Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 17 de 17
Filter
1.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 147(6): 319-325, 2022 03.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740507

ABSTRACT

MONITORING OF ANALGESIA, SEDATION AND DELIRIUM: The prerequisite for monitoring goal-oriented analgesia and screening for the presence of delirium is the use of validated measuring instruments such as the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale as well as an adequate medical and intensive care staffing ratio. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANALGESIA AND SEDATION: The goal, if possible, is an awake, oriented, cooperative patient who is free of pain. In this regard, multimodal analgesic treatment is of great importance. The lowest possible sedation should also be aimed for in COVID-19 patients, although deep sedation is recommended for invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients in the prone position.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , COVID-19 , Delirium , COVID-19/therapy , Delirium/therapy , Humans , Pain , Pain Management
2.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 34(3): 633-642, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Delirium is associated with a variety of adverse healthcare outcomes but is highly predictable, preventable and treatable. For this reason, numerous guidelines have been developed for delirium recognition, prevention and management across different countries and disciplines. Although research is adduced as evidence for these guidelines, a constant finding is the lack of implementation if they exist at all. Implementation is a human behaviour that can be influenced by various factors including culture at a micro- and macro-level. Hofstede's model proposes that national cultures vary along six consistent dimensions. AIM: Using this model, we examined the nature of delirium guidelines across countries in relation to Hofstede's six cultural dimensions. METHODS: Data collected for each country on: the six dimensions of Hofstede's model, number of delirium guidelines approved by a National professional body of each country (through searching databases), the annual old-age dependency ratio for each country. RESULTS: Sixty-four countries had the completed six dimensions of Hofstede's model. Twenty of them (31%) had one or more delirium guidelines. The total number of different delirium guidelines was 45. Countries with formal delirium guidelines have significantly lower power distance among their members, are more individualistic societies, have lower levels of uncertainty avoidance and higher old-age dependency ratio compared to those without delirium guidelines. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: The development and implementation of delirium guidelines vary across countries. Specific combinations of cultural dimensions influence the production of delirium guidelines. Understanding these important cultural differences can facilitate more widespread acceptance and implementation of guidelines.


Subject(s)
Delirium , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Cultural Characteristics , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/therapy , Humans , Internationality
3.
Anaesthesia ; 77 Suppl 1: 49-58, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612834

ABSTRACT

Delirium is a common condition affecting hospital inpatients, including those having surgery and on the intensive care unit. Delirium is also common in patients with COVID-19 in hospital settings, and the occurrence is higher than expected for similar infections. The short-term outcomes of those with COVID-19 delirium are similar to that of classical delirium and include increased length of stay and increased mortality. Management of delirium in COVID-19 in the context of a global pandemic is limited by the severity of the syndrome and compounded by the environmental constraints. Practical management includes effective screening, early identification and appropriate treatment aimed at minimising complications and timely escalation decisions. The pandemic has played out on the national stage and the effect of delirium on patients, relatives and healthcare workers remains unknown but evidence from the previous SARS outbreak suggests there may be long-lasting psychological damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Delirium/metabolism , Delirium/therapy , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Intensive Care Units/trends
6.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(10): 1089-1103, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359936

ABSTRACT

Delirium is the most common manifestation of brain dysfunction in critically ill patients. In the intensive care unit (ICU), duration of delirium is independently predictive of excess death, length of stay, cost of care, and acquired dementia. There are numerous neurotransmitter/functional and/or injury-causing hypotheses rather than a unifying mechanism for delirium. Without using a validated delirium instrument, delirium can be misdiagnosed (under, but also overdiagnosed and trivialized), supporting the recommendation to use a monitoring instrument routinely. The best-validated ICU bedside instruments are CAM-ICU and ICDSC, both of which also detect subsyndromal delirium. Both tools have some inherent limitations in the neurologically injured patients, yet still provide valuable information about delirium once the sequelae of the primary injury settle into a new post-injury baseline. Now it is known that antipsychotics and other psychoactive medications do not reliably improve brain function in critically ill delirious patients. ICU teams should systematically screen for predisposing and precipitating factors. These include exacerbations of cardiac/respiratory failure or sepsis, metabolic disturbances (hypoglycemia, dysnatremia, uremia and ammonemia) receipt of psychoactive medications, and sensory deprivation through prolonged immobilization, uncorrected vision and hearing deficits, poor sleep hygiene, and isolation from loved ones so common during COVID-19 pandemic. The ABCDEF (A2F) bundle is a means to facilitate implementation of the 2018 Pain, Agitation/Sedation, Delirium, Immobility, and Sleep Disruption in Adult Patients in the ICU (PADIS) Guidelines. In over 25,000 patients across nearly 100 institutions, the A2F bundle has been shown in a dose-response fashion (i.e., greater bundle compliance) to yield improved survival, length of stay, coma and delirium duration, cost, and less ICU bounce-backs and discharge to nursing homes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Adult , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/etiology , Delirium/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 33(1): 48-67, 2021.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197640

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To propose agile strategies for a comprehensive approach to analgesia, sedation, delirium, early mobility and family engagement for patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, considering the high risk of infection among health workers, the humanitarian treatment that we must provide to patients and the inclusion of patients' families, in a context lacking specific therapeutic strategies against the virus globally available to date and a potential lack of health resources. METHODS: A nonsystematic review of the scientific evidence in the main bibliographic databases was carried out, together with national and international clinical experience and judgment. Finally, a consensus of recommendations was made among the members of the Committee for Analgesia, Sedation and Delirium of the Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTS: Recommendations were agreed upon, and tools were developed to ensure a comprehensive approach to analgesia, sedation, delirium, early mobility and family engagement for adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Given the new order generated in intensive therapies due to the advancing COVID-19 pandemic, we propose to not leave aside the usual good practices but to adapt them to the particular context generated. Our consensus is supported by scientific evidence and national and international experience and will be an attractive consultation tool in intensive therapies.


OBJETIVO: Proponer estrategias agile para este abordaje integral de la analgesia, sedación, delirium, implementación de movilidad temprana e inclusión familiar del paciente con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda por COVID-19, considerando el alto riesgo de infección que existe entre los trabajadores de salud, el tratamiento humanitario que debemos brindar al paciente y su familia, en un contexto de falta estrategias terapéuticas específicas contra el virus globalmente disponibles a la fecha y una potencial falta de recursos sanitarios. METODOS: Se llevó a cabo una revision no sistemática de la evidencia científica en las principales bases de datos bibliográficos, sumada a la experiencia y juicio clínico nacional e internacional. Finalmente, se realizó un consenso de recomendaciones entre los integrantes del Comité de Analgesia, Sedación y Delirium de la Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTADOS: Se acordaron recomendaciones y se desarrollaron herramientas para asegurar un abordaje integral de analgesia, sedación, delirium, implementación de movilidad temprana e inclusión familiar del paciente adulto con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda por COVID-19. DISCUSIÓN: Ante el nuevo orden generado en las terapias intensivas por la progresión de la pandemia de COVID-19, proponemos no dejar atrás las buenas prácticas habituales, sino adaptarlas al contexto particular generado. Nuestro consenso está respaldado en la evidencia científica, la experiencia nacional e internacional, y será una herramienta de consulta atractiva en las terapias intensivas.


Subject(s)
Analgesia/standards , COVID-19/complications , Consensus , Delirium/therapy , Pain Management/standards , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Analgesia/methods , Analgesics/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Checklist , Delirium/diagnosis , Early Ambulation , Family , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , Neuromuscular Blockade/standards , Pain Management/methods , Pain Measurement/methods , Pain Measurement/standards , Psychomotor Agitation/therapy
10.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 6(1): 90, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989848

ABSTRACT

Delirium, a syndrome characterized by an acute change in attention, awareness and cognition, is caused by a medical condition that cannot be better explained by a pre-existing neurocognitive disorder. Multiple predisposing factors (for example, pre-existing cognitive impairment) and precipitating factors (for example, urinary tract infection) for delirium have been described, with most patients having both types. Because multiple factors are implicated in the aetiology of delirium, there are likely several neurobiological processes that contribute to delirium pathogenesis, including neuroinflammation, brain vascular dysfunction, altered brain metabolism, neurotransmitter imbalance and impaired neuronal network connectivity. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) is the most commonly used diagnostic system upon which a reference standard diagnosis is made, although many other delirium screening tools have been developed given the impracticality of using the DSM-5 in many settings. Pharmacological treatments for delirium (such as antipsychotic drugs) are not effective, reflecting substantial gaps in our understanding of its pathophysiology. Currently, the best management strategies are multidomain interventions that focus on treating precipitating conditions, medication review, managing distress, mitigating complications and maintaining engagement to environmental issues. The effective implementation of delirium detection, treatment and prevention strategies remains a major challenge for health-care organizations globally.


Subject(s)
Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Delirium/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life/psychology
11.
J Psychosom Res ; 141: 110350, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988514

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the high prevalence of delirium and delirium-related symptoms in COVID-19 patients, data and evidence-based recommendations on the pathophysiology and management of delirium are limited. Objective We conducted a rapid review of COVID-19-related delirium literature to provide a synthesis of literature on the prevalence, pathoetiology, and management of delirium in these patients. Methods Systematic searches of Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, LitCovid, WHO-COVID-19, and Web of Science electronic databases were conducted. Grey literature was also reviewed, including preprint servers, archives, and websites of relevant organizations. Search results were limited to the English language. We included literature focused on adults with COVID-19 and delirium. Papers were excluded if they did not mention signs or symptoms of delirium. Results 229 studies described prevalence, pathoetiology, and/or management of delirium in adults with COVID-19. Delirium was rarely assessed with validated tools. Delirium affected >50% of all patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU. The etiology of COVID-19 delirium is likely multifactorial, with some evidence of direct brain effect. Prevention remains the cornerstone of management in these patients. To date, there is no evidence to suggest specific pharmacological strategies. Discussion Delirium is common in COVID-19 and may manifest from both indirect and direct effects on the central nervous system. Further research is required to investigate contributing mechanisms. As there is limited empirical literature on delirium management in COVID-19, management with non-pharmacological measures and judicious use of pharmacotherapy is suggested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Delirium , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/etiology , Delirium/therapy , Humans
12.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 26(6): 634-639, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811181

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increased focus on patient-centered outcomes, mental health, and delirium prevention makes this review timely and relevant for critical care. RECENT FINDINGS: This review focuses on patient-centered outcomes in the ICU, highlighting the latest research to promote brain health and psychological recovery during and after perioperative critical illness. Topics include sedation in the obese patient, delirium severity assessments, the role of the Psychiatry Consultation-Liaison in the ICU, Post-intensive care syndrome, and the importance of family engagement in the COVID era. SUMMARY: Highlighting new research, such as novel implementation strategies in addition to a lack of research in certain areas like sleep in the ICU may lead to innovation and establishment of evidence-based practices in critical care. Perioperative brain health is multifaceted, and an increase in multidisciplinary interventions may help improve outcomes and decrease morbidity in ICU survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Critical Illness , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pain Management , Psychomotor Agitation/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
16.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 176, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133387

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2-causing Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), emerged as a public health threat in December 2019 and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Delirium, a dangerous untoward prognostic development, serves as a barometer of systemic injury in critical illness. The early reports of 25% encephalopathy from China are likely a gross underestimation, which we know occurs whenever delirium is not monitored with a valid tool. Indeed, patients with COVID-19 are at accelerated risk for delirium due to at least seven factors including (1) direct central nervous system (CNS) invasion, (2) induction of CNS inflammatory mediators, (3) secondary effect of other organ system failure, (4) effect of sedative strategies, (5) prolonged mechanical ventilation time, (6) immobilization, and (7) other needed but unfortunate environmental factors including social isolation and quarantine without family. Given early insights into the pathobiology of the virus, as well as the emerging interventions utilized to treat the critically ill patients, delirium prevention and management will prove exceedingly challenging, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU). The main focus during the COVID-19 pandemic lies within organizational issues, i.e., lack of ventilators, shortage of personal protection equipment, resource allocation, prioritization of limited mechanical ventilation options, and end-of-life care. However, the standard of care for ICU patients, including delirium management, must remain the highest quality possible with an eye towards long-term survival and minimization of issues related to post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). This article discusses how ICU professionals (e.g., physicians, nurses, physiotherapists, pharmacologists) can use our knowledge and resources to limit the burden of delirium on patients by reducing modifiable risk factors despite the imposed heavy workload and difficult clinical challenges posed by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Delirium/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delirium/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL