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1.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The phenotype of patients affected by COVID-19 disease changed between the waves of the pandemic. We assessed the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD), malnutrition (MN), and mortality between the first three waves of COVID-19 patients in a general hospital. METHODS: a prospective observational study between April 2020-May 2021. Clinical assessment for OD was made with the volume-viscosity swallowing test; nutritional assessment was performed consistent with GLIM criteria. A multimodal intervention was implemented in the second and third wave, including (a) texturized diets-fork mashable (1900 kcal + 90 g protein) or pureed (1700 kcal + 75 g protein), (b) oral nutritional supplements (500-600 kcal + 25-30 g protein), and (c) fluid thickening (250 mPa·s or 800 mPa·s). RESULTS: We included 205 patients (69.3 ± 17.6 years) in the 1st, 200 (66.4 ± 17.5 years) in the 2nd, and 200 (72.0 ± 16.3 years;) in the 3rd wave (p = 0.004). On admission, prevalence of OD was 51.7%, 31.3% and 35.1%, and MN, 45.9%, 36.8% and 34.7%, respectively; mortality was 10.7%, 13.6% and 19.1%. OD was independently associated with age, delirium, and MN; MN, with age, OD, diarrhea and ICU admission; mortality, with age, OD and MN. (4) Conclusions: Prevalence of OD, MN and mortality was very high among COVID-19 patients. OD was independently associated with MN and mortality. An early and proactive multimodal nutritional intervention improved patients' nutritional status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Malnutrition , COVID-19/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/complications , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Humans , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Prevalence
2.
Dysphagia ; 37(4): 1038-1091, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031037
3.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(4): 1868-1877, 2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028742

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Much is promised in relation to the use of three-dimensional (3D) food printing to create visually appealing texture-modified foods for people with dysphagia, but little is known of its feasibility. This study aimed to explore the perspective of allied health professionals on the feasibility of using 3D food printing to improve quality of life for people with dysphagia. METHOD: Fifteen allied health professionals engaged in one of four 2-hr online focus groups to discuss 3D food printing for people with dysphagia. They discussed the need to address the visual appeal of texture-modified foods and watched a video of 3D food printing to inform their discussions on its feasibility. Focus group data were transcribed verbatim, de-identified, and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Participants verified summaries of the researchers' interpretation of the themes in the data. RESULTS: Participants suggested that 3D food printing could improve the mealtime experience for people with dysphagia but noted several barriers to its feasibility, including the time and effort involved in printing the food and in cleaning the printer. They were not convinced that 3D-printed food held higher visual appeal or looked enough like the "real food" it represented. CONCLUSIONS: Allied health professionals considered that 3D food printing could benefit people with dysphagia by reducing the negative impacts of poorly presented texture-modified foods. However, they also considered that feasibility barriers could impede uptake and use of 3D food printers. Further research should consider the views of people with dysphagia and address barriers reported in this study.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders , Allied Health Personnel , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Humans , Meals , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Quality of Life
4.
S Afr J Commun Disord ; 69(2): e1-e7, 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a huge impact on every facet of life. This directly included the delivery of health care from allied health professionals such as speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in South Africa. Research has shown that there is limited research done locally on the impact of COVID-19 relating to stroke care. Consequently, this results in a lack of research on the provision of speech, language and swallowing intervention using teletherapy after a stroke from an SLP point of view. OBJECTIVES:  The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of SLPs with regard to their use of teletherapy in a COVID-19 context when providing speech, language and swallowing intervention for patients after a stroke. METHODS:  This study made use of a qualitative approach. An electronic questionnaire was sent to SLPs inviting them to participate in the study. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants and thematic content analysis was used to analyse the open-ended qualitative questions. RESULTS:  The findings show that SLPs experienced a variety of facilitators and barriers to using teletherapy. Additionally, issues of access differ across the private and public sector SLPs for both the clients and the SLPs. CONCLUSION:  The current study provided research in the field of teletherapy, which is relatively new in the South African context. The study, whilst small in scale, provided some insight into the changes experienced from the shift to teletherapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication Disorders , Deglutition Disorders , Speech-Language Pathology , Stroke , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Humans , Pathologists , Speech , Speech-Language Pathology/methods
5.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 29(3): 213-218, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956625

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Videofluoroscopy (VFSS) and fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) are established instrumental techniques to support differential diagnosis and treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Whilst their value is undisputed, each tool is not without limitations. The COVID-19 pandemic has restricted access to VFSS and FEES leading clinicians to explore alternative or augmentative tools to support swallowing assessment.Ultrasound (US) is an established tool for visualisation of head and neck anatomy, including structures implicated in swallowing. Although US has been utilised in swallowing research for many years, its application has not translated into common clinical practice. This review presents and debates the evidence for and against use of US for clinical swallowing assessment. RECENT FINDINGS: Evaluation of swallowing muscle morphometry and measurement of isolated swallowing kinematics are two primary uses of US in swallowing assessment that have been identified in the literature. Use of US to detect bolus flow, aspiration and residues is in its early stages and needs further research. SUMMARY: US shows promise as an adjunctive modality to support assessment of swallowing. With standardisation, these measurements may have potential for transition into clinical care. Reliability and validity testing and development of normative data are imperative to ensure its use as an evidence-based instrumentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Endoscopy , Ultrasonography , Video Recording , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Humans , Infection Control , Reproducibility of Results
6.
Dysphagia ; 37(6): 1386-1399, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797640

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic drove rapid and widespread uptake of telepractice across all aspects of healthcare. The delivery of dysphagia care was no exception, with telepractice recognized as a service modality that could support social distancing/infection control, overcome service delivery challenges created by lockdowns/service closures, and address consumer concerns about attending in-person appointments. Now, almost two years since most services first rapidly deployed telepractice, it is time to reflect on the big picture, and consider how telepractice will continue as a service option that is sustained and integrated into mainstream dysphagia care. It is also timely to consider the research agenda needed to support this goal. To this end, in this paper we present 4 discussion topics, which raise key considerations for the current and future use of telepractice within adult and pediatric dysphagia services. These are (1) Dysphagia services must meet consumer and service needs; (2) Aspects of dysphagia services can be safely and reliably provided via telepractice; (3) Telepractice can be used in flexible ways to support the delivery of dysphagia services; and (4) Providing quality dysphagia services via telepractice requires planned implementation and evaluation. Then directions for future research are discussed. These considerations are presented to help shift perspectives away from viewing telepractice as simply a COVID-19 "interim-care solution". Rather, we encourage clinicians, services, and researchers to embrace a future of "integrated care", where traditional dysphagia services are combined with telepractice models, to enhance the quality of care provided to our clients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Speech-Language Pathology , Telemedicine , Adult , Child , Humans , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control
7.
Codas ; 34(6): e20210023, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779817

ABSTRACT

The face-to-face assessment of and training for dysphagia are considered aerosol-generating procedures, and thus are contraindicated for patients who are positive or suspected of having severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Considering the extremely infectious nature of the virus, transmission to other individuals during rehabilitation is possible. Some patients in the intensive care unit and those who are on endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation often have dysphagia. Therefore, assessment and training for oropharyngeal dysphagia are provided by rehabilitation professionals to restore normal feeding before patient discharged. Thus, we aimed to explore the advantages of telerehabilitation in dysphagia management during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. An infected 50-year-old man admitted to the hospital underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation rescue therapy and tracheostomy. Upon gradual respiratory status stabilization, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy was discontinued, and he was weaned off the ventilator. He had difficulty swallowing and coughed after attempting to drink fluids. We considered the application of telerehabilitation for managing dysphagia while minimizing the risk of infection and usage of personal protective equipment. A videoconferencing software on a tablet device provided contactless telerehabilitation, thus reducing the risk of infection and preventing personal protective equipment shortage. Moreover, it facilitates discussion on the issues related to the evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia telerehabilitation. We highlight important considerations for the application of telerehabilitation in the assessment and treatment of dysphagia during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Telerehabilitation , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Nervenarzt ; 93(2): 167-174, 2022 Feb.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669765

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to severe disease courses with multiple organ involvement, respiratory and neurological functional impairments. Swallowing disorders (dysphagia) in this patient group can result from primary damage to the central and peripheral neuronal swallowing network but also from the frequently prolonged intensive care treatment and mechanical ventilation. Clinical observations indicate persistence of dysphagia in post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (long COVID), so that these patients probably also need long-term interventions for rehabilitation of safe and sufficient oral feeding. Therefore, structured disease-specific monitoring of dysphagia symptoms should be integrated into the treatment of COVID-19 patients and respiratory therapy should be an essential part of dysphagia management to re-establish cough effectiveness and breathing-swallowing coordination. Challenges arise from necessary adjustments to established treatment standards to prevent infections. Furthermore, the selection and intensity of therapeutic measures have to be adapted to the capacities and the specific pathophysiology of COVID-19 and long COVID patients to prevent further functional deterioration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Rev Gastroenterol Mex (Engl Ed) ; 87(1): 63-79, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586718

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the COVID-19 disease is transmitted through the inhalation of droplets or aerosols and inoculation via the oronasal or ocular routes, transforming the management of swallowing disorders into a challenge for healthcare teams, given their proximity to the aerodigestive tract and the high probability of aerosol generation during patient evaluation and treatment. AIM: To provide essential guidance for Latin American multidisciplinary teams, regarding the evaluation and treatment of oropharyngeal and esophageal dysphagia, at the different levels of healthcare. The position statement was formulated for the purpose of maintaining medical service continuity, in the context of a pandemic, and minimizing the propagation and infection risks of the virus. METHODS: Thirteen experts in swallowing disorders were summoned by the Latin American Dysphagia Society to formulate a series of clinical suggestions, based on available evidence and clinical experience, for the management of dysphagia, taking the characteristics of Latin American healthcare systems into account. RESULTS: The position statement of the Latin American Dysphagia Society provides a series of clinical suggestions directed at the multidisciplinary teams that manage patients with oropharyngeal and esophageal dysphagia. It presents guidelines for evaluation and treatment in different contexts, from hospitalization to home care. CONCLUSIONS: The present statement should be analyzed by each team or healthcare professional, to reduce the risk for COVID-19 infection and achieve the best therapeutic results, while at the same time, being mindful of the reality of each Latin American country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 403, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To meet the surging demands for intubation and invasive ventilation as more COVID-19 patients begin their recovery, clinicians are challenged to find an ultra-brief and minimally invasive screen for postextubation dysphagia predicting feeding-tube dependence persisting for 72 h after extubation. METHODS: This study examined the predictive validity of a two-item swallowing screen on feeding-tube dependence over 72 h in patients following endotracheal extubation. Intensive-care-unit (ICU) patients (≥ 20 years) successfully extubated after ≥ 48 h endotracheal intubation were screened by trained nurses using the swallowing screen (comprising oral stereognosis and cough-reflex tests) 24 h postextubation. Feeding-tube dependence persisting for 72 h postextubation was abstracted from the medical record by an independent rater. To verify the results and cross-check whether the screen predicted penetration and/or aspiration during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES), participants agreeing to receive FEES were analyzed within 30 min of screening. RESULTS: The results showed that 95/123 participants (77.2%) failed the screen, which predicted ICU patients' prolonged (> 72 h) feeding-tube dependence, yielding sensitivity of 0.83, specificity of 0.35, and accuracy of 0.68. Failed-screen participants had 2.96-fold higher odds of feeding-tube dependence (95% CI, 1.13-7.76). For the 38 participants receiving FEES, the swallowing screen had 0.89 sensitivity to detect feeding-tube dependence and 0.86 sensitivity to predict penetration/aspiration, although specificity had room for improvement (0.36 and 0.21, respectively). CONCLUSION: This ultra-brief swallowing screen is sufficiently sensitive to identify high-risk patients for feeding-tube dependence persisting over 72 h after extubation. Once identified, a further assessment and care are indicated to ensure the prompt return of patients' oral feeding. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03284892, registered on September 15, 2017.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation/adverse effects , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Enteral Nutrition , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Time Factors
11.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(2): 532-550, 2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545666

ABSTRACT

Purpose Our aim was to critically review recent literature on the use of telehealth for dysphagia during the COVID-19 pandemic and enhance this information in order to provide evidence- and practice-based clinical guidance during and after the pandemic. Method We conducted a rapid systematized review to identify telehealth adaptations during COVID-19, according to peer-reviewed articles published from January to August 2020. Of the 40 articles identified, 11 met the inclusion criteria. Full-text reviews were completed by three raters, followed by qualitative synthesis of the results and description of practical recommendations for the use of telehealth for dysphagia. Results Seven articles were guidelines articles, three were editorials, and one was a narrative review. One article focused on telehealth and dysphagia during COVID-19. The remaining 10 mentioned telehealth in varying degrees while focusing on dysphagia management during the pandemic. No articles discussed pediatrics in depth. The most common procedure for which telehealth was recommended was the clinical swallowing assessment (8/11), followed by therapy (7/11). Six articles characterized telehealth as a second-tier service delivery option. Only one article included brief guidance on telehealth-specific factors, such as legal safeguards, safety, privacy, infrastructure, and facilitators. Conclusions Literature published during the pandemic on telehealth for dysphagia is extremely limited and guarded in endorsing telehealth as an equivalent service delivery model. We have presented prepandemic and emerging current evidence for the safety and reliability of dysphagia telemanagement, in combination with practical guidelines to facilitate the safe adoption of telehealth during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Speech-Language Pathology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Humans , Pandemics , Pediatrics/methods , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(2): 598-608, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545664

ABSTRACT

Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically increased the use of telehealth. Prior studies of telehealth clinical swallowing evaluations provide positive evidence for telemanagement of swallowing. However, the reliability of these measures in clinical practice, as opposed to well-controlled research conditions, remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the reliability of outcome measures derived from clinical swallowing tele-evaluations in real-world clinical practice (e.g., variability in devices and Internet connectivity, lack of in-person clinician assistance, or remote patient/caregiver training). Method Seven raters asynchronously judged clinical swallowing tele-evaluations of 12 movement disorders patients. Outcomes included the Timed Water Swallow Test (TWST), Test of Masticating and Swallowing Solids (TOMASS), and common observations of oral intake. Statistical analyses were performed to examine inter- and intrarater reliability, as well as qualitative analyses exploring patient and clinician-specific factors impacting reliability. Results Forty-four trials were included for reliability analyses. All rater dyads demonstrated "good" to "excellent" interrater reliability for measures of the TWST (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] ≥ .93) and observations of oral intake (≥ 77% agreement). The majority of TOMASS outcomes demonstrated "good" to "excellent" interrater reliability (ICCs ≥ .84), with the exception of the number of bites (ICCs = .43-.99) and swallows (ICCs = .21-.85). Immediate and delayed intrarater reliability were "excellent" for most raters across all tasks, ranging between ICCs of .63 and 1.00. Exploratory factors potentially impacting reliability included infrequent instances of suboptimal video quality, reduced camera stability, camera distance, and obstruction of the patient's mouth during tasks. Conclusions Subjective observations of oral intake and objective measures taken from the TWST and the TOMASS can be reliably measured via telehealth in clinical practice. Our results provide support for the feasibility and reliability of telehealth for outpatient clinical swallowing evaluations during COVID-19 and beyond. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13661378.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Deglutition/physiology , Speech-Language Pathology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Female , Humans , Lewy Body Disease/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple System Atrophy/complications , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/complications , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/standards
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282058

ABSTRACT

A 49-year-old woman presented as an acute admission with persistent vomiting and an inability to tolerate both solids and liquids. Five weeks prior to the admission she had an Elipse swallowable intragastric balloon placed into her stomach as an aid to weight loss. This type of balloon stays inflated inside the stomach for 16 weeks before disintegrating and passing through the gastrointestinal tract. Observations and blood parameters were unremarkable but abdominal radiograph indicated that the balloon had undergone spontaneous hyperinflation-a rare complication. At gastroscopy, the balloon was found to fill the entire stomach volume causing dysphagia. The balloon was punctured endoscopically, contents suctioned and remnants retrieved through the gastroscope. The patient commenced oral intake the following day and was discharged home with no further symptoms at 12-week follow-up.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders , Gastric Balloon , Obesity, Morbid , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Female , Gastric Balloon/adverse effects , Gastroscopy , Humans , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , Vomiting/etiology , Weight Loss
14.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 29(3): 187-193, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197059

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus Disease-19, (COVID-19) has challenged the customary practice of speech language pathologists (SLPs) in the acute care hospital arena, particularly in patients with swallowing disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: In this article, we present themes that emerged from qualitative interviews in which 15 SLPs in a tertiary academic medical center in Boston share their clinical experience caring for over 500 patients with COVID-19: triumphs, concerns, and fears. SUMMARY: The broad themes addressed include adapting to practice laced with fear and uncertainty about safety for themselves and their decision making, coming to terms with disparate and unpredictable clinical presentation, teamwork and collaboration and relationships with their patients despite physical and language barriers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Infection Control/organization & administration , Otolaryngology/organization & administration , Attitude of Health Personnel , Boston , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Clinical Decision-Making , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Fear , Humans
15.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 148, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant portion of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at high risk of developing intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired swallowing dysfunction (neurogenic dysphagia) as a consequence of requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PES) is a simple and safe treatment for neurogenic dysphagia. It has been shown that PES can restore safe swallowing in orally intubated or tracheotomized ICU patients with neurogenic dysphagia following severe stroke. We report the case of a patient with severe neurogenic post-extubation dysphagia (PED) due to prolonged intubation and severe general muscle weakness related to COVID-19, which was successfully treated using PES. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old Caucasian female patient with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection developed neurogenic dysphagia following prolonged intubation in the ICU. To avoid aerosol-generating procedures, her swallowing function was evaluated non-instrumentally as recommended by recently published international guidelines in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Her swallowing function was markedly impaired and PES therapy was recommended. PES led to a rapid improvement of the PED, as evaluated by bedside swallowing assessments using the Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS) and Dysphagia Severity Rating Scale (DSRS), and diet screening using the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS). The improved swallowing, as reflected by these measures, allowed this patient to transfer from the ICU to a non-intensive medical department 5 days after completing PES treatment. CONCLUSIONS: PES treatment contributed to the restoration of a safe swallowing function in this critically ill patient with COVID-19 and ICU-acquired swallowing dysfunction. Early clinical bedside swallowing assessment and dysphagia intervention in COVID-19 patients is crucial to optimize their full recovery. PES may contribute to a safe and earlier ICU discharge of patients with ICU-acquired swallowing dysfunction. Earlier ICU discharge and reduced rates of re-intubation following PES can help alleviate some of the pressure on ICU bed capacity, which is critical in times of a health emergency such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Pharynx , Recovery of Function , Aged , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
16.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(6): 1084-1090, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111452

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presentations and outcomes of inpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presenting with dysphonia and dysphagia to investigate trends and inform potential pathways for ongoing care. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: An inner-city National Health Service Hospital Trust in London, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: All adult inpatients hospitalized with COVID-19 (N=164) who were referred to Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) for voice and/or swallowing assessment for 2 months starting in April 2020. INTERVENTIONS: SLT assessment, advice, and therapy for dysphonia and dysphagia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Evidence of delirium, neurologic presentation, intubation, tracheostomy, and proning history were collected, along with type of SLT provided and discharge outcomes. Therapy outcome measures were recorded for swallowing and tracheostomy pre- and post-SLT intervention and Grade Roughness Breathiness Asthenia Strain Scale for voice. RESULTS: Patients (N=164; 104 men) aged 56.8±16.7 years were included. Half (52.4%) had a tracheostomy, 78.7% had been intubated (mean, 15±6.6d), 13.4% had new neurologic impairment, and 69.5% were delirious. Individualized compensatory strategies were trialed in all and direct exercises with 11%. Baseline assessments showed marked impairments in dysphagia and voice, but there was significant improvement in all during the study (P<.0001). On average, patients started some oral intake 2 days after initial SLT assessment (interquartile range [IQR], 0-8) and were eating and drinking normally on discharge, but 29.3% (n=29) of those with dysphagia and 56.1% (n=37) of those with dysphonia remained impaired at hospital discharge. A total of 70.9% tracheostomized patients were decannulated, and the median time to decannulation was 19 days (IQR, 16-27). Among the 164 patients, 37.3% completed SLT input while inpatients, 23.5% were transferred to another hospital, 17.1% had voice, and 7.8% required community follow-up for dysphagia. CONCLUSIONS: Inpatients with COVID-19 present with significant impairments of voice and swallowing, justifying responsive SLT. Prolonged intubations and tracheostomies were the norm, and a minority had new neurologic presentations. Patients typically improved with assessment that enabled treatment with individualized compensatory strategies. Services preparing for COVID-19 should target resources for tracheostomy weaning and to enable responsive management of dysphagia and dysphonia with robust referral pathways.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Deglutition/physiology , Speech Therapy/methods , Voice Quality/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
Dysphagia ; 36(4): 764-767, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893277

ABSTRACT

Since the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 pandemic a Global Public Health Emergency, experts in swallowing are seeking guidance on service delivery and clinical procedures. The European Society for Swallowing Disorders provides considerations to support experts in swallowing disorders in clinical practice. During the COVID-19 pandemic, assessment and treatment of patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia should be provided, while at the same time balancing risk of oropharyngeal complications with that of infection of patients and healthcare professionals involved in their management. Elective, non-urgent assessment may be temporarily postponed and patients are triaged to decide whether dysphagia assessment is necessary; instrumental assessment of swallowing is performed only if processing of the instruments can be guaranteed and clinical assessment has not provided enough diagnostic information for treatment prescription. Assessment and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia is a high-risk situation as it must be considered an aerosol-generating procedure. Personal protective equipment (PPE) should be used. Telepractice is encouraged and compensatory treatments are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Infection Control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/organization & administration , Risk Management/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Organizational Innovation , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods
19.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 29(4): 2242-2253, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-786682

ABSTRACT

Purpose Speech-language pathologists are playing a crucial role in the assessment and management of patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Our goal was to synthesize peer-reviewed literature and association guidelines from around the world regarding dysphagia assessment and management for this specific population. Method A review of publications available in the PubMed database and official guidelines of international groups was performed on May 23, 2020. The information was synthesized and categorized into three content areas for swallowing: clinical evaluation, instrumental assessment, and rehabilitation. Results Five publications were identified in the PubMed database. Following title, abstract, and full-text review, only three publications met inclusion criteria: two reviews and one narrative report. Additionally, 19 international guidelines were reviewed. To assess swallowing, a modified clinical evaluation was recommended and only following a risk assessment. Instrumental assessments were often considered aerosol generating, especially transnasal procedures such as endoscopy and manometry. For this reason, many associations recommended that these examinations be performed only when essential and with appropriate personal protective equipment. Guidelines recommended that intervention should focus on compensatory strategies, including bolus modification, maneuvers/postural changes, and therapeutic exercises that can be conducted with physical distancing. Respiratory training devices were not recommended during rehabilitation. Conclusions International associations have provided extensive guidance regarding the level of risk related to the management of dysphagia in this population. To date, there are no scientific papers offering disease and/or recovery profiling for patients with dysphagia and coronavirus disease 2019. As a result, research in this area is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Speech-Language Pathology
20.
Dysphagia ; 36(2): 170-182, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639039

ABSTRACT

At the time of writing this paper, there are over 11 million reported cases of COVID-19 worldwide. Health professionals involved in dysphagia care are impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in their day-to-day practices. Otolaryngologists, gastroenterologists, rehabilitation specialists, and speech-language pathologists are subject to virus exposure due to their proximity to the aerodigestive tract and reliance on aerosol-generating procedures in swallow assessments and interventions. Across the globe, professional societies and specialty associations are issuing recommendations about which procedures to use, when to use them, and how to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission during their use. Balancing safety for self, patients, and the public while maintaining adequate evidence-based dysphagia practices has become a significant challenge. This paper provides current evidence on COVID-19 transmission during commonly used dysphagia practices and provides recommendations for protection while conducting these procedures. The paper summarizes current understanding of dysphagia in patients with COVID-19 and draws on evidence for dysphagia interventions that can be provided without in-person consults and close proximity procedures including dysphagia screening and telehealth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Infection Control/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , COVID-19/transmission , Humans
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