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2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 151, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the neurologic and psychiatric complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the relationship between coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) severity on hospital admission and delirium in hospitalized patients is poorly understood. This study sought to measure the association between COVID-19 severity and presence of delirium in both intensive care unit (ICU) and acute care patients by leveraging an existing hospital-wide systematic delirium screening protocol. The secondary analyses included measuring the association between age and presence of delirium, as well as the association between delirium and safety attendant use, restraint use, discharge home, and length of stay. METHODS: In this single center retrospective cohort study, we obtained electronic medical record (EMR) data using the institutional Epic Clarity database to identify all adults diagnosed with COVID-19 and hospitalized for at least 48-h from February 1-July 15, 2020. COVID-19 severity was classified into four groups. These EMR data include twice-daily delirium screenings of all patients using the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (non-ICU) or CAM-ICU (ICU) per existing hospital-wide protocols. RESULTS: A total of 99 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, of whom 44 patients required ICU care and 17 met criteria for severe disease within 24-h of admission. Forty-three patients (43%) met criteria for delirium at any point in their hospitalization. Of patients with delirium, 24 (56%) were 65 years old or younger. After adjustment, patients meeting criteria for the two highest COVID-19 severity groups within 24-h of admission had 7.2 times the odds of having delirium compared to those in the lowest category [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9, 27.4; P = 0.003]. Patients > 65 years old had increased odds of delirium compared to those < 45 years old (aOR 8.7; 95% CI 2.2, 33.5; P = 0.003). Delirium was associated with increased odds of safety attendant use (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.0, 20.7; P = 0.050), decreased odds of discharge home (aOR 0.2; 95% CI 0.06, 0.6; P = 0.005), and increased length of stay (aOR 7.5; 95% CI 2.0, 13; P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: While delirium is common in hospitalized patients of all ages with COVID-19, it is especially common in those with severe disease on hospital admission and those who are older. Patients with COVID-19 and delirium, compared to COVID-19 without delirium, are more likely to require safety attendants during hospitalization, less likely to be discharged home, and have a longer length of stay. Individuals with COVID-19, including younger patients, represent an important population to target for delirium screening and management as delirium is associated with important differences in both clinical care and disposition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(11)2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512491

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasive and neurotropic abilities may underlie delirium onset and neuropsychiatric outcomes. Only a limited number of studies have addressed the potential effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on mental health so far. Most studies mainly reported the acute onset of mixed neuropsychiatric conditions in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, characterized by agitated behavior, altered level of consciousness, and disorganized thinking, regardless of psychological or socioeconomic triggering factors. The present narrative review aims to analyze and discuss the mechanisms underlying the neuroinvasive/neurotropic properties of SARS-CoV-2 and the subsequent mental complications. Delirium appeared as a clinical manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 brain infection in some patients, without systemic or multiple organ failure symptoms. A small number of studies demonstrated that neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with COVID-19, initially presenting as a confused state, may subsequently evolve in a way that is consistent with the patients' neuropsychiatric history. A literature analysis on this topic prevalently showed case reports and case series of patients presenting delirium or delirium-like symptoms as the main outburst of COVID-19, plus a cognitive impairment, from mild to severe, which pre-existed or was demonstrated during the acute phase or after infection. Dementia appeared as one of the most frequent predisposing factors to SARS-CoV-2 infection complicated with delirium. Instead, contrasting data emerged on the potential link between COVID-19 and delirium in patients with cognitive impairment and without a neuropsychiatric history. Therefore, clinicians should contemplate the possibility that COVID-19 appears as delirium followed by a psychiatric exacerbation, even without other systemic symptoms. In addition, cognitive impairment might act as a predisposing factor for COVID-19 in patients with delirium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Delirium , Causality , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Delirium/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512377

ABSTRACT

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid whose metabolites play key roles in diverse physiological processes. Due to low reserves in the body, especially under various catabolic conditions, tryptophan deficiency manifests itself rapidly, and both the serotonin and kynurenine pathways of metabolism are clinically significant in critically ill patients. In this review, we highlight these pathways as sources of serotonin and melatonin, which then regulate neurotransmission, influence circadian rhythm, cognitive functions, and the development of delirium. Kynurenines serve important signaling functions in inter-organ communication and modulate endogenous inflammation. Increased plasma kynurenine levels and kynurenine-tryptophan ratios are early indicators for the development of sepsis. They also influence the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and thereby the development of polyneuromyopathy in critically ill patients. The modulation of tryptophan metabolism could help prevent and treat age-related disease with low grade chronic inflammation as well as post intensive care syndrome in all its varied manifestations: cognitive decline (including delirium or dementia), physical impairment (catabolism, protein breakdown, loss of muscle mass and tone), and mental impairment (depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder).


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Kynurenine/metabolism , Tryptophan/deficiency , Delirium/etiology , Depression/etiology , Humans , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Melatonin/biosynthesis , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Sepsis/metabolism , Serotonin/biosynthesis
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495124

ABSTRACT

Delirious mania (the coexistence of delirium and mania) is described in the literature but not recognised in standard nosologies. We report a woman in her late 30s, with no psychiatric history, who presented with concurrent symptoms of mania and delirium. She was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia (positive reverse transcription-PCR test). There was no history of substance misuse or concurrent medical illness. CT head scan was normal as were blood investigations, other than elevated inflammatory markers. She received standard treatment for COVID-19 pneumonia and lorazepam and quetiapine to treat her neuropsychiatric symptoms. She made a full recovery after 9 days. She was apyrexial with normal oxygen saturation throughout her illness. The case shows that severe neuropsychiatric symptoms can complicate otherwise mild COVID-19 pneumonia with neuroinflammation being a possible mechanism. A diagnosis of delirious mania appears to better capture the complexity of the presentation than a diagnosis of mania or delirium alone.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , COVID-19 , Delirium , Bipolar Disorder/complications , Bipolar Disorder/diagnosis , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/etiology , Female , Humans , Mania , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(10): 1089-1103, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359936

ABSTRACT

Delirium is the most common manifestation of brain dysfunction in critically ill patients. In the intensive care unit (ICU), duration of delirium is independently predictive of excess death, length of stay, cost of care, and acquired dementia. There are numerous neurotransmitter/functional and/or injury-causing hypotheses rather than a unifying mechanism for delirium. Without using a validated delirium instrument, delirium can be misdiagnosed (under, but also overdiagnosed and trivialized), supporting the recommendation to use a monitoring instrument routinely. The best-validated ICU bedside instruments are CAM-ICU and ICDSC, both of which also detect subsyndromal delirium. Both tools have some inherent limitations in the neurologically injured patients, yet still provide valuable information about delirium once the sequelae of the primary injury settle into a new post-injury baseline. Now it is known that antipsychotics and other psychoactive medications do not reliably improve brain function in critically ill delirious patients. ICU teams should systematically screen for predisposing and precipitating factors. These include exacerbations of cardiac/respiratory failure or sepsis, metabolic disturbances (hypoglycemia, dysnatremia, uremia and ammonemia) receipt of psychoactive medications, and sensory deprivation through prolonged immobilization, uncorrected vision and hearing deficits, poor sleep hygiene, and isolation from loved ones so common during COVID-19 pandemic. The ABCDEF (A2F) bundle is a means to facilitate implementation of the 2018 Pain, Agitation/Sedation, Delirium, Immobility, and Sleep Disruption in Adult Patients in the ICU (PADIS) Guidelines. In over 25,000 patients across nearly 100 institutions, the A2F bundle has been shown in a dose-response fashion (i.e., greater bundle compliance) to yield improved survival, length of stay, coma and delirium duration, cost, and less ICU bounce-backs and discharge to nursing homes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Adult , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/etiology , Delirium/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211029787, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299320

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 65-year-old man with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) post-infectious encephalitis who presented with delirium as an initial manifestation. He had severe COVID-19 pneumonia and recovered with dexamethasone and tocilizumab. One week after discharge, he developed abnormal behavior and delirium without fever and respiratory symptoms. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities. Cerebrospinal fluid showed pleocytosis and elevated protein concentrations and was negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 RNA. No anti-neuronal autoantibodies against intracellular and neuronal surface proteins were detected. The cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory changes compatible with post-infectious encephalitis, and the patient recovered with intravenous methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Delirium could be an initial symptom of post-infectious encephalitis in older adults with COVID-19, and these patients may require immunosuppressive therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delirium/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Encephalitis, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(10): 1144-1147, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287425
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