Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 353
Filter
1.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 302, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139265

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Telemedicine is increasingly relied upon for care delivery in primary care, but the impact of visit type on clinical ordering behavior is uncertain. METHODS: Within Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we identified patients who self-scheduled and completed telemedicine encounters with their personal primary care provider or another available primary care provider in the same medical group, between April 1st, 2020, and October 31st, 2020, while physical distancing restrictions for COVID-19 were in place. We collected patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, measures of technology access, and categorized the most common primary encounter diagnoses. We measured proportions of patient-scheduled video versus telephone visits for each of eight diagnosis groups (Skin & Soft Tissue, Musculoskeletal Pain, Back Pain, General Gastrointestinal, Hypertension & Diabetes, Mental Health, Upper Respiratory, and Abdominal Pain), and compared physician orders for medications, antibiotics, lab and imaging studies by visit type within each diagnosis group. RESULTS: There were 273,301 included encounters, with 86,676 (41.5%) video visits and 122,051 (58.5%) telephone visits. Of the diagnosis groups, Skin & Soft Tissue conditions had the highest proportion of video visits (59.7%), while Mental Health conditions had the highest proportion of telephone visits (71.1%). After adjusting for covariates, the overall rates of medication orders (46.6% vs. 44.5%), imaging orders (17.3% vs. 14.9%), lab orders (19.5% vs. 17.2%), and antibiotic orders (7.5% vs. 5.2%) were higher during video visits as compared to telephone visits (p < 0.05). The largest difference within diagnosis groups was for Skin & Soft Tissue conditions, where the rate of medication orders was 9.1% higher than during video visits than telephone visits (45.5% vs. 36.5%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We observed statistically significant differences in clinician orders by visit type during telemedicine encounters for common primary care conditions. Our findings suggest that, for certain conditions, visual information conveyed during video visits may promote clinical work-up and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Telephone , Primary Health Care
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110218

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a deadly disease that affects the lungs and air supply of the human body. Coronavirus and its variants also affect the airways of the lungs. Asthma patients approach hospitals mostly in a critical condition and require emergency treatment, which creates a burden on health institutions during pandemics. The similar symptoms of asthma and coronavirus create confusion for health workers during patient handling and treatment of disease. The unavailability of patient history to physicians causes complications in proper diagnostics and treatments. Many asthma patient deaths have been reported especially during pandemics, which necessitates an efficient framework for asthma patients. In this article, we have proposed a blockchain consortium healthcare framework for asthma patients. The proposed framework helps in managing asthma healthcare units, coronavirus patient records and vaccination centers, insurance companies, and government agencies, which are connected through the secure blockchain network. The proposed framework increases data security and scalability as it stores encrypted patient data on the Interplanetary File System (IPFS) and keeps data hash values on the blockchain. The patient data are traceable and accessible to physicians and stakeholders, which helps in accurate diagnostics, timely treatment, and the management of patients. The smart contract ensures the execution of all business rules. The patient profile generation mechanism is also discussed. The experiment results revealed that the proposed framework has better transaction throughput, query delay, and security than existing solutions.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Blockchain , Humans , Pandemics , Computer Security , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy
4.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25 Suppl 4: e26002, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047702

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Differentiated service delivery (DSD) models for HIV are a person-centred approach to providing services across the HIV care cascade; DSD has an increasing policy and implementation support in high-burden HIV countries. The life-course approach to DSD for HIV treatment has focused on earlier life phases, childhood and adolescence, families, and supporting sexual and reproductive health during childbearing years. Older adults, defined as those over the age of 50, represent a growing proportion of HIV treatment cohorts with approximately 20% of those supported by PEPFAR in this age band and have specific health needs that differ from younger populations. Despite this, DSD models have not been designed or implemented to address the health needs of older adults. DISCUSSION: Older adults living with HIV are more likely to have significant co-morbid medical conditions. In addition to the commonly discussed co-morbidities of hypertension and diabetes, they are at increased risk of cognitive impairment, frailty and mental health conditions. Age and HIV-related cognitive impairment may necessitate the development of adapted educational materials. Identifying the optimal package of differentiated services to this population, including the frequency of clinical visits, types and location of services is important as is capacitating the healthcare cadres to adapt to these challenges. Technological advances, which have made remote monitoring of adherence and other aspects of disease management easier for younger populations, may not be as readily available or as familiar to older adults. To date, adaptations to service delivery have not been scaled and are limited to nascent programmes working to integrate treatment of common co-morbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Older individuals living with HIV may benefit from a DSD approach that adapts care to the specific challenges of ageing with HIV. Models could be developed and validated using outcome measures, such as viral suppression and treatment continuity. DSD models for older adults should consider their specific health needs, such as high rates of co-morbidities. This may require educational materials, health worker capacity building and outreach designed specifically to treat this age group.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , HIV Infections , Aging , Delivery of Health Care/methods , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , Middle Aged
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4207, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004790

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial and lasting impact on care provision, particularly in the field of cancer care. National steering has helped monitor the health situation and adapt the provision and organisation of care. Based on data from the French administrative healthcare database (SNDS) on the entire French population (67 million people), screening, diagnostic and therapeutic activity was monitored and compared 2019 on a monthly basis. A noteworthy decline in all activities (with the exception of chemotherapy) was observed during the first lockdown in France. Over the months that followed, this activity returned to normal but did not make up for the shortfall from the first lockdown. Finally, during the lockdown in late 2020, cancer care activity was conserved. In brief, in 2020, the number of mammograms decreased by 10% (- 492,500 procedures), digestive endoscopies by 19% (- 648,500), and cancer-related excision by 6% (- 23,000 surgical procedures). Hospital radiotherapy activity was down 3.8% (- 4400 patients) and that in private practice was down 1.4% (- 1600 patients). Chemotherapy activity increased by 2.2% (7200 patients), however. To summarize, COVID-19 had a very substantial impact during the first lockdown. Safeguarding cancer care activity helped limit this impact over the months that followed, but the situation remains uncertain. Further studies on the medium- and long-term impact on individuals (survival, recurrence, after-effects) will be conducted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/therapy , Oncology Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/methods , France/epidemiology , Humans
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(8): 3013-3030, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963152

ABSTRACT

Significant progress has been made in using information and communication technologies in medicine, by impacting the quality of health-care delivery system and patient care, and paving the way for ground-breaking tools for e-health and clinical decision-support systems. This study investigates the extent to which the evolution of telemedicine applications has been used to support patient care in Latin America (LATAM) amidst the pandemic. Theoretically, the study applied the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology to identify the impact of telemedicine in the region. Practically, the paper provides a systematic mapping study of the different domain areas and methodological progress in Telemedicine that occurred during the pandemic, and applied a text mining technique to understand the intensities of the terms expressed by the analyzed studies. The results show that while telemedicine has not been extensively used, a greater percentage of the studies report that telemedicine was effective. Approximately 70% positive emotional valence score was found. The paper also provides an empirical discussion and recommendations for the next steps in ample adoption of telemedicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics
8.
BMJ ; 375: n3010, 2021 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956799

ABSTRACT

In healthcare there are different forms of taking care or taking precautions. When using a therapeutic intervention, one takes care by implementing it appropriately. When the appropriate intervention is pharmacological that means giving an appropriate formulation of a medication in an appropriate dosage regimen. If the intervention might cause harm, but the benefit:harm balance is favourable, one might do nothing apart from monitoring or one might introduce a preventive strategy, such as the use of mesna when giving an oxazaphosphorine such as cyclophosphamide. Vaccination and contraception are both examples of precautionary measures that have an excellent benefit:harm balance. But when the benefit:harm balance of an intervention is unfavourable the precaution to be taken is avoidance of the intervention. That, and only that, form of precaution, avoidance to avoid harm, is a defining feature of the precautionary principle.


Subject(s)
Decision Making , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Patient Safety , Risk Assessment , Humans
9.
Health Expect ; 25(4): 1988-2001, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reflections on the response to the COVID-19 pandemic often evoke the concept of 'resilience' to describe the way health systems adjusted and adapted their functions to withstand the disturbance of a crisis, and in some cases, improve and transform in its wake. Drawing from this, this study focuses on the role of consumer representatives in healthcare services in initiating changes to the way they participated in the pandemic response in the state of New South Wales in Australia. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with two cohorts of consumer representatives. Cohort A included experienced and self-identified consumer leaders, who worked together in a COVID-19 Consumer Leaders Taskforce; Cohort B included participants outside of this group, and purposively included consumer representatives from rural and regional areas, and culturally and linguistically diverse communities. RESULTS: The pause in consumer engagement to support health service decision-making in responding to the pandemic forced consumer representatives to consider alternative approaches to participate. Some initiated networking with each other, forming new collaborations to produce consumer-led research and guidelines on pandemic-related patient care. Others mobilized support from community and politicians to lobby for specific healthcare issues in their local areas. CONCLUSION: The response to the COVID-19 pandemic made visible the brittle nature of previous engagement processes of involving consumers in organizational design and governance. However, the momentum for proactive self-organization in an unexpected crisis created space for consumer representatives to reset and reimagine their role as active partners in health services. Their ability to adapt and adjust ways of working are key assets for a resilient health system. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: This project is a collaborative study between academic researchers and health consumer (patient and public) representatives. It followed the principles of codesign and coresearch, whereby both consumer representatives and academic researchers contributed equally to all stages of the project. The study was cofunded by both academic institutions and consumer representative organizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Participation , Delivery of Health Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Community Participation/methods , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Humans , New South Wales/epidemiology , Pandemics
10.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 11(3): 237-246, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908987

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 has further increased the urgent need for digital transformation within the health care settings, with the use of artificial intelligence/deep learning, internet of things, telecommunication network/virtual platform, and blockchain. The recent advent of metaverse, an interconnected online universe, with the synergistic combination of augmented, virtual, and mixed reality described several years ago, presents a new era of immersive and real-time experiences to enhance human-to-human social interaction and connection. In health care and ophthalmology, the creation of virtual environment with three-dimensional (3D) space and avatar, could be particularly useful in patient-fronting platforms (eg, telemedicine platforms), operational uses (eg, meeting organization), digital education (eg, simulated medical and surgical education), diagnostics, and therapeutics. On the other hand, the implementation and adoption of these emerging virtual health care technologies will require multipronged approaches to ensure interoperability with real-world virtual clinical settings, user-friendliness of the technologies and clinical efficiencies while complying to the clinical, health economics, regulatory, and cybersecurity standards. To serve the urgent need, it is important for the eye community to continue to innovate, invent, adapt, and harness the unique abilities of virtual health care technology to provide better eye care worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ophthalmology , Telemedicine , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Humans
11.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 26(8): 4187-4196, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891403

ABSTRACT

Worldwide up to May 2022 there have been 515 million cases of COVID-19 infection and over 6 million deaths. The World Health Organization estimated that 115,000 healthcare workers died from COVID-19 from January 2020 to May 2021. This toll on human lives prompted this review on 5G based networking primarily on major components of healthcare delivery: diagnosis, patient monitoring, contact tracing, diagnostic imaging tests, vaccines distribution, emergency medical services, telesurgery and robot-assisted tele-ultrasound. The positive impact of 5G as core technology for COVID-19 applications enabled exchange of huge data sets in fangcang (cabin) hospitals and real-time contact tracing, while the low latency enhanced robot-assisted tele-ultrasound, and telementoring during ophthalmic surgery. In other instances, 5G provided a supportive technology for applications related to COVID-19, e.g., patient monitoring. The feasibility of 5G telesurgery was proven, albeit by a few studies on real patients, in very low samples size in most instances. The important future applications of 5G in healthcare include surveillance of elderly people, the immunosuppressed, and nano- oncology for Internet of Nano Things (IoNT). Issues remain and these require resolution before routine clinical adoption. These include infrastructure and coverage; health risks; security and privacy protection of patients' data; 5G implementation with artificial intelligence, blockchain, and IoT; validation, patient acceptance and training of end-users on these technologies.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Aged , Artificial Intelligence , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Humans , Privacy
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2216401, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877539

ABSTRACT

Importance: Clinician attitudes toward telehealth may impact utilization rates, and findings may differ based on specialty. Objective: To determine whether clinician beliefs regarding telehealth quality and ease of use were associated with the proportion of care delivered via video, phone, and in-person across specialties. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used a voluntary, anonymous survey conducted from August to September 2021 in the Department of Veterans Affairs New England Healthcare System (VANEHS). Mental health (MH), primary care (PC), and specialty care (SC) clinicians were invited to participate. Data were analyzed from October 2021 to January 2022. Exposures: Participation in a 32-item survey. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were clinicians' views on relative quality of video, phone, and in-person care; factors contributing to clinicians' modality choice; telehealth challenges; and clinician modality preferences and utilization when treating new and established patients. Results: There were 866 survey respondents (estimated 64% response rate); 52 respondents reported no video or phone telehealth use in the 3 months prior to survey completion and were excluded, resulting in a final sample of 814 respondents. Respondents were divided among MH (403 respondents [49.5%]), PC (153 respondents [18.8%]), and SC (258 respondents [31.7%]). Compared with PC and SC clinicians, MH clinicians rated the quality of video care the highest (eg, compared with in-person care with masks when treating new patients: χ2 = 147.8; P < .001) and were more likely to prefer video over phone when treating both new (χ2 = 26.6; P < .001) and established (χ2 = 100.4; P < .001) patients remotely. PC and SC clinicians were more likely to rate phone care as being at least equivalent in quality to video for both new (χ2 = 26.3; P < .001) and established (χ2 = 33.5; P < .001) patients. PC and SC clinicians were also more likely to endorse challenges of video care, including patient barriers and the inability to conduct a physical examination (χ2 = 292.0; P < .001). Most PC and SC clinicians either had no preference (46 PC respondents [36.2%]; 59 SC respondents [28.4%]) or preferred phone (36 PC respondents [28.3%]; 67 SC respondents [32.2%]) for remote care of established patients. Findings aligned with utilization rates within VANEHS, with MH clinicians conducting significantly more of their encounters via video (36 734 encounters [40.3%]) than PC (3201 encounters [3.9%]) and SC (1157 encounters [4.9%]) clinicians. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that clinician attitudes regarding telehealth quality and ease of use were associated with utilization rates. Moving forward, clinician use of telehealth may be impacted by additional data regarding the relative effectiveness of modalities as well as improvements in video telehealth workflows.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods
17.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 32(3): 794-797, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662744

ABSTRACT

The first case of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was confirmed in the city of Qatif in March 2020. As a result, Qatif was placed under lockdown for two months in an attempt to prevent the widespread of COVID-19. Doing hemodialysis (HD) during lockdown was a new and challenging experience that we recently have faced. Swift arrangements were made to accommodate patients with end-stage renal disease in need for HD. The challenges to healthcare facilities, healthcare providers, and patients are discussed with the hope that this experience would help mitigate some of the difficulties healthcare providers may face in a similar situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Health Personnel/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e058048, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608207

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The formation, modification and implementation of occupational health and safety policy for the Ghana healthcare industry hinge on data and reviews on occupational exposures. However, there is no synthesised review to speak to the issues of these occupational exposures. A scoping review on occupational exposures among the health workforce in Ghana will provide a broad overview of exposures, and can guide and assist in making decisions on occupational health issues relating to healthcare workers. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review methodology framework will guide the conduct of this scoping review. Primary research studies, government documents and other information on occupational exposures among healthcare workers published in the English language will be retrieved from databases including PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO and Google scholar. A systematic search strategy will be employed to identify articles from 1 January 2010 until 30 November 2021. Also, grey literature sources in Ghana including government and tertiary institutions websites will be searched. A reference list of key studies and other available non-electronic materials will also be screened to identify relevant studies for inclusion. The review will consider studies that address prevalence, knowledge and predisposing factors of occupational exposures along with the use of occupational hazards control/preventive measures. After removal of duplicates, and title and abstract screening, relevant articles will be subjected to full-text analysis. The screening processes will be conducted independently by two reviewers. Data will then be extracted and presented in tabular form with a narrative to aid easy comprehension. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This scoping review does not require ethical approval. The findings will be disseminated through publications, conference presentations and stakeholder meetings.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Ghana , Health Personnel , Health Workforce , Humans , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142354, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604496

ABSTRACT

Importance: Deferred diabetic foot screening and delays in timely care of acute foot complications during the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to an increase in limb loss. Objective: To evaluate the association of the COVID-19 pandemic with diabetes-related care measures, foot complications, and amputation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study included all adult residents of Ontario, Canada, with diabetes and compared the rates of selected outcomes from January 1, 2020, to February 23, 2021, vs January 1, 2019, to February 23, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Comprehensive in-person diabetes care assessment, including foot examination; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement; emergency department visit or hospitalization for diabetic foot ulceration, osteomyelitis, or gangrene; lower extremity open or endovascular revascularization; minor (toe or partial-foot) amputation; and major (above-ankle) leg amputation. Rates and rate ratios (RRs) comparing 2020-2021 vs 2019-2020 for each measure were calculated for 10-week periods, anchored relative to onset of the pandemic on March 11, 2020 (11th week of 2020). Results: On March 11, 2020, the study included 1 488 605 adults with diabetes (median [IQR] age, 65 [55-74] years; 776 665 [52.2%] men), and on March 11, 2019, the study included 1 441 029 adults with diabetes (median [IQR] age, 65 [55-74] years; 751 459 [52.1%] men). After the onset of the pandemic, rates of major amputation in 2020-2021 decreased compared with 2019-2020 levels. The RR for the prepandemic period from January 1 to March 10 was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.88-1.25), with RRs in the pandemic periods ranging from 0.86 (95% CI, 0.72-1.03) in May 20 to July 28 to 0.95 (95% CI, 0.80-1.13) in October 7 to December 15. There were no consistent differences in demographic characteristics or comorbidities of patients undergoing amputation in the 2020-2021 vs 2019-2020 periods. Rates of comprehensive in-person diabetes care assessment and HbA1c measurement declined sharply and remained below 2019-2020 levels (eg, in-person assessment, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.28-0.28). The rates of emergency department visits (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.75), hospitalization (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68-0.87), open revascularization (eg, March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.79), endovascular revascularization (March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.61-0.81), and minor amputation (March 11 to May 19: RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.83) initially dropped but recovered to 2019-2020 levels over the study period. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, disruptions in care related to the COVID-19 pandemic were not associated with excess leg amputations among people living with diabetes. As the pandemic ends, improved prevention and treatment of diabetic foot complications will be necessary to maintain these positive results.


Subject(s)
Amputation , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Foot/surgery , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetic Foot/epidemiology , Diabetic Foot/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Foot/pathology , Foot/surgery , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Physical Examination , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Surgical Procedures
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL