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1.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1175482, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242162

ABSTRACT

Background: Disseminated tuberculosis is frequently associated with delayed diagnosis and a poorer prognosis. Objectives: To describe case series of disseminated TB and diagnosis delay in a low TB burden country during the COVID-19 period. Methodology: We consecutively included all patients with of disseminated TB reported from 2019 to 2021 in the reference hospital of the Northern Crown of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. We collected socio-demographic information, clinical, laboratory and radiological findings. Results: We included all 30 patients reported during the study period-5, 9, and 16 in 2019, 2020, and 2021 respectively-20 (66.7%) of whom were male and whose mean age was 41 years. Twenty-five (83.3%) were of non-EU origin. The most frequent system involvement was central nervous system (N = 8; 26.7%) followed by visceral (N = 7; 23.3%), gastro-intestinal (N = 6, 20.0%), musculoskeletal (N = 5; 16.7%), and pulmonary (N = 4; 13.3%). Hypoalbuminemia and anemia were highly prevalent (72 and 77%). The median of diagnostic delay was 6.5 months (IQR 1.8-30), which was higher among women (36.0 vs. 3.5 months; p = 0.002). Central nervous system involvement and pulmonary involvement were associated with diagnostic delay among women. We recorded 24 cured patients, two deaths, three patients with post-treatment sequelae, and one lost-to-follow up. We observed a clustering effect of patients in low-income neighborhoods (p < 0.001). Conclusion: There was a substantial delay in the diagnosis of disseminated TB in our study region, which might impacted the prognosis with women affected more negatively. Our results suggest that an increase in the occurrence of disseminated TB set in motion by diagnosis delay may have been a secondary effect of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Delayed Diagnosis , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing
3.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 60(1): 91-97, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasingly prevalent, but diagnosis can still be challenging. Diagnostic delay is particularly deleterious in this age group. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the evolution of diagnostic delay in pediatric IBD and the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Retrospective study including all pediatric IBD patients diagnosed during 2014, 2019 and 2020 in a tertiary hospital. Diagnostic delay, time to first medical visit, time to pediatric gastroenterologist (PG) visit and time to diagnosis were calculated and compared within a gap of five years (2019 and 2014) and with the year of onset of the pandemic (2020 and 2019). RESULTS: A total of 93 participants were included (2014: 32, 2019: 30, 2020: 31). No significant differences were observed in diagnostic delay, time to first medical visit in Crohn's disease (CD), time to PG visit and time to diagnosis when comparing 2019-2014 and 2020-2019. Time to first visit in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Undetermined-IBD increased in 2019 (P=0.03), with new decrease in 2020 (P=0.04). Diagnostic delay was longer in DC compared to UC plus Undetermined-IBD. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic delay is still an important matter in pediatric IBD, with no significant change over the last years. The time to the first PG visit and the time for diagnosis seem to have the greatest impact on diagnostic delay. Thus, strategies to enhance recognition of IBD symptoms among first-line physicians and to improve communication, facilitating referral, are of utmost importance. Despite the restraints in the health care system caused by the pandemic, time to diagnosis in pediatric IBD was not impaired during 2020 in our center.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Humans , Child , Delayed Diagnosis , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing
4.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28781, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326185

ABSTRACT

To identify the frequency of late presentation and late presentation with advanced disease, and associated factors in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Data from PLHIV diagnosed between 2008 and 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Time of diagnosis (categorized based on key events affecting HIV care continuum e.g., national strategies, HIV guidelines, COVID-19 pandemic) and characteristics of late presenters (LP: CD4 ≤350 cells/mm³ or an AIDS defining event) and late presenters with advanced disease (LPAD: CD4 <200 cells/mm³) were describe. Associations between dependent (LP, LPAD) and independent variables were assessed using univariate/multivariate regression tests and presented as odds ratios (95% confidential interval). Of 1585 individuals (93.7% men), 42.5% were LPs and 19.3% were LPADs. Most common route of transmission was sex between men (54.3%). Non-LPs were younger (30 vs. 34 and 36 years; p < 0.001) and included more men who have sex with men (60.3% vs. 46.3% and 39.5%; p < 0.001). Factors associated with being LP and LPAD were age >30 years, heterosexual/unknown route of transmission (vs. sex between men), diagnosis in 2008-2013 or 2020-2021, (vs. 2014-2019). With reference to Turkish subjects, migrants from Africa had higher odds of being LPAD. LP is still an important health issue in HIV care. Heterosexuality, older age (>30 years), migration from Africa, and the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with delays in HIV presentation in Turkey. These factors need to be considered when developing and implementing policies to enable earlier diagnosis and treatment of PLHIV to achieve UNAIDS 95-95-95 targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , Adult , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Homosexuality, Male , Turkey/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Delayed Diagnosis , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology
5.
Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol (Engl Ed) ; 98(5): 254-258, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292197

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnosis and management of uveal melanoma (a tumour included in the Orphanet catalogue of rare diseases) in a Spanish national reference unit for intraocular tumours during the first year of the pandemic. METHOD: An observational retrospective study of patients with uveal melanoma in the National Reference Unit for Adult Intraocular Tumors of the Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid (Spain) was performed, analysing the pre- and post-COVID-19 periods: from March 15, 2019 to March 15, 2020 and from March 16, 2020 to March 16, 2021. Demographic data, diagnostic delay, tumour size, extraocular extension, treatment and evolution were collected. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify factors that were associated with the variable: enucleation. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients with uveal melanoma were included, of which 42 (51.21%) belonged to the pre-COVID-19 period and 40(40.78%) to the post-COVID-19 period. An increase in tumour size at diagnosis and in the number of enucleations was observed during the post-COVID-19 period (p < 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that both medium-large tumour size and patients diagnosed in the post-COVID-19 period were independently related to an increased risk of enucleation (OR 250, 95%CI, 27.69-2256.37; p < 0.01 and OR 10; 95%CI, 1.10-90.25; p = 0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The increase in tumour size observed in uveal melanomas diagnosed during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic may have favored the increase in the number of enucleations performed during that period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melanoma , Uveal Neoplasms , Adult , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Rare Diseases , Spain/epidemiology , Delayed Diagnosis , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Melanoma/diagnosis , Uveal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uveal Neoplasms/therapy , Uveal Neoplasms/diagnosis
6.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 23(3): 265-271, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breast screening services were suspended for several months owing to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We estimated the potential impact on breast cancer mortality using long-term global observations. However, the magnitude of the impact may vary across countries; therefore, we conducted an analysis and modeling study of this impact in Japan. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared the clinicopathological features of breast cancers between the nonpandemicgroup (April 1, 2019 to October 31, 2019) and the pandemic group (April 1, 2020 to October 31, 2020). We also compared the estimated 10-year survival rates between the two groups based on the weighted average of the 10-year survival rate by clinical stage and site (2004-2007). RESULTS: Results...Pandemic-related disruption decreased the number of breast cancer cases from296 to 249 during both 7-month periods. The percentage of patients with stage IIB or higher disease was significantly higher in the pandemic group than in the non-pandemic group (22.0% vs. 31.3%, P = 0.0133). The percentage of cases with a Ki-67 labeling index higher than 20% tended to be higher in the pandemic group than in the non-pandemic group (62.2% vs. 54.4%). The estimated 10-year survival rate was lower in the pandemic group than in the non-pandemic group (83.9% vs. 87.9%, 95% confidence interval of the difference: 0.87-8.8, P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: We found more aggressive and advanced disease afterthe suspension of breast cancer screening services owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. This may have affected the long-term clinical outcomes of patients with breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Delayed Diagnosis , Prognosis , COVID-19 Testing
7.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(3): e38-e41, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273767
8.
Blood Cancer J ; 13(1): 38, 2023 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253817

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had global healthcare impacts, including high mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients; individuals with multiple myeloma (MM) are especially susceptible to poor outcomes. However, even for MM patients who avoided severe infection, the ramifications of the pandemic have been considerable. The consequences of necessary socio-geographical behavior adaptation, including prolonged shielding and interruptions in delivery of non-pandemic medical services are yet to be fully understood. Using a real-world dataset of 323 consecutive newly diagnosed MM patients in England, we investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on routes to myeloma diagnosis, disease stage at presentation and relevant clinical outcomes. We demonstrate increasing MM presentations via emergency services and increased rates of bony and extra-medullary disease. Differences were seen in choice of induction therapy and the proportion of eligible patients undertaking autologous stem cell transplantation. Whilst survival was statistically inferior for emergency presentations, significant survival differences have yet to be demonstrated for the entire cohort diagnosed during the pandemic, making extended follow-up critical in this group. This dataset highlights wide-ranging issues facing MM patients consequent of the COVID-19 pandemic, with full impacts for clinicians and policy-makers yet to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Multiple Myeloma , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , Multiple Myeloma/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Delayed Diagnosis , Transplantation, Autologous , COVID-19 Testing
9.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 61(259): 290-293, 2023 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280734

ABSTRACT

Paragonimiasis contributes to significant foodborne zoonosis worldwide. The major mode of transmission in humans is by consumption of uncooked or undercooked crabs and crayfish harbouring Paragonimus metacercariae. It begins with symptoms like fever and lower respiratory involvement from a few months to a year, mimicking those of tuberculosis and leading to diagnostic delay. Here, we report two cases of paragonimiasis during a period of nine months. Both cases presented with symptoms of productive cough with rusty sputum, chest pain, along with eosinophilia, and pleural effusion and had a history of consumption of smoked crab from the local river. The diagnosis was established by microscopic demonstration of Paragonimus ova in the sputum. They were treated with praziquantel and recovered. Indeed, it is challenging to diagnose paragonimiasis due to the lack of its specific symptoms but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilia and pleural effusion in such lung diseases. Keywords: case reports; eosinophilia; paragonimiasis; pleural effusion.


Subject(s)
Anthelmintics , Brachyura , Eosinophilia , Paragonimiasis , Paragonimus , Pleural Effusion , Animals , Humans , Paragonimiasis/diagnosis , Paragonimiasis/drug therapy , Paragonimiasis/etiology , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Delayed Diagnosis/adverse effects , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/etiology , Pleural Effusion/therapy , Eosinophilia/diagnosis , Eosinophilia/drug therapy
10.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 11(4): 463-465, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273169

ABSTRACT

Coinfections/mixed infections are common in the respiratory tract. Many times existing organisms have similar risk factors and clinical features that make the diagnosis difficult. Coronavirus diagnosed in 2019 (COVID-19) and tuberculosis (TB) are two such diseases. Patients with TB have lower cellular immunity and impaired pulmonary function. In such environment, atypical organisms, can infect and make the outcome unfavorable. A 21-year-old malnourished (body mass index- 15 kg/m2) girl presented with fever and cough for 10 days. Sputum for Cartridge Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test demonstrated Mycobacterium tuberculosis with no rifampin resistance. Fever persisted (100-101°F) and saturation was dropping even after 10 days of antitubercular treatment. A repeat reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was done and was positive. In view of persistent symptoms after 20 days, bronchoscopy was done, and cultures showed Bordetella bronchiseptica. Fever and symptoms resolved completely after initiation of the sensitive drug. Diagnostic delay in coinfections can lead to increased morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Bordetella , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Coinfection/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Delayed Diagnosis , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Sputum/microbiology
11.
Minerva Dent Oral Sci ; 71(6): 308-317, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate how the organisation of healthcare activity during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic affected the timing of diagnosis of oral carcinoma in the Functional Head and Neck Department of Padua (Italy). This study gives an effective temporal dimension of the diagnostic delay that occurred during the pandemic, compared with data from the literature. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the diagnostic path of a patient affected by oral cancer during COVID-19 pandemic was performed. The time elapsed from the patient's awareness of the problem to the first curative surgical intervention was considered both during the blockage of elective care activities and in the period immediately following. The results were compared to a group of patients treated in the same period of the year 2019. RESULTS: The territorial time was 53.9% longer in the post-lockdown period than in the lockdown period (39.6 days) while the hospital time was 56.6% shorter than in the post-lockdown period (56 days). CONCLUSIONS: The response time of territorial medicine has been longer during the pandemic peak. The unintentional creation of exclusive pathways for oncological patients speeded up the diagnostic process. The organization and accessibility of operating theatres can become particularly problematic during the acute phases of a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma , Mouth Neoplasms , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Delayed Diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Mouth Neoplasms/diagnosis , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing
12.
J Hosp Med ; 18(4): 321-328, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of a new pandemic on diagnostic errors. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify delayed second diagnoses among patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with COVID-19. DESIGNS: An observational cohort Study. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive hospitalized adult patients presenting to the ED of a tertiary referral center with COVID-19 during the Delta and Omicron variant surges. Included patients had evidence of a second diagnosis during their ED stay. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was delayed diagnosis (without documentation or treatment in the ED). Contributing factors were assessed using two logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 1249 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 216 (17%) had evidence of a second diagnosis in the ED. The second diagnosis of 73 patients (34%) was delayed, with a mean (SD) delay of 1.5 (0.8) days. Medical treatment was deferred in 63 patients (86%) and interventional therapy in 26 (36%). The probability of an ED diagnosis was the lowest for Infection-related diagnoses (56%) and highest for surgical-related diagnoses (89%). Evidence for the second diagnosis by physical examination (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] 2.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-4.68) or by imaging (AOR 2.10, 95% CI 1.16-3.79) were predictors for ED diagnosis. Low oxygen saturation (AOR 0.38, 95% CI 0.18-0.79) and cough or dyspnea (AOR 0.48, 95% CI 0.25-0.94) in the ED were predictors of a delayed second diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delayed Diagnosis , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Testing
13.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 37(5): 922-931, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 lockdown had a dramatic impact on primary care access and resulted in postponed skin cancer screenings. This raises concerns for a diagnostic delay on primary cutaneous melanomas, which can subsequently increase morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19-related restrictions on the melanoma diagnosis in five European skin cancer reference centres in Switzerland, Germany, Austria and Italy. METHODS: A total of 7865 cutaneous melanoma cases were collected between 01 September 2018 and 31 August 2021. The time period was stratified into pre-COVID (pre-lockdown) and post-COVID (lockdown and post-lockdown) according to the established restrictions in each country. The data collection included demographic, clinical and histopathological data from histologically confirmed cutaneous melanomas. Personal and family history of melanoma, and presence of immunosuppression were used to assess the diagnosis delay in high-risk individuals. RESULTS: There was an overall increase of the Breslow tumour thickness (mean 1.25 mm vs. 1.02 mm) during the post-COVID period, as well as an increase in the proportion of T3-T4 melanomas, rates of ulceration and the number of mitotic rates ≥2 (all, p < 0.001). Patients with immunosuppression and personal history of melanoma showed a decrease in the mean log10-transformed Breslow during lockdown and post-COVID. In the multivariate analysis, age at melanoma diagnosis (p < 0.01) and personal history of melanoma (p < 0.01) showed significant differences in the mean Breslow thickness. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirms the diagnostic delay in cutaneous melanomas due to the COVID-19 lockdown. High-risk individuals, such as patients with personal history of melanoma and elderly individuals, were more hesitant to restart their regular skin cancer screenings post-COVID. Further studies with longer follow-up are required to evaluate the consequences of this diagnostic delay in long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Humans , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Melanoma/diagnosis , Melanoma/epidemiology , Melanoma/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Delayed Diagnosis , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19 Testing
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 118, 2023 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Delayed medical care may result in adverse health outcomes and increased cost. Our purpose was to identify factors associated with delayed medical care in a primarily rural state. METHODS: Using a stratified random sample of 5,300 Nebraska households, we conducted a cross-sectional mailed survey with online response option (27 October 2020 to 8 March 2021) in English and Spanish. Multiple logistic regression models calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 20.8% (n = 1,101). Approximately 37.8% of Nebraskans ever delayed healthcare (cost-related 29.7%, transportation-related 3.7%), with 22.7% delaying care in the past year (10.1% cost-related). Cost-related ever delay was associated with younger age [< 45 years aOR 6.17 (3.24-11.76); 45-64 years aOR 2.36 (1.29-4.32)], low- and middle-income [< $50,000 aOR 2.85 (1.32-6.11); $50,000-$74,999 aOR 3.06 (1.50-6.23)], and no health insurance [aOR 3.56 (1.21-10.49)]. Transportation delays were associated with being non-White [aOR 8.07 (1.54-42.20)], no bachelor's degree [≤ high school aOR 3.06 (1.02-9.18); some college aOR 4.16 (1.32-13.12)], and income < $50,000 [aOR 8.44 (2.18-32.63)]. Those who did not have a primary care provider were 80% less likely to have transportation delays [aOR 0.20 (0.05-0.80)]. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed care affects more than one-third of Nebraskans, primarily due to financial concerns, and impacting low- and middle-income families. Transportation-related delays are associated with more indicators of low socio-economic status. Policies targeting minorities and those with low- and middle-income, such as Medicaid expansion, would contribute to addressing disparities resulting from delayed care.


Subject(s)
Health Care Costs , Health Services Accessibility , Insurance, Health , Transportation , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Medicaid , Nebraska/epidemiology , Patient Care , United States , Delayed Diagnosis
15.
Nutrients ; 15(3)2023 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200572

ABSTRACT

Celiac disease (CD) has a high prevalence but remains largely underdiagnosed. Although extensive studies have confirmed that children with CD do not have an increased risk of severe COVID-19, public health regulations associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic may have exacerbated this problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the number of new-onset CD cases. Additionally, the role of SARS-CoV-2 in autoimmune diseases and its influence on clinical practice in pediatric gastroenterology were briefly reviewed. We described the data from the hospital electronic registry of new-onset CD, during the COVID-19 pandemic and 2 years before. A total of 423 children were diagnosed with CD between March 2018 and February 2022: 228 in the 2-year pre-COVID-19 period and 195 during the pandemic. The number of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic was 14.5% lower than in the previous years. The quarterly comparison of CD diagnoses showed a reduction in all quarters. A reduction in diagnoses during the lockdown and in the following months was evident and not compensated thereafter. This is the first study to evaluate the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the diagnosis of CD in children. Further studies are necessary to improve the system of biopsy-sparing diagnosis and to evaluate the effect of the diagnostic delay. Special attention should be given to the implementation of telemedicine services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Celiac Disease , Gastroenterology , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Celiac Disease/diagnosis , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Pandemics , Delayed Diagnosis , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19 Testing
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(1)2023 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200505

ABSTRACT

Paragonimiasis caused by trematodes belonging to the genus Paragonimus is often accompanied by chronic respiratory symptoms such as cough, the accumulation of sputum, hemoptysis, and chest pain. Prolonged symptoms, including respiratory symptoms, after coronavirus disease 2019 infection (COVID-19) are collectively called post-COVID-19 conditions. Paragonimiasis and COVID-19 may cause similar respiratory symptoms. We encountered five cases of paragonimiasis in patients in Japan for whom diagnoses were delayed due to the initial characterization of the respiratory symptoms as a post-COVID-19 condition. The patients had consumed homemade drunken freshwater crabs together. One to three weeks after consuming the crabs, four of the five patients were diagnosed with probable COVID-19. The major symptoms reported included cough, dyspnea, and chest pain. The major imaging findings were pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and nodular lesions of the lung. All the patients were diagnosed with paragonimiasis based on a serum antibody test and peripheral blood eosinophilia (560-15,610 cells/µL) and were treated successfully with 75 mg/kg/day praziquantel for 3 days. Before diagnosing a post-COVID-19 condition, it is necessary to consider whether other diseases, including paragonimiasis, may explain the symptoms. Further, chest radiographic or blood tests should be performed in patients with persistent respiratory symptoms after being infected with COVID-19 to avoid overlooking the possibility of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Paragonimiasis , Humans , Paragonimiasis/diagnosis , Paragonimiasis/complications , Cough/etiology , Delayed Diagnosis/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Chest Pain , COVID-19 Testing
17.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 85(4): 581-858, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2206961

ABSTRACT

Objective: The role of pre-procedure SARS-CoV2 testing in digestive endoscopy is still debated. AGA guidelines recommend against pre-procedure testing considering low prevalence of SARS- CoV2 infection in the general population and low incidence of infection among endoscopy units Health Care Workers (HCWs). However, no studies have compared pre-procedure testing associated to symptom screening vs. symptom screening alone in reducing the risk of infection for HCWs. Main aim of the present study is to compare the risk of infection for HCWs in different Endoscopy Units adopting different pre-endoscopy screening and operating in two nearby hospital of the same region in Northern Italy in pre-vaccination period. For outpatients in the Endoscopy Unit of Trento (Unit 1) only pre-procedure symptom screening was performed, while in the Endoscopy Unit of Bolzano (Unit 2) pre-procedure symptom screening and negative pre-procedure real-time PCR were requested. Secondary aims were to assess the impact of pre-procedure real-time PCR testing on endoscopic activity and diagnostic delay. Design: Retrospective data collection on a prospectively maintained database was performed, including outpatient endoscopy procedures performed between June 1st 2020 and February 28th 2021 in Unit 1 and Unit 2. Results: No differences in terms of infection rate in HCWs have been identified in Unit 1 and Unit 2 (9.0 vs. 19.3% P=0.2) over a nine-month period. Moreover, in the unit performing pre- procedure real-time PCR before endoscopy a significantly higher reduction in endoscopic activity has been recorded (61.9% vs. 53.4%; P<0.01). In patients with positive real-time PCR, endoscopy was performed with a mean delay of 61.7 days (range 9-294) and 22.5% of them were lost at follow-up and did not undergo any endoscopic procedure in the following 12 months. Conclusions: This study supports the AGA recommendation suggesting that pre-endoscopy real-time PCR is an expensive and time-consuming procedure without proven benefits in an outpatient setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Outpatients , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Delayed Diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Health Personnel
18.
Ann Ig ; 35(3): 372-375, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203139

ABSTRACT

Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many HIV outpatient clinics were temporarily closed or their activities were reduced. Similarly, many infectious disease wards were converted into COVID-19 Units. Thus, an increase in late HIV diagnoses was expected due to reduced access to testing, screening services and consultation with HIV infection specialists. A higher rate of late HIV diagnoses was reported during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the period before COVID-19. We analyzed all consecutive individuals newly diagnosed with HIV in our Center between January 1, 2017 and September 30, 2022. We did not observe differences in terms of late HIV diagnoses and AIDS between the two periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , HIV Infections , Humans , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Delayed Diagnosis , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing
19.
HIV Med ; 23(11): 1209-1213, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has been impeding HIV diagnosis and treatment worldwide. Data on the impact of COVID-19 on late diagnosis (LD) in Germany are lacking. Here we present novel data of a single-centre German HIV cohort assessing LD during COVID-19. METHODS: This is a non-interventional, single-centre retrospective cohort assessing the rate of LD comparing HIV diagnoses pre-COVID-19 with those during the COVID-19 pandemic. New diagnoses between 1 January 2019 and 1 February 2020 were classified as pre-COVID-19, and diagnoses between 1 February 2020 and 1 October 2021 were classified as during COVID-19. RESULTS: Between 1 January 2019 and 1 October 2021, 75 patients presented with newly diagnosed HIV infection, 34 pre-COVID-19 and 41 during COVID-19. LD increased to 83% (n = 34/41) during COVID-19 versus 59% (n = 20/34) pre-COVID-19, and CDC stage C3 rose to 44% (n = 18) versus 27%. Hospitalization rate increased to 49% (n = 20) during COVID-19 versus 29% pre-COVID-19, and 12% (n = 5) presented with HIV-associated neurological disease, whereas none were observed in the pre-COVID-19 group. The incidence of LD (p = 0.020), CD4 count < 350 cells/µL (p = 0.037) and < 200 cells/µL (p = 0.022) were statistically significantly associated with the ongoing COVID-pandemic. An association with HIV transmission risk was borderline significant (p = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS: Despite comparable annual rates of new HIV diagnoses, LD has been increasing during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in more opportunistic infections and higher hospitalization rates, possibly reflecting pandemic-related shortages in HIV testing and care facilities. Maintaining HIV testing opportunities and access to treatment during a pandemic is crucial so as not to impede WHO elimination goals and so as to prevent an increase in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Delayed Diagnosis , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics
20.
World J Pediatr ; 19(6): 595-604, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2175146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), diagnostic delay could be associated with severity. This study aims to measure the time to diagnosis in MIS-C, assess its impact on the occurrence of cardiogenic shock, and specify its determinants. METHODS: A single-center prospective cohort observational study was conducted between May 2020 and July 2022 at a tertiary care hospital. Children meeting the World Health Organization MIS-C criteria were included. A long time to diagnosis was defined as six days or more. Data on time to diagnosis were collected by two independent physicians. The primary outcome was the occurrence of cardiogenic shock. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were used for outcomes, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used for determinants. RESULTS: Totally 60 children were assessed for inclusion, and 31 were finally analyzed [52% males, median age 8.8 (5.7-10.7) years]. The median time to diagnosis was 5.3 (4.2-6.2) days. In univariable analysis, age above the median, time to diagnosis, high C-reactive protein, and high N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were associated with cardiogenic shock [odds ratio (OR) 6.13 (1.02-36.9), 2.79 (1.15-6.74), 2.08 (1.05-4.12), and 1.70 (1.04-2.78), respectively]. In multivariable analysis, time to diagnosis ≥ 6 days was associated with cardiogenic shock [adjusted OR (aOR) 21.2 (1.98-227)]. Time to diagnosis ≥ 6 days had a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 77% in predicting cardiogenic shock; the addition of age > 8 years and NT-proBNP at diagnosis ≥ 11,254 ng/L increased the specificity to 91%. Independent determinants of short time to diagnosis were age < 8.8 years [aHR 0.34 (0.13-0.88)], short distance to tertiary care hospital [aHR 0.27 (0.08-0.92)], and the late period of the COVID-19 pandemic [aHR 2.48 (1.05-5.85)]. CONCLUSIONS: Time to diagnosis ≥ 6 days was independently associated with cardiogenic shock in MIS-C. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid the use of inotropes and limit morbidity, especially in older children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Male , Child , Humans , Female , Shock, Cardiogenic/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic/epidemiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Pandemics , Delayed Diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing
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