Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 16 de 16
Filter
2.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 102, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the time of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden, little was known about how effective our regular end-of-life care strategies would be for patients dying from COVID-19 in hospitals. The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate end-of-life care for patients dying from COVID-19 in hospitals in Sweden up until up until 12 November 2020. METHODS: Data were collected from the Swedish Register of Palliative Care. Hospital deaths during 2020 for patients with COVID-19 were included and compared to a reference cohort of hospital patients who died during 2019. Logistic regression was used to compare the groups and to control for impact of sex, age and a diagnosis of dementia. RESULTS: The COVID-19 group (1476 individuals) had a lower proportion of women and was older compared to the reference cohort (13,158 individuals), 81.8 versus 80.6 years (p < .001). Breathlessness was more commonly reported in the COVID-19 group compared to the reference cohort (72% vs 43%, p < .001). Furthermore, anxiety and delirium were more commonly and respiratory secretions, nausea and pain were less commonly reported during the last week in life in the COVID-19 group (p < .001 for all five symptoms). When present, complete relief of anxiety (p = .021), pain (p = .025) and respiratory secretions (p = .037) was more often achieved in the COVID-19 group. In the COVID-19 group, 57% had someone present at the time of death compared to 77% in the reference cohort (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The standard medical strategies for symptom relief and end-of-life care in hospitals seemed to be acceptable. Symptoms in COVID-19 deaths in hospitals were relieved as much as or even to a higher degree than in hospitals in 2019. Importantly, though, as a result of closing the hospitals to relatives and visitors, patients dying from COVID-19 more frequently died alone, and healthcare providers were not able to substitute for absent relatives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Palliative Care , Terminal Care , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/psychology , Cohort Studies , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/virology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/virology , Pain/epidemiology , Pain/virology , Registries , Sweden/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
3.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 47(7): 3-5, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289072
4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 81(1): 75-81, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215268

ABSTRACT

Acute delirium and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have frequently been reported in COVID-19 patients and are variably referred to as acute encephalopathy, COVID-19 encephalopathy, SARS-CoV-2 encephalitis, or steroid-responsive encephalitis. COVID-19 specific biomarkers of cognitive impairment are currently lacking, but there is some evidence that SARS-CoV-2 could preferentially and directly target the frontal lobes, as suggested by behavioral and dysexecutive symptoms, fronto-temporal hypoperfusion on MRI, EEG slowing in frontal regions, and frontal hypometabolism on 18F-FDG-PET imaging. We suggest that an inflammatory parainfectious process targeting preferentially the frontal lobes (and/or frontal networks) could be the underlying cause of these shared clinical, neurophysiological, and imaging findings in COVID-19 patients. We explore the biological mechanisms and the clinical biomarkers that might underlie such disruption of frontal circuits and highlight the need of standardized diagnostic procedures to be applied when investigating patients with these clinical findings. We also suggest the use of a unique label, to increase comparability across studies.


Subject(s)
Acute Febrile Encephalopathy/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Frontal Lobe/physiopathology , Frontal Lobe/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acute Febrile Encephalopathy/diagnosis , Acute Febrile Encephalopathy/virology , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/physiopathology , Delirium/virology , Electroencephalography , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Nerve Net/physiopathology , Virulence
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099753

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is well known for its respiratory symptoms, but severe presentations can alter haemostasis, causing acute end-organ damage with poor outcomes. Among its various neurological presentations, cerebrovascular events often present as small-vessel strokes. Although uncommon, in predisposed individuals, large-vessel occlusions (LVOs) can occur as a possible consequence of direct viral action (viral burden or antigenic structure) or virus-induced cytokine storm. Subtle presentations and complicated stroke care pathways continue to exist, delaying timely care. We present a unique case of COVID-19 LVO manifesting as an acute confusional state in an elderly man in April 2020. CT angiography revealed 'de novo' occlusions of the left internal carotid artery and proximal right vertebral artery, effectively blocking anterior and posterior circulations. Delirium can lead to inaccurate stroke scale assessments and prolong initiation of COVID-19 stroke care pathways. Future studies are needed to look into the temporal relationship between confusion and neurological manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delirium/virology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery, Internal/pathology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Delirium/diagnostic imaging , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Stroke/virology , Vertebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Vertebral Artery/pathology
6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(3): 239-250, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053892

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, 750 000 patients with COVID-19 worldwide have required mechanical ventilation and thus are at high risk of acute brain dysfunction (coma and delirium). We aimed to investigate the prevalence of delirium and coma, and risk factors for delirium in critically ill patients with COVID-19, to aid the development of strategies to mitigate delirium and associated sequelae. METHODS: This multicentre cohort study included 69 adult intensive care units (ICUs), across 14 countries. We included all patients (aged ≥18 years) admitted to participating ICUs with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection before April 28, 2020. Patients who were moribund or had life-support measures withdrawn within 24 h of ICU admission, prisoners, patients with pre-existing mental illness, neurodegenerative disorders, congenital or acquired brain damage, hepatic coma, drug overdose, suicide attempt, or those who were blind or deaf were excluded. We collected de-identified data from electronic health records on patient demographics, delirium and coma assessments, and management strategies for a 21-day period. Additional data on ventilator support, ICU length of stay, and vital status was collected for a 28-day period. The primary outcome was to determine the prevalence of delirium and coma and to investigate any associated risk factors associated with development of delirium the next day. We also investigated predictors of number of days alive without delirium or coma. These outcomes were investigated using multivariable regression. FINDINGS: Between Jan 20 and April 28, 2020, 4530 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to 69 ICUs, of whom 2088 patients were included in the study cohort. The median age of patients was 64 years (IQR 54 to 71) with a median Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II of 40·0 (30·0 to 53·0). 1397 (66·9%) of 2088 patients were invasively mechanically ventilated on the day of ICU admission and 1827 (87·5%) were invasively mechanical ventilated at some point during hospitalisation. Infusion with sedatives while on mechanical ventilation was common: 1337 (64·0%) of 2088 patients were given benzodiazepines for a median of 7·0 days (4·0 to 12·0) and 1481 (70·9%) were given propofol for a median of 7·0 days (4·0 to 11·0). Median Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale score while on invasive mechanical ventilation was -4 (-5 to -3). 1704 (81·6%) of 2088 patients were comatose for a median of 10·0 days (6·0 to 15·0) and 1147 (54·9%) were delirious for a median of 3·0 days (2·0 to 6·0). Mechanical ventilation, use of restraints, and benzodiazepine, opioid, and vasopressor infusions, and antipsychotics were each associated with a higher risk of delirium the next day (all p≤0·04), whereas family visitation (in person or virtual) was associated with a lower risk of delirium (p<0·0001). During the 21-day study period, patients were alive without delirium or coma for a median of 5·0 days (0·0 to 14·0). At baseline, older age, higher SAPS II scores, male sex, smoking or alcohol abuse, use of vasopressors on day 1, and invasive mechanical ventilation on day 1 were independently associated with fewer days alive and free of delirium and coma (all p<0·01). 601 (28·8%) of 2088 patients died within 28 days of admission, with most of those deaths occurring in the ICU. INTERPRETATION: Acute brain dysfunction was highly prevalent and prolonged in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Benzodiazepine use and lack of family visitation were identified as modifiable risk factors for delirium, and thus these data present an opportunity to reduce acute brain dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATIONS: For the French and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Coma/epidemiology , Delirium/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Coma/virology , Critical Illness/psychology , Delirium/virology , Female , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Respiration, Artificial/psychology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
7.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 2245-2247, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968113

ABSTRACT

The authors report a high prevalence of delirium in COVID-19 old patients admitted in an academic hospital. During the recent COVID-19 period, delirium was present in 38% of old patients admitted with delirium at the COVID ward of the Erasmus MC University Medical Center of Rotterdam. We do not know in which patients COVID-19 can cause delirium; however, considering the high prevalence of delirium in COVID-19 old patients and the potential serious consequences, attention is needed in order to reduce disability and mortality in this vulnerable category of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delirium/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Delirium/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
8.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(6): 45-51, 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-869246

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the source of COVID-19, causes numerous clinical findings including respiratory and gastrointestinal findings. Evidence is now growing for increasing neurological symptoms. This is thought to be from direct in-situ effects in the olfactory bulb caused by the virus. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors likely serve as a key receptor for cell entry for most coronaviridae as they are present in multiple organ tissues in the body, notably neurons, and in type 2 alveolar cells in the lung. Hematogenous spread to the nervous system has been described, with viral transmission along neuronal synapses in a retrograde fashion. The penetration of the virus to the central nervous system (CNS) allows for the resulting intracranial cytokine storm, which can result in a myriad of CNS complications. There have been reported cases of associated cerebrovascular accidents with large vessel occlusions, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, meningoencephalitis, acute necrotizing encephalopathy, epilepsy, and myasthenia gravis. Peripheral nervous system effects such as hyposmia, hypogeusia, ophthalmoparesis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and motor peripheral neuropathy have also been reported. In this review, we update the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 concentrating on the neurological associations that have been described, including broad ranges in both central and peripheral nervous systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Bell Palsy/virology , Delirium/virology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/virology , Myelitis/virology , Parkinson Disease/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/virology , Stroke/virology
9.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(2): 564-575, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808452

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly infectious viral disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. While it was initially regarded as a strictly respiratory illness, the impact of COVID-19 on multiple organs is increasingly recognized. The brain is among the targets of COVID-19, and it can be impacted in multiple ways, both directly and indirectly. Direct brain infection by SARS-CoV-2 may occur via axonal transport via the olfactory nerve, eventually infecting the olfactory cortex and other structures in the temporal lobe, and potentially the brain stem. A hematogenous route, which involves viral crossing of blood-brain barrier, is also possible. Secondary mechanisms involve hypoxia due to respiratory failure, as well as aberrant immune response leading to various forms of encephalopathy, white matter damage, and abnormal blood clotting resulting in stroke. Multiple neurological symptoms of COVID-19 have been described. These involve anosmia/ageusia, headaches, seizures, mental confusion and delirium, and coma. There is a growing concern that in a number of patients, long-term or perhaps even permanent cognitive impairment will persist well after the recovery from acute illness. Furthermore, COVID-19 survivors may be at increased risk for developing neurodegenerative diseases years or decades later. Since COVID-19 is a new disease, it will take months or even years to characterize the exact nature, scope, and temporal extent of its long-term neurocognitive sequelae. To that end, rigorous and systematic longitudinal follow-up will be required. For this effort to succeed, appropriate protocols and patient registries should be developed and put in place without delay now.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/virology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/complications , Coma/virology , Delirium/virology , Headache/virology , Seizures/virology , Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , Humans
12.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 120(4): 927-932, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592375

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is predominantly a respiratory disease. However, some cases exhibit other features including Central Nervous System symptoms. In the older adult, COVID-19 may present with atypical symptoms, including delirium and its complications. The objective of this study is to describe the relationship between the new type of coronavirus infection and delirium. Systematic research (Cochrane Library and PubMed) was carried out (only upper time limit: April 2020). Publications found through this indexed search were reviewed and manually screened to identify relevant studies. Search terms used included "COVID-19, Delirium, Dementia, Intensive Care Unit". We manually added articles identified through other sources (i.e., key journals). Older people are at the greatest risk from COVID-19. If infected, they may present delirium. Moreover, it is not exclusive to older people. Delirium is not inevitable; rather, it is preventable. Delirium prevention programs are even more crucial in the era of COVID-19 and cannot be allowed to wither despite the challenges of integrating delirium prevention with COVID-19 care. An acute change in condition, behaviour, or mental status should prompt a delirium screen. As regards the treatment, it is advisable to use non-pharmacological interventions first where possible. Medication may be needed for patients with agitation where there is intractable distress or high risk to self/others.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Delirium/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 290: 113137, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381992

ABSTRACT

Since its outbreak, coronavirus disease 2019 has been producing atypical manifestations aside from fever, coughing and dysnea. One of the most common is delirium, which, however, is highly overlooked. This has consequences in the treatment of patients and also may lead to underdiagnosing the infection. In this work, we present the case of a man diagnosed with schizophrenia, who had been stable for more than 20 years and that presented with an atypical picture of psychotic and confusional symptoms related to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Delirium/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Schizophrenia/virology , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 65: 47-53, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327315

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Neuropsychiatric manifestations of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been described, including anosmia, ageusia, headache, paresthesia, encephalitis and encephalopathy. Little is known about the mechanisms by which the virus causes central nervous system (CNS) symptoms, and therefore little guidance is available regarding potential workup or management options. CASES: We present a series of four consecutive cases, seen by our psychiatry consultation service over a one-week period, each of which manifested delirium as a result of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). DISCUSSION: The four cases highlighted here all occurred in older patients with premorbid evidence of cognitive decline. Unique features seen in multiple cases included rigidity, alogia, abulia, and elevated inflammatory markers. In all four cases, a change in mental status was the presenting symptom, and three of the four cases lacked significant respiratory symptoms. In addition to discussing unique features of the cases, we discuss possible pathophysiologic explanations for COVID-19 delirium. CONCLUSIONS: Delirium should be recognized as a potential feature of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and may be the only presenting symptom. Based on the high rates of delirium demonstrated in prior studies, hospitals should consider adding mental status changes to the list of testing criteria. Further research is needed to determine if delirium in COVID-19 represents a primary encephalopathy heralding invasion of the CNS by the virus, or a secondary encephalopathy related to systemic inflammatory response or other factors.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Delirium/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Delirium/virology , Female , Humans , Male
15.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 7(8): 1450-1452, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324548

ABSTRACT

A 77-year-old gentleman, normally fit and well, was admitted with acute confusion. On admission, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was 14/15, vital signs were within the normal limits and bilateral crepitation at the lung base. Head CT scan was normal. CXR showed some air space opacification. Investigations revealed hyponatraemia, raised CRP, and positive for COVID-19. Treated with antibiotics and intravenous saline, sodium returned to normal. Delirium remained unchanged 4 weeks post-incidence. Neurological manifestations were documented in patients with COVID-19; however no report has shown delirium as a primary manifestation. This case illustrates acute confusion may be the only presenting symptom of COVID-19 without overt lung disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delirium/virology , Aged , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(7): 1382-1384, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209990

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), manifests with a wide spectrum of presentations. Most reports of COVID-19 highlight fever and upper respiratory symptoms as the dominant initial presentations, consistent with the World Health Organization guidelines regarding suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, atypical presentations of this disease have been evolving since the initial outbreak of the pandemic in December 2019. We report a case of an older male patient who presented at our hospital with an unusual manifestation of COVID-19. DESIGN: Brief report. SETTING: A university hospital in Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANT: A 73-year-old man who presented with confusion in the absence of any respiratory symptoms or fever. INTERVENTION: The patient was initially admitted with delirium and underwent a further work-up. MEASUREMENTS: Given his recent history of domestic travel and the declaration of a global COVID-19 pandemic status, the patient was administered a swab test for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The patient's positive test led to a diagnosis of COVID-19. Although he began to experience a spiking fever and mild upper respiratory symptoms, he recovered rapidly with no residual sequela. CONCLUSION: The recognition of atypical presentations of COVID-19 infection, such as delirium, is critical to the timely diagnosis, provision of appropriate care, and avoidance of outbreaks within healthcare facilities during this pandemic. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:1382-1384, 2020.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Delirium/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Aged , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL