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1.
Wiad Lek ; 75(5 pt 1): 1136-1139, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905728

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Research of the ways of adequate solving of problems with understuffed healthcare system and problems with continuous professional development of doctors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We have used a official statistical data for the period from 2009-2020 years. This data was analyzed with usage of systemic approach and statistical epidemiological analysis. RESULTS: Results: According to the data from Ministry of Health of Ukraine during the first year of the pandemic (2020) the quantity of our doctors has diminished by 6.9 thousands, and quantity of nurses - by 22,5 thousands which is much bigger deficit then in period of 2018-2019 years. The insufficiency of pediatric doctors in Ukraine has reached 1000 vacancies, general physicians - 1700, family doctors - more than 3000 vacancies, surgeons - more than 950 vacancies. It is also important to involve medical experts and medical associations and unions in the process of accreditation and licensing of providers of continuous medical education. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Existing deficit of medical personnel should be replenished by increasing of medical education of students in medical universities and colleges funded by government. Existing system of continuous professional development of doctors requires a lot of changes (additional activities, new technologies) which must be implied with the help of professional medical associations and unions.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Education, Medical, Continuing , Medical Staff , Career Mobility , Child , Humans , Medical Staff/education , Medical Staff/supply & distribution , Pandemics , Physicians , Ukraine/epidemiology
2.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(11): 709-716, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162831

ABSTRACT

Rehabilitative care is often overlooked and underfunded despite being a key component of universal health coverage, and now faces further neglect due to indirect impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Policy-makers can leverage strategic purchasing approaches to make the most of available funds and maximize health gains. To implement more strategic purchasing of rehabilitation, health planners must: (i) develop and prioritize evidence-based rehabilitation service packages; (ii) use fit-for-purpose contracting and provider payment mechanisms to incentivize quality and efficient service delivery; and (iii) strengthen stewardship. This paper examines these three policy priorities by analysing their associated processes, actors and resources based on country experiences. Policy-makers will likely face several obstacles in operationalizing these policy priorities, including: inadequate accountability and coordination among sectors; limited data and research; undefined and non-standardized rehabilitation services, costs and outcomes; and inadequate availability of rehabilitative care. To overcome challenges and institute optimal strategic purchasing practices for rehabilitation, we recommend that policy-makers strengthen health sector stewardship and establish a framework for multisectoral collaboration, invest in data and research and make use of available experience from high-income settings, while creating a body of evidence from low- and middle-income settings.


Les soins de réadaptation sont souvent négligés et sous-financés malgré la place essentielle qu'ils occupent dans la couverture sanitaire universelle. Aujourd'hui, ils risquent même d'être relégués au second plan à la suite des conséquences indirectes de la pandémie de maladie à coronavirus 2019. Les responsables politiques peuvent néanmoins adopter des méthodes d'achat stratégiques afin de tirer le meilleur parti des fonds disponibles et de maximiser les bénéfices pour la santé. Pour ce faire, les planificateurs sanitaires doivent: (i) développer et privilégier les programmes de réadaptation étayés par des faits; (ii) utiliser des contrats adéquats et des mécanismes de paiement des fournisseurs qui mettent en valeur la qualité et l'efficacité des prestations de services; et enfin, (iii) renforcer les activités de gestion. Le présent document se penche sur ces trois priorités politiques en analysant les processus, acteurs et ressources qui y sont associés dans différents pays. Les décideurs seront probablement confrontés à de nombreux obstacles lors de la mise en œuvre de telles politiques: un manque de responsabilisation et de coordination entre secteurs; des recherches et données limitées; une absence de normalisation et de définition claire des services, coûts et résultats; et des soins de réadaptation en pénurie. Pour relever ces défis et instaurer des pratiques d'achat stratégiques optimales en matière de réadaptation, nous leur conseillons de renforcer la gestion du secteur de la santé et d'établir un cadre de collaboration multisectorielle, d'investir dans la recherche et la collecte de données, et de s'inspirer des expériences vécues dans les régions à revenu élevé tout en récoltant un ensemble de preuves dans les régions à revenu faible et intermédiaire.


La atención de rehabilitación suele pasar desapercibida y carecer de fondos a pesar de ser un componente clave de la cobertura sanitaria universal, y ahora se enfrenta a una mayor desatención debido a las repercusiones indirectas de la pandemia de la enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019. Los responsables de formular las políticas pueden aprovechar los enfoques de adquisición estratégica para sacar el máximo provecho de los fondos disponibles y maximizar los beneficios para la salud. Para aplicar una adquisición más estratégica en materia de rehabilitación, los planificadores sanitarios deben (i) desarrollar y priorizar paquetes de servicios de rehabilitación a partir de la evidencia; (ii) utilizar mecanismos de contratación y pago a proveedores adecuados para incentivar la calidad y la prestación eficiente de los servicios; y (iii) fortalecer la administración. El presente documento estudia estas tres prioridades políticas mediante el análisis de sus procesos, actores y recursos asociados, basándose en las experiencias de los países. Es probable que los responsables de formular las políticas se enfrenten a varios obstáculos a la hora de poner en práctica estas prioridades políticas, entre los que se incluyen: una responsabilidad y coordinación inadecuadas entre sectores; la limitación de los datos y la investigación; la falta de definición y estandarización de los servicios, los costes y los resultados de la rehabilitación; y la insuficiente disponibilidad de la atención de rehabilitación. Para superar los desafíos e instituir prácticas estratégicas óptimas de adquisición en materia de rehabilitación, se recomienda que los responsables de formular las políticas fortalezcan la administración del sector sanitario y establezcan un marco de colaboración multisectorial, inviertan en datos e investigación y aprovechen la experiencia disponible en entornos de ingresos altos, al tiempo que crean un conjunto de evidencias procedentes de entornos de ingresos bajos y medios.


Subject(s)
Financial Management , Health Planning , Purchasing, Hospital , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Social Responsibility , Universal Health Insurance
3.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0273809, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic, the major focus of healthcare organizations shifted towards preparing healthcare systems to handle the inevitable COVID-19 burden at different phases and levels. A series of in-person training programs were operated in collaboration with government and partner organizations for the healthcare workers (HCW) of Bangladesh. This study aimed to assess the knowledge of HCWs regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection, their case management, infection prevention and control to fight against the ongoing pandemic. METHODS: As a part of the National Preparedness and Response Plan for COVID-19 in Bangladesh, the training program was conducted at four district-level hospitals and one specialized hospital in Bangladesh from July 1, 2020 to June 30, 2021. A total of 755 HCWs participated in the training sessions. Among them, 357 (47%) were enrolled for the evaluation upon completion of the data, collected from one district hospital (Feni) and one specialized hospital (National Institute of Mental Health). RESULTS: The mean percentage of pre-test and post-test scores of all the participants were found to be 57% (95% CI 8.34-8.91; p 0.01) and 65% (95% CI 9.56-10.15; p <0.001) respectively. The difference of score (mean) between the groups was significant (p<0.001). After categorizing participants' knowledge levels as poor, average and fair, doctors' group has shown to have significant enhancement from level of average to fair compared to that of the nurses. Factors associated with knowledge augmentation of doctors were working in primary health care centers (aOR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.80, 9.88), job experience less than 5 years (aOR: 4.10; 95% CI: 1.01, 16.63) and experience in caring of family member with COVID-19 morbidity (aOR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.10), after adjusting for relevant covariates such as age, sex and prior COVID-19 illness. CONCLUSION: Considering the series of waves of COVID-19 pandemic with newer variants, the present paper underscores the importance of implementing the structured in-person training program on case management, infection prevention and control for the HCWs that may help for successful readiness prior to future pandemics that may further help to minimize the pandemic related fatal consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case Management , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269125, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162535

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This scoping review explores the constitution of a meaningful life as perceived by adults with acquired neurological impairment following an injury or a disease. INTRODUCTION: A neurological injury or disease imposes extensive life changes on the affected person and his or her close relatives. Including the patients' perception of a meaningful life is crucial to facilitate adjustment of any rehabilitation initiatives to the patients' wishes, hopes, needs, and preferences. Even so, the descriptions and common traits of a meaningful life from the impaired person's perspective are scarcely covered in the literature. Hence, a scoping review of existing knowledge is needed to facilitate quality rehabilitation and research initiatives. INCLUSION CRITERIA: All studies, regardless of their design, are included provided they describe a meaningful life as considered or experienced by persons aged 18 years or more with neurological impairment. METHODS: A PICo framework defines the search algorithms used in the databases MEDLINE, Cinahl, PsycINFO and Embase. Using Covidence, the scoping review systematically organizes the identified articles to provide a broad description of the study phenomenon. Furthermore, titles, abstracts, and full-text articles are screened independently by two reviewers to determine if they meet the inclusion criteria. In case of disagreement, a third and fourth reviewer are consulted. The scoping will be reported according to the PRISMA- SCR checklist.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Research Design , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
5.
CJEM ; 24(7): 677-678, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2158288
6.
AORN J ; 115(2): P4-P6, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157688
7.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(11): 676-688, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154562

ABSTRACT

Objective: To systematically map the current evidence about the characteristics of health systems, providers and patients to design rehabilitation care for post coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) condition. Methods: We conducted a scoping review by searching the databases: MEDLINE®, Embase®, Web of Science, Cochrane COVID-19 Registry and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from inception to 22 April 2022. The search strategy included terms related to (i) post COVID-19 condition and other currently known terminologies; (ii) care models and pathways; and (iii) rehabilitation. We applied no language or study design restrictions. Two pairs of researchers independently screened title, abstracts and full-text articles and extracted data. We charted the evidence according to five topics: (i) care model components and functions; (ii) safe delivery of rehabilitation; (iii) referral principles; (iv) service delivery settings; and (v) health-care professionals. Findings: We screened 13 753 titles and abstracts, read 154 full-text articles, and included 37 articles. The current evidence is conceptual and expert based. Care model components included multidisciplinary teams, continuity or coordination of care, people-centred care and shared decision-making between clinicians and patients. Care model functions included standardized symptoms assessment, telehealth and virtual care and follow-up system. Rehabilitation services were integrated at all levels of a health system from primary care to tertiary hospital-based care. Health-care workers delivering services within a multidisciplinary team included mostly physiotherapists, occupational therapists and psychologists. Conclusion: Key policy messages include implementing a multilevel and multiprofessional model; leveraging country health systems' strengths and learning from other conditions; financing rehabilitation research providing standardized outcomes; and guidance to increase patient safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Health Personnel , Treatment Outcome , Delivery of Health Care
8.
J Headache Pain ; 23(1): 142, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The fully human monoclonal antibody erenumab, which targets the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor, was licensed in Switzerland in July 2018 for the prophylactic treatment of migraine. To complement findings from the pivotal program, this observational study was designed to collect and evaluate clinical data on the impact of erenumab on several endpoints, such as quality of life, migraine-related impairment and treatment satisfaction in a real-world setting. METHODS: An interim analysis was conducted after all patients completed 6 months of erenumab treatment. Patients kept a headache diary and completed questionnaires at follow up visits. The overall study duration comprises 24 months. RESULTS: In total, 172 adults with chronic or episodic migraine from 19 different sites across Switzerland were enrolled to receive erenumab every 4 weeks. At baseline, patients had 16.6 ± 7.2 monthly migraine days (MMD) and 11.6 ± 7.0 acute migraine-specific medication days per month. After 6 months, erenumab treatment reduced Headache Impact Test (HIT-6™) scores by 7.7 ± 8.4 (p < 0.001), the modified Migraine Disability Assessment (mMIDAS) by 14.1 ± 17.8 (p < 0.001), MMD by 7.6 ± 7.0 (p < 0.001) and acute migraine-specific medication days per month by 6.6 ± 5.4 (p < 0.001). Erenumab also reduced the impact of migraine on social and family life, as evidenced by a reduction of Impact of Migraine on Partners and Adolescent Children (IMPAC) scores by 6.1 ± 6.7 (p < 0.001). Patients reported a mean effectiveness of 67.1, convenience of 82.4 and global satisfaction of 72.4 in the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM-9). In total, 99 adverse events (AE) and 12 serious adverse events (SAE) were observed in 62 and 11 patients, respectively. All SAE were regarded as not related to the study medication. CONCLUSIONS: Overall quality of life improved and treatment satisfaction was rated high with erenumab treatment in real-world clinical practice. In addition, the reported impact of migraine on spouses and children of patients was reduced. TRIAL REGISTRATION: BASEC ID 2018-02,375 in the Register of All Projects in Switzerland (RAPS).


Subject(s)
Migraine Disorders , Quality of Life , Humans , Adult , Adolescent , Child , Switzerland , Migraine Disorders/drug therapy , Migraine Disorders/prevention & control , Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Headache , Delivery of Health Care
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20503, 2022.
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2154446

ABSTRACT

Abstract COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is raising many questions about the future of face-to-face interactions. The possible changes on healthcare delivery may provoke a long term disruption on pharmaceutical assistance requiring new approaches to provide pharmaceutical services. The proposal of pharmaceutical care is patient oriented, and its activities include different forms of interaction. The emergence of COVID-19 puts to the test all the efforts to reposition pharmaceutical care in the set of clinical activities. Now, the pharmaceutical consultations and group activities, which played a fundamental role in the reformulation of pharmacy practices, must be revised in order to reduce the risk of patient agglomeration and contamination. Several researchers suggest technology use to intermediate health care assistance. However, few studies had rigorously analyzed the effectiveness of virtual health care on the pharmaceutical field. Innovating the pharmacy workflow, during the course of a crisis like COVID-19, is the current challenge addressed to all pharmacists. This unforeseen situation requires us to reconsider our plans and actions. It will be necessary resilience, courage and creativity to achieve a consistent attitude, which provides a quick response to the health care needs in this time of crisis.


Subject(s)
Pharmacists/standards , Pharmaceutical Services/ethics , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Patients/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Health Services Needs and Demand/standards
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143082

ABSTRACT

Appropriate prioritisation of geographic target regions (TRs) for healthcare interventions is critical to ensure the efficient distribution of finite healthcare resources. In delineating TRs, both 'targeting efficiency', i.e., the return on intervention investment, and logistical factors, e.g., the number of TRs, are important. However, existing approaches to delineate TRs disproportionately prioritise targeting efficiency. To address this, we explored the utility of a method found within conservation planning: the software Marxan and an extension, MinPatch ('Marxan + MinPatch'), with comparison to a new method we introduce: the Spatial Targeting Algorithm (STA). Using both simulated and real-world data, we demonstrate superior performance of the STA over Marxan + MinPatch, both with respect to targeting efficiency and with respect to adequate consideration of logistical factors. For example, by design, and unlike Marxan + MinPatch, the STA allows for user-specification of a desired number of TRs. More broadly, we find that, while Marxan + MinPatch does consider logistical factors, it also suffers from several limitations, including, but not limited to, the requirement to apply two separate software tools, which is burdensome. Given these results, we suggest that the STA could reasonably be applied to help prevent inefficiencies arising due to targeting of interventions using currently available approaches.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Health Facilities , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Delivery of Health Care
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 975117, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142328

ABSTRACT

Theatre testing (TT) method demonstrates whole or portions of an evidence-based intervention to stakeholders to elicit feedback on context-specific adaptations and future implementation. The Peer Navigator Project (PNP) studied the adaptation and implementation of Peer Navigators in five urban sites to increase street-connected youth (SCY) access to HIV prevention, testing, and treatment in Canada and Kenya. TT was used with SCY, healthcare providers, and community stakeholders to collect feedback on the optimal characteristics of the PNs (e.g., social identities) and their professional activities and responsibilities in each site. Sites scripted unique scenarios of PNs supporting SCY and interacting with social service providers. Local actors were employed, and the scenarios were filmed and edited into videos alongside audience discussion questions. Videos were screened to separate audiences of SCY (n = 40), healthcare providers (n = 12), and community stakeholders (n = 59). Facilitated discussion about the scenarios were recorded as data, and transcripts were analyzed thematically by the research team. The scenario videos are presented as a unique adaptation to the TT method. The adaptations were time-consuming and limited the ability to present responsive changes while presenting the method to different audiences. They were also effective at maintaining presentation fidelity and eliciting diverse and meaningful responses from different stakeholder groups. One site successfully adapted the method for use in a physically distanced manner that complied with COVID-19 public health regulations. TT using video scenarios is an engaging approach that garners rich responses from diverse stakeholder groups about the adaptation of evidence-based interventions preparing for implementation in international settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Homeless Youth , Adolescent , Humans , Kenya , Delivery of Health Care , HIV Infections/prevention & control
15.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0272919, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140469

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hospital-acquired infections of communicable viral diseases (CVDs) have been posing a tremendous challenge to healthcare workers globally. Healthcare personnel (HCP) is facing a consistent risk of viral infections, and subsequently higher rates of morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We proposed a domain-knowledge-driven infection risk model to quantify the individual HCP and the population-level risks. For individual-level risk estimation, a time-variant infection risk model is proposed to capture the transmission dynamics of CVDs. At the population-level, the infection risk is estimated using a Bayesian network model constructed from three feature sets, including individual-level factors, engineering control factors, and administrative control factors. For model validation, we investigated the case study of the Coronavirus disease, in which the individual-level and population-level infection risk models were applied. The data were collected from various sources such as COVID-19 transmission databases, health surveys/questionaries from medical centers, U.S. Department of Labor databases, and cross-sectional studies. RESULTS: Regarding the individual-level risk model, the variance-based sensitivity analysis indicated that the uncertainty in the estimated risk was attributed to two variables: the number of close contacts and the viral transmission probability. Next, the disease transmission probability was computed using a multivariate logistic regression applied for a cross-sectional HCP data in the UK, with the 10-fold cross-validation accuracy of 78.23%. Combined with the previous result, we further validated the individual infection risk model by considering six occupations in the U.S. Department of Labor O*Net database. The occupation-specific risk evaluation suggested that the registered nurses, medical assistants, and respiratory therapists were the highest-risk occupations. For the population-level risk model validation, the infection risk in Texas and California was estimated, in which the infection risk in Texas was lower than that in California. This can be explained by California's higher patient load for each HCP per day and lower personal protective equipment (PPE) sufficiency level. CONCLUSION: The accurate estimation of infection risk at both individual level and population levels using our domain-knowledge-driven infection risk model will significantly enhance the PPE allocation, safety plans for HCP, and hospital staffing strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Virus Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Bayes Theorem , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Personnel, Hospital , Hospitals , Delivery of Health Care
16.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 127, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is universally recognized as a cornerstone measure for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. Although the WHO "My five Moments for hand hygiene" poster has been used for more than a decade to delineate hand hygiene indications and promote action, adherence levels among healthcare workers are still notoriously low and disquieting. To compensate for the lack of effective hand hygiene communication, we aimed to evaluate emojis as possible surrogates for the non-verbal aspects of hand hygiene behaviour. METHODS: Following a thorough review of the Unicode version 12.0, the most applicable emojis to the terms used in the WHO 5 Moments poster were extracted. We developed a self-administered questionnaire to assess the view of infection prevention and control (IPC) practitioners regarding the use of emojis to show the WHO 5 Moments. Completed questionnaires were collected and analysed to determine the suitability of the existing emojis to illustrate a unified emoji poster. Data were analysed using R (version 3.6.3). RESULTS: A total of 95 IPC practitioners completed the questionnaire from May to October 2019 from different countries. Of these, 69 (74%) were female, and the mean age of the participants was 44.6 ± 10.87 years. We found appropriate emojis for six of the words used in the poster, including for touching (72%), for patient (63%), for clean (53%), for procedure (56%), for body fluid (58%), and for exposure risk (71%). The existing emojis proposed for the words "hygiene", "aseptic", and "surrounding" seemed to be less satisfactory. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the existing emojis may not be able to substitute the words used in the WHO 5 Moments poster. Emojis might be helpful to address hand hygiene indications in healthcare that may eventually play a role in promoting this measure. However, emojis should be further studied to choose the most appropriate ones and avoid ambiguity and misinterpretation. More emojis to convey health related messages are needed. We recommend further research in this area to evaluate the effect of using emojis in healthcare-related behaviours.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Hand Hygiene/methods , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Delivery of Health Care , World Health Organization
17.
Harm Reduct J ; 19(1): 128, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic health conditions associated with long-term drug use may pose additional risks to people who use drugs (PWUD) when coupled with COVID-19 infection. Despite this, PWUD, especially those living in rural areas, may be less likely to seek out health services. Previous research has highlighted the increased disease burden of COVID-19 among PWUD. Our manuscript supplements this literature by exploring unique attitudes of PWUD living in rural areas toward the pandemic, COVID-19 vaccination, and the role of harm reduction (HR) organizations in raising health awareness among PWUD. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 PWUD living in rural southern Illinois. Audio recordings were professionally transcribed. A preliminary codebook was created based on interview domains. Two trained coders conducted iterative coding of the transcripts, and new codes were added through line-by-line coding and thematic grouping. RESULTS: Twenty participants (45% female, mean age of 38) completed interviews between June and November 2021. Participants reported negative impacts of the pandemic on mental health, financial wellbeing, and drug quality. However, the health impacts of COVID-19 were often described as less concerning than its impacts on these other aspects of life. Many expressed doubt in the severity of COVID-19 infection. Among the 16 unvaccinated participants who reported receiving most of their information from the internet or word of mouth, uncertainty about vaccine contents and distrust of healthcare and government institutions engendered wariness of the vaccination. Distrust of healthcare providers was related to past stigmatization and judgement, but did not extend to the local HR organization, which was unanimously endorsed as a positive institution. Among participants who did not access services directly from the HR organization, secondary distribution of HR supplies by other PWUD was a universally cited form of health maintenance. Participants expressed interest in low-threshold healthcare, including COVID-19 vaccination, should it be offered in the local HR organization's office and mobile units. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 and related public health measures have affected this community in numerous ways. Integrating healthcare services into harm reduction infrastructures and mobilizing secondary distributors of supplies may promote greater engagement with vaccination programs and other healthcare services. TRIAL NUMBER: NCT04427202.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Harm Reduction , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care , Pandemics
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1372, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a disease that impacts people with dementia, their families, and the healthcare system. In 2018, the number of people with dementia in the EU, the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and the UK was estimated to be 9.1 million. National dementia strategies and publications by organisations such as Alzheimer Europe outline how dementia-specific care should be designed. This study aims to provide insights into existing formal care structures, models of good practise, and gaps in dementia-specific care for people with dementia in 17 European countries. METHODS: The research is based on guided interviews with country-specific care experts. A mixed-methods approach with a combination of open and closed questions was used. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim based on the transcription rules of Kuckarts (2010). For data evaluation, the qualitative content analysis model of Mayring (2014) was used. RESULTS: In all 17 countries, efforts for dementia-friendly care and models of good care practise exist. However, there are large differences between European countries regarding the spread of dementia-specific services. In nine countries (Bulgaria, Finland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the UK), there are already nationwide structures, while in five countries (Belgium, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Romania), services are only available in certain regions. In three countries (Austria, Denmark, Germany) dementia-specific outpatient services are widespread nationwide, whereas inpatient services are not. Simultaneously, in all countries, areas with major care gaps exist. Several European states have an urgent need for action concerning the expansion of the provision of dementia-specific services, the reduction of regional differences regarding the provision of care, the elimination of barriers to access to care, the dementia-friendliness of services, and the participation of people with dementia and their relatives in care and research. CONCLUSIONS: To reduce the existing structural inequalities in care between and within European countries, and to establish quality-related minimum standards in the care of people with dementia, transnational concepts are needed. The EU, in cooperation with care planners, research institutions, care providers, and patient organisations, should develop European care guidelines or dementia plans that contain concrete measures, schedules, and budgets.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Dementia , Humans , Europe , Italy , Netherlands , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1434, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139271

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the experience of receiving in-person and virtual clinical health care services during the COVID-19 pandemic for Canadian children with developmental disabilities and delays facing multiple layers of vulnerability (e.g., low income, low educational attainment families). We examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors and the receipt of these services (physical and mental health services) during COVID-19 for Canadian children with these conditions. METHODS: Data collected in Canada for the Global Report on Developmental Delays, Disorders and Disabilities were used. The survey: (1) was developed and disseminated in collaboration with caregivers of children with disabilities, (2) included topics such as response to the pandemic and receipt of services and supports, and (3) documented the experiences of a non-random convenience sample of caregivers of children (any age) with these conditions during and prior to the pandemic. We used four logistic regression models to assess the association between socio-demographic factors and receipt of services. RESULTS: Being a single parent, having low educational attainment (high school or less), having low income (making less than $40,000 per year), working less than full time (working part-time, working reduced hours due to COVID, retired, stay home parent or student), as well as male gender and older age of the child with disability were factors associated with decreased likelihood of receiving services. CONCLUSION: Our findings point to the need for tailoring services for families of children with disabilities, particularly low socioeconomic status families, to ensure continuity of care during public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Children , Mental Health Services , Child , Male , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Canada/epidemiology , Demography , Delivery of Health Care
20.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 302, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139265

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Telemedicine is increasingly relied upon for care delivery in primary care, but the impact of visit type on clinical ordering behavior is uncertain. METHODS: Within Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we identified patients who self-scheduled and completed telemedicine encounters with their personal primary care provider or another available primary care provider in the same medical group, between April 1st, 2020, and October 31st, 2020, while physical distancing restrictions for COVID-19 were in place. We collected patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, measures of technology access, and categorized the most common primary encounter diagnoses. We measured proportions of patient-scheduled video versus telephone visits for each of eight diagnosis groups (Skin & Soft Tissue, Musculoskeletal Pain, Back Pain, General Gastrointestinal, Hypertension & Diabetes, Mental Health, Upper Respiratory, and Abdominal Pain), and compared physician orders for medications, antibiotics, lab and imaging studies by visit type within each diagnosis group. RESULTS: There were 273,301 included encounters, with 86,676 (41.5%) video visits and 122,051 (58.5%) telephone visits. Of the diagnosis groups, Skin & Soft Tissue conditions had the highest proportion of video visits (59.7%), while Mental Health conditions had the highest proportion of telephone visits (71.1%). After adjusting for covariates, the overall rates of medication orders (46.6% vs. 44.5%), imaging orders (17.3% vs. 14.9%), lab orders (19.5% vs. 17.2%), and antibiotic orders (7.5% vs. 5.2%) were higher during video visits as compared to telephone visits (p < 0.05). The largest difference within diagnosis groups was for Skin & Soft Tissue conditions, where the rate of medication orders was 9.1% higher than during video visits than telephone visits (45.5% vs. 36.5%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We observed statistically significant differences in clinician orders by visit type during telemedicine encounters for common primary care conditions. Our findings suggest that, for certain conditions, visual information conveyed during video visits may promote clinical work-up and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Telephone , Primary Health Care
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