallowing to some degree both in the vallecula and hypopharynx. Seventy-six percent of patients had impaired vocal cord movement. Erythema of the vocal folds was found in 60% of patients and edema in the arytenoid region in 60%. CONCLUSION: Impairment of oropharyngeal swallowing function and abnormal laryngeal findings were common in this series of patients with severe COVID-19 treated in the ICU. To avoid complications related to dysphagia in this patient group, it seems to be of great importance to evaluate the swallowing function as a standard procedure, preferably at an early stage, before initiation of oral intake. Fiberendoscopic evaluation of swallowing is preferred due to the high incidence of pooling of secretion in the hypopharynx, silent aspiration, and residuals. Further studies of the impact on swallowing function in short- and long-term in patients with COVID-19 are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Deglutition , Intensive Care Units , Larynx , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/pathology , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Larynx/pathology , Larynx/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In older people with psychoneurological diseases, COVID-19 infection may be associated with a risk of developing or exacerbating dysphagia. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between eating/swallowing function and COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Subjects were 44 inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 infection being treated for schizophrenia in a psychiatric ward. Eating function was assessed using the Food Intake Level Scale (FILS) before and after infection. We also evaluated age, comorbidities, COVID-19 hospital stay, obesity index, weight loss rate, and chlorpromazine equivalent. RESULTS: Subjects had a mean age of 68.86 years. Pre-infection, 20 subjects had a FILS score of 7-9 (presence of eating/swallowing disorder) and 24 subjects had a score of 10 (normal). Eating function after infection resolution showed decreasing FILS score compared to that before infection in 14 subjects (74.14 years). Six subjects (79.3 years) transitioned from oral feeding to parenteral feeding. A ≥ 10% weight loss during infection treatment was significantly associated with decreased eating function and a transition to parenteral feeding. Chlorpromazine equivalents, comorbidities, and number of days of hospitalization showed no associations with decreased eating function. CONCLUSIONS: Preventing malnutrition during treatment for COVID-19 infection is important for improving post-infection life prognosis and maintaining quality of life (QOL).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/etiology , Schizophrenia/complications , Weight Loss , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Deglutition Disorders/psychology , Eating/physiology , Eating/psychology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/physiopathology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status , Schizophrenia/virology
4.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 148, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant portion of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at high risk of developing intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired swallowing dysfunction (neurogenic dysphagia) as a consequence of requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PES) is a simple and safe treatment for neurogenic dysphagia. It has been shown that PES can restore safe swallowing in orally intubated or tracheotomized ICU patients with neurogenic dysphagia following severe stroke. We report the case of a patient with severe neurogenic post-extubation dysphagia (PED) due to prolonged intubation and severe general muscle weakness related to COVID-19, which was successfully treated using PES. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old Caucasian female patient with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection developed neurogenic dysphagia following prolonged intubation in the ICU. To avoid aerosol-generating procedures, her swallowing function was evaluated non-instrumentally as recommended by recently published international guidelines in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Her swallowing function was markedly impaired and PES therapy was recommended. PES led to a rapid improvement of the PED, as evaluated by bedside swallowing assessments using the Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS) and Dysphagia Severity Rating Scale (DSRS), and diet screening using the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS). The improved swallowing, as reflected by these measures, allowed this patient to transfer from the ICU to a non-intensive medical department 5 days after completing PES treatment. CONCLUSIONS: PES treatment contributed to the restoration of a safe swallowing function in this critically ill patient with COVID-19 and ICU-acquired swallowing dysfunction. Early clinical bedside swallowing assessment and dysphagia intervention in COVID-19 patients is crucial to optimize their full recovery. PES may contribute to a safe and earlier ICU discharge of patients with ICU-acquired swallowing dysfunction. Earlier ICU discharge and reduced rates of re-intubation following PES can help alleviate some of the pressure on ICU bed capacity, which is critical in times of a health emergency such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Pharynx , Recovery of Function , Aged , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
5.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(6): 1084-1090, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111452

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presentations and outcomes of inpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presenting with dysphonia and dysphagia to investigate trends and inform potential pathways for ongoing care. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: An inner-city National Health Service Hospital Trust in London, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: All adult inpatients hospitalized with COVID-19 (N=164) who were referred to Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) for voice and/or swallowing assessment for 2 months starting in April 2020. INTERVENTIONS: SLT assessment, advice, and therapy for dysphonia and dysphagia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Evidence of delirium, neurologic presentation, intubation, tracheostomy, and proning history were collected, along with type of SLT provided and discharge outcomes. Therapy outcome measures were recorded for swallowing and tracheostomy pre- and post-SLT intervention and Grade Roughness Breathiness Asthenia Strain Scale for voice. RESULTS: Patients (N=164; 104 men) aged 56.8±16.7 years were included. Half (52.4%) had a tracheostomy, 78.7% had been intubated (mean, 15±6.6d), 13.4% had new neurologic impairment, and 69.5% were delirious. Individualized compensatory strategies were trialed in all and direct exercises with 11%. Baseline assessments showed marked impairments in dysphagia and voice, but there was significant improvement in all during the study (P<.0001). On average, patients started some oral intake 2 days after initial SLT assessment (interquartile range [IQR], 0-8) and were eating and drinking normally on discharge, but 29.3% (n=29) of those with dysphagia and 56.1% (n=37) of those with dysphonia remained impaired at hospital discharge. A total of 70.9% tracheostomized patients were decannulated, and the median time to decannulation was 19 days (IQR, 16-27). Among the 164 patients, 37.3% completed SLT input while inpatients, 23.5% were transferred to another hospital, 17.1% had voice, and 7.8% required community follow-up for dysphagia. CONCLUSIONS: Inpatients with COVID-19 present with significant impairments of voice and swallowing, justifying responsive SLT. Prolonged intubations and tracheostomies were the norm, and a minority had new neurologic presentations. Patients typically improved with assessment that enabled treatment with individualized compensatory strategies. Services preparing for COVID-19 should target resources for tracheostomy weaning and to enable responsive management of dysphagia and dysphonia with robust referral pathways.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Deglutition/physiology , Speech Therapy/methods , Voice Quality/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 56(6): 853-857, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: According to literature, after COVID-19, patients may require rehabilitation care because of different degrees of physical impairments. Neurologic disorders are often described but no specific data about postacute cranial nerves involvement and possible correlation with dysphagia development are yet available. CASE REPORT: The patient is a 69-year-old man who presented acquired weakness and dysphagia with clinical cranial nerves impairment of lingual, IX, X and XII after SARS-CoV-2 infection, without electrophysiological alterations. He underwent rehabilitation program for two months, with slow recovery. However, at discharge residual hypoglossal nerve deficit sign was present. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: This single case expands knowledge about clinical picture after SARS-CoV-2 disease. Is important to notice that cranial, particularly bulbar nerves could be involved as late complications. Thus, we discuss about risk factors, the nature of the damage and the impact in dysphagia pathophysiology and recovery. If supported by further studies, this case may help to understand dysphagia features in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cranial Nerve Diseases/complications , Cranial Nerves/physiopathology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Laryngoscope ; 131(6): E1918-E1925, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986314

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to unprecedented demands on healthcare with many requiring intubation. Tracheostomy insertion has often been delayed and the enduring effects of this on voice, swallow, and airway outcomes in COVID-19 tracheostomy patients are unknown. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess these outcomes in this patient cohort following hospital discharge. METHODS: All COVID-19 patients who had undergone tracheostomy insertion, and were subsequently decannulated, were identified at our institution and followed up 2 months post-discharge. Patient-reported (PROMS) and clinician-reported outcome measures, endoscopic examination, and spirometry were used to assess voice, swallow, and airway outcomes. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were included in the study with a mean age of 56 years and male:female ratio of 28:13. Average duration of endotracheal intubation was 24 days and 63.4% of tracheostomies were performed at day 21 to 35 of intubation. 53.7% had an abnormal GRBAS score and 30% reported abnormal swallow on EAT-10 questionnaire. 81.1% had normal endoscopic examination of the larynx, however, positive endoscopic findings correlated with the patient self-reported VHI-10 (P = .036) and EAT-10 scores (P = .027). 22.5% had spirometric evidence of fixed upper airway obstruction using the Expiratory-Disproportion Index (EDI) and Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive trend between abnormal endoscopic findings and EDI scores over 50 (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: The preliminary results of this study reveal a high incidence of laryngeal injury among patients who underwent intubation and tracheostomy insertion during the COVID-19 pandemic. As these patients continue to be followed up, the evolution of these complications will be studied. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 131:E1918-E1925, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Deglutition/physiology , Postoperative Complications/physiopathology , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Tracheostomy , Voice Quality/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Airway Obstruction/diagnosis , Airway Obstruction/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Correlation of Data , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Larynx/injuries , Larynx/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Spirometry , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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