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2.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 18, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175699

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of SARS-COV 2 infection (Covid-19) is challenging health systems and communities worldwide. At the individual level, the main biological system involved in Covid-19 is the respiratory system. Respiratory complications range from mild flu-like illness symptoms to a fatal respiratory distress syndrome or a severe and fulminant pneumonia. Critically, the presence of a pre-existing cardiovascular disease or its risk factors, such as hypertension or type II diabetes mellitus, increases the chance of having severe complications (including death) if infected by the virus. In addition, the infection can worsen an existing cardiovascular disease or precipitate new ones. This paper presents a contemporary review of cardiovascular complications of Covid-19. It also specifically examines the impact of the disease on those already vulnerable and on the poorly resourced health systems of Africa as well as the potential broader consequences on the socio-economic health of this region.


Subject(s)
/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/economics , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , Africa , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/economics , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , /economics , Cardiovascular Diseases/economics , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Economic Recession , Gross Domestic Product , Health Resources/economics , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Heart Failure/economics , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Inflammation , Myocardial Ischemia/economics , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocarditis/economics , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Socioeconomic Factors , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/economics , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology
3.
Sex Health ; 18(1): 41-49, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174747

ABSTRACT

The 2016 global commitments towards ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 require the Asia-Pacific region to reach the Fast-Track targets by 2020. Despite early successes, the region is well short of meeting these targets. The overall stalled progress in the HIV response has been further undermined by rising new infections among young key populations and the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. This paper examines the HIV situation, assesses the gaps, and analyses what it would take the region to end AIDS by 2030. Political will and commitments for ending AIDS must be reaffirmed and reinforced. Focused regional strategic direction that answers the specific regional context and guides countries to respond to their specific needs must be put in place. The region must harness the power of innovative tools and technology in both prevention and treatment. Community activism and meaningful community engagement across the spectrum of HIV response must be ensured. Punitive laws, stigma, and discrimination that deter key populations and people living with HIV from accessing health services must be effectively tackled. The people-centred public health approach must be fully integrated into national universal health coverage while ensuring domestic resources are available for community-led service delivery. The region must utilise its full potential and draw upon lessons that have been learnt to address common challenges of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics and achieve the goal of ending AIDS by 2030, in fulfillment of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Asia , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Goals , Health Plan Implementation/organization & administration , Humans , International Cooperation , Pacific Islands , Politics , Sustainable Development , Universal Health Insurance/organization & administration
4.
Br J Nurs ; 30(7): 450-451, 2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173067

ABSTRACT

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses the role of community pharmacies in providing health care as an important adjunct to the NHS, especially during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Pharmacies , Professional Role , /epidemiology , Humans , State Medicine , United Kingdom/epidemiology
6.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(1): 247-256, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168426

ABSTRACT

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a common cardiovascular emergency for which timely reperfusion therapies are needed to minimize myocardial necrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and reorganization of chest pain centers (CPC) on the practice of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) and prognosis of STEMI patients. This single-center retrospective survey included all patients with STEMI admitted to our CPC from January 22, 2020 to April 30, 2020 (during COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan), compared with those admitted during the analogous period in 2019, in respect of important time points of PPCI and clinical outcomes of STEMI patients. In the present article, we observed a descending trend in STEMI hospitalization and a longer time from symptom onset to first medical contact during the COVID-19 pandemic as compared to the control period (4.35 h versus 2.58 h). With a median delay of 17 minutes in the door to balloon time (D2B), the proportion of in-hospital cardiogenic shock was significantly higher in the COVID-19 era group (47.6% versus 19.5%), and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) tend to increase in the 6-month follow-up period (14.3% versus 2.4%). Although the reorganization of CPC may prolong the D2B time, immediate revascularization of the infarct-related artery could be offered to most patients within 90 minutes upon arrival. PPCI remained the preferred treatment for patients with STEMI during COVID-19 pandemic in the context of timely implementation and appropriate protective measures.


Subject(s)
Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , China/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
7.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 355-362, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168261

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and viral pneumonia in pediatrics worldwide. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the prevalence of RSV is 23.5% in pediatric patients with acute lower respiratory tract illness. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) poses critical public health and socioeconomic challenges in KSA. The Saudi Pediatric Pulmonology Association (SPPA), a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society (STS), developed a task force to determine the potential challenges and barriers to the RSV immunoprophylaxis program during the era of COVID-19 and to compose a practical, nationwide, and multidisciplinary approach to address these challenges. Some of the recommendations to manage these challenges include increasing the number of RSV immunoprophylaxis clinics, drive-thru visits, home-care services, and swift referrals to the RSV immunoprophylaxis program specialists. Additional training is required for healthcare personnel to add RSV immunoprophylaxis to the regular immunization schedule.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchiolitis, Viral/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Immunization Programs/methods , Palivizumab/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Advisory Committees , /prevention & control , Home Care Services , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Injections , Pulmonary Medicine , Saudi Arabia , Societies, Medical
8.
Br J Community Nurs ; 26(Sup4): S16-S22, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168173

ABSTRACT

During the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, lymphoedema and community clinicians have had to modify how they implement intensive treatments for patients with lymphoedema and chronic oedema. Using novel approaches to treat and move patients towards self-management regimes has enabled patients to be in control of their condition, particularly if they are unable to attend normal clinic appointments. This article explores how using Haddenham easywrap instead of time- and resource-intensive bandaging regimes, alongside the Haddenham LymphFlow Advance, as part of self-management programmes, can benefit patients' quality of life, reduce costs and resource use and enable patients to self-manage this long-term chronic condition more effectively.


Subject(s)
Compression Bandages , Delivery of Health Care , Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Devices , Lymphedema/therapy , Manual Lymphatic Drainage/methods , Self Care/methods , Humans , Self-Management
9.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249133, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several research efforts have evaluated the impact of various factors including a) socio-demographics, (b) health indicators, (c) mobility trends, and (d) health care infrastructure attributes on COVID-19 transmission and mortality rate. However, earlier research focused only on a subset of variable groups (predominantly one or two) that can contribute to the COVID-19 transmission/mortality rate. The current study effort is designed to remedy this by analyzing COVID-19 transmission/mortality rates considering a comprehensive set of factors in a unified framework. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We study two per capita dependent variables: (1) daily COVID-19 transmission rates and (2) total COVID-19 mortality rates. The first variable is modeled using a linear mixed model while the later dimension is analyzed using a linear regression approach. The model results are augmented with a sensitivity analysis to predict the impact of mobility restrictions at a county level. Several county level factors including proportion of African-Americans, income inequality, health indicators associated with Asthma, Cancer, HIV and heart disease, percentage of stay at home individuals, testing infrastructure and Intensive Care Unit capacity impact transmission and/or mortality rates. From the policy analysis, we find that enforcing a stay at home order that can ensure a 50% stay at home rate can result in a potential reduction of about 33% in daily cases. CONCLUSIONS: The model framework developed can be employed by government agencies to evaluate the influence of reduced mobility on transmission rates at a county level while accommodating for various county specific factors. Based on our policy analysis, the study findings support a county level stay at home order for regions currently experiencing a surge in transmission. The model framework can also be employed to identify vulnerable counties that need to be prioritized based on health indicators for current support and/or preferential vaccination plans (when available).


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Demography/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , /mortality , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy , Humans , Risk Factors , United States
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e045590, 2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166507

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate temporal trends of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) treated via percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) throughout the COVID-19 outbreak in a European healthcare system affected but not overwhelmed by COVID-19-related pathology. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective multicentre analysis of the rates of PCI for the treatment of ACS within the period 2 months pre and post the first confirmed COVID-19 case in Ireland, as well as comparing PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with the corresponding period in 2019. During the 2020 COVID-19 period (29 February-30 April 2020), there was a 24% decline in PCI for overall ACS (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.76; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.88; p<0.001), including a 29% reduction in PCI for non-ST-elevation ACS (IRR 0.71; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.88; p=0.002) and an 18% reduction in PCI for STEMI (IRR 0.82; 95% CI 0.67 to 1.01; p=0.061), as compared with the 2020 pre-COVID-19 period (1 January-28 February 2020). A 22% (IRR 0.78; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.93; p=0.005) reduction of PCI for STEMI was seen as compared with the 2019 reference period. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a significant reduction in PCI procedures for the treatment of ACS since the COVID-19 outbreak in Ireland. The reasons for this decline are still unclear but patients need to be encouraged to seek medical attention when cardiac symptoms appear, in order to avoid incremental cardiac morbidity and mortality due to a reduction in coronary revascularisation for the treatment of ACS.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/surgery , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(3)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166462

ABSTRACT

The move towards universal health coverage is premised on having well-functioning health systems, which can assure provision of the essential health and related services people need. Efforts to define ways to assess functionality of health systems have however varied, with many not translating into concrete policy action and influence on system development. We present an approach to provide countries with information on the functionality of their systems in a manner that will facilitate movement towards universal health coverage. We conceptualise functionality of a health system as being a construct of four capacities: access to, quality of, demand for essential services and its resilience to external shocks. We test and confirm the validity of these capacities as appropriate measures of system functionality. We thus provide results for functionality of the 47 countries of the WHO African Region based on this. The functionality of health systems ranges from 34.4 to 75.8 on a 0-100 scale. Access to essential services represents the lowest capacity in most countries of the region, specifically due to poor physical access to services. Funding levels from public and out-of-pocket sources represent the strongest predictors of system functionality, compared with other sources. By focusing on the assessment on the capacities that define system functionality, each country has concrete information on where it needs to focus, in order to improve the functionality of its health system to enable it respond to current needs including achieving universal health coverage, while responding to shocks from challenges such as the 2019 coronavirus disease. This systematic and replicable approach for assessing health system functionality can provide the guidance needed for investing in country health systems to attain universal health coverage goals.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/standards , Universal Health Insurance , World Health Organization , Adolescent , Adult , Africa , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
13.
Nurs Adm Q ; 45(2): 126-134, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165559

ABSTRACT

This article describes how a national nursing association and a major academic medical center responded to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic during the first wave of the outbreak in the United States (January to August 2020). The organizations share their lived experiences as they quickly found themselves at the forefront of the crisis. The article discusses how early warning signs from a world away sparked collaboration, innovation, and action that grew to a coordinated, organization-wide response. It also explores how leaders in 2 distinct but interrelated environments rose to the challenge to leverage the best their organizations had to offer, relying on the expertise of each to navigate changes that were made to almost every aspect of work. From tentative first steps to rapid implementation of innovative policies and procedures, the organizations share lessons learned and benefits reaped. The article includes practical crisis response strategies for the nursing profession and health care systems moving forward.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/organization & administration , American Nurses' Association/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Leadership , Capacity Building/organization & administration , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e213789, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160632

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic coupled with health disparities have highlighted the disproportionate burden of disease among Black, Hispanic, and Native American (ie, American Indian or Alaska Native) populations. Increasing transparency around the representation of these populations in health care professions may encourage efforts to increase diversity that could improve cultural competence among health care professionals and reduce health disparities. Objective: To estimate the racial/ethnic diversity of the current health care workforce and the graduate pipeline for 10 health care professions and to evaluate whether the diversity of the pipeline suggests greater representation of Black, Hispanic, and Native American populations in the future. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used weighted data from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS) to compare the diversity of 10 health care occupations (advanced practice registered nurses, dentists, occupational therapists, pharmacists, physical therapists, physician assistants, physicians, registered nurses, respiratory therapists, and speech-language pathologists) with the diversity of the US working-age population, and 2019 data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) were used to compare the diversity of graduates with that of the US population of graduation age. Data from the IPEDS included all awards and degrees conferred between July 1, 2018, and June 30, 2019, in the US. Main Outcomes and Measures: A health workforce diversity index (diversity index) was developed to compare the racial/ethnic diversity of the 10 health care professions (or the graduates in the pipeline) analyzed with the racial/ethnic diversity of the current working-age population (or average student-age population). For the current workforce, the index was the ratio of current workers in a health occupation to the total working-age population by racial/ethnic group. For new graduates, the index was the ratio of recent graduates to the population aged 20 to 35 years by racial/ethnic group. A value equal to 1 indicated equal representation of the racial/ethnic groups in the current workforce (or pipeline) compared with the working-age population. Results: The study sample obtained from the 2019 ACS comprised a weighted total count of 148 358 252 individuals aged 20 to 65 years (White individuals: 89 756 689; Black individuals: 17 916 227; Hispanic individuals: 26 953 648; and Native American individuals: 1 108 404) who were working or searching for work and a weighted total count of 71 608 009 individuals aged 20 to 35 years (White individuals: 38 995 242; Black individuals: 9 830 765; Hispanic individuals: 15 257 274; and Native American individuals: 650 221) in the educational pipeline. Among the 10 professions assessed, the mean diversity index for Black people was 0.54 in the current workforce and in the educational pipeline. In 5 of 10 health care professions, representation of Black graduates was lower than representation in the current workforce (eg, occupational therapy: 0.31 vs 0.50). The mean diversity index for Hispanic people was 0.34 in the current workforce; it improved to 0.48 in the educational pipeline but remained lower than 0.50 in 6 of 10 professions, including physical therapy (0.33). The mean diversity index for Native American people was 0.54 in the current workforce and increased to 0.57 in the educational pipeline. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that Black, Hispanic, and Native American people were underrepresented in the 10 health care professions analyzed. Although some professions had greater diversity than others and there appeared to be improvement among graduates in the educational pipeline compared with the current workforce, additional policies are needed to further strengthen and support a workforce that is more representative of the population.


Subject(s)
Continental Population Groups , Delivery of Health Care/ethnology , Ethnic Groups , Health Personnel , Health Workforce , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cultural Competency , Cultural Diversity , Female , Forecasting , Health Personnel/education , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups , United States , Young Adult
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e046365, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160430

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The recent COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted mental healthcare delivery, with many services shifting from in-person to remote patient contact. We investigated the impact of the pandemic on the use of remote consultation and on the prescribing of psychiatric medications. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Clinical Record Interactive Search tool was used to examine deidentified electronic health records of people receiving mental healthcare from the South London and Maudsley (SLaM) NHS Foundation Trust. Data from the period before and after the onset of the pandemic were analysed using linear regression, and visualised using locally estimated scatterplot smoothing. PARTICIPANTS: All patients receiving care from SLaM between 7 January 2019 and 20 September 2020 (around 37 500 patients per week). OUTCOME MEASURES: (i) The number of clinical contacts (in-person, remote or non-attended) with mental healthcare professionals per week.(ii) Prescribing of antipsychotic and mood stabiliser medications per week. RESULTS: Following the onset of the pandemic, the frequency of in-person contacts was significantly reduced compared with that in the previous year (ß coefficient: -5829.6 contacts, 95% CI -6919.5 to -4739.6, p<0.001), while the frequency of remote contacts significantly increased (ß coefficient: 3338.5 contacts, 95% CI 3074.4 to 3602.7, p<0.001). Rates of remote consultation were lower in older adults than in working age adults, children and adolescents. Despite this change in the type of patient contact, antipsychotic and mood stabiliser prescribing remained at similar levels. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with a marked increase in remote consultation, particularly among younger patients. However, there was no evidence that this has led to changes in psychiatric prescribing. Nevertheless, further work is needed to ensure that older patients are able to access mental healthcare remotely.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Drug Prescriptions , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Aged , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Humans , London , Pandemics , Psychiatry/trends
18.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(2): 204-211, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159333

ABSTRACT

The US has experienced a series of epidemics during the past five decades. None has tested the nation's resilience like the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has laid bare critical weaknesses in US pandemic preparedness and domestic leadership and the nation's decline in global standing in public health. Pandemic response has been politicized, proven public health measures undermined, and public confidence in a science-based public health system reduced. This has been compounded by the large number of citizens without ready access to health care, who are overrepresented among infected, hospitalized, and fatal cases. Here, as part of the National Academy of Medicine's Vital Directions for Health and Health Care: Priorities for 2021 initiative, we review the US approach to pandemic preparedness and its impact on the response to COVID-19. We identify six steps that should be taken to strengthen US pandemic resilience, strengthen and modernize the US health care system, regain public confidence in government leadership in public health, and restore US engagement and leadership in global partnerships to address future pandemic threats domestically and around the world.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Leadership , Public Health , Resilience, Psychological , Delivery of Health Care , Health Care Reform , Humans , Infection Control
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e25698, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the use of technology to deliver health services is increasing rapidly and has further intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic, these initiatives may fail if ethical impacts are not fully identified and acted upon by practitioners. Ignoring the ethical impacts of information and communication technology health service delivery creates an unintended risk for patients and can lead to reduced effectiveness, noncompliance, and harm, undermining the best intentions of governments and clinicians. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore how ethical considerations or impacts may be different, greater, or more variable in information and communication technology methods versus face-to-face health care delivery models, and how they may be applied in practice. METHODS: We undertook a systemic literature review to provide a critical overview of existing research into the incorporation of ethical principles into telehealth practice. Six databases were searched between March 2016 to May 2016 and again in December 2020 to provide the benefit of currency. A combination of broad terms ("ethics," "ethical," "health," and "care") with the restrictive terms of "telehealth" and "telemedicine" was used in keyword searches. Thematic analysis and synthesis of each paper was conducted, aligned to the framework developed by Beauchamp and Childress. RESULTS: From the 49 papers reviewed, authors identified or discussed the following ethical principles in relation to telehealth practice: autonomy (69% of authors, 34/49), professional-patient relationship (53% of authors, 26/49), nonmaleficence (41% of authors, 20/49), beneficence (39%, of authors, 19/49), and justice (39% of authors, 19/49). CONCLUSIONS: Although a small number of studies identified ethical issues associated with telehealth practice and discussed their potential impact on service quality and effectiveness, there is limited research on how ethical principles are incorporated into clinical practice. Several studies proposed frameworks, codes of conduct, or guidelines, but there was little discussion or evidence of how these recommendations are being used to improve ethical telehealth practice.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Disease Outbreaks , Telemedicine/ethics , Ethics, Medical , Humans
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