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1.
Transpl Int ; 36: 10800, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307301

ABSTRACT

In the last few years, innovative technology and health care digitalization played a major role in all medical fields and a great effort worldwide to manage this large amount of data, in terms of security and digital privacy has been made by different national health systems. Blockchain technology, a peer-to-peer distributed database without centralized authority, initially applied to Bitcoin protocol, soon gained popularity, thanks to its distributed immutable nature in several non-medical fields. Therefore, the aim of the present review (PROSPERO N° CRD42022316661) is to establish a putative future role of blockchain and distribution ledger technology (DLT) in the organ transplantation field and its role to overcome inequalities. Preoperative assessment of the deceased donor, supranational crossover programs with the international waitlist databases, and reduction of black-market donations and counterfeit drugs are some of the possible applications of DLT, thanks to its distributed, efficient, secure, trackable, and immutable nature to reduce inequalities and discrimination.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Humans , Computer Security , Technology , Delivery of Health Care/methods
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2022 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279058

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need to manage complex relations within the healthcare ecosystem. The role of new technologies in achieving this goal is a topic of current interest. Among them, blockchain technology is experiencing widespread application in the healthcare context. The present work investigates how this technology fosters value co-creation paths in the new digital healthcare ecosystems. To this end, a multiple case study has been conducted examining the development and application of blockchain by 32 healthcare tech companies. The results show blockchain technology adoption's current and potential impacts on value co-creation regarding data and resource sharing, patient participation, and collaboration between professionals. Three main areas of activity emerge from the case studies where blockchain implementation brings significant benefits for value co-creation: improving service interaction, impacting actors' engagement, and fostering ecosystem transparency.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Humans , Ecosystem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Technology
3.
Med Care ; 61(Suppl 1): S12-S20, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278397

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The delivery of adult primary care (APC) shifted from predominately in-person to modes of virtual care during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is unclear how these shifts impacted the likelihood of APC use during the pandemic, or how patient characteristics may be associated with the use of virtual care. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using person-month level datasets from 3 geographically disparate integrated health care systems was conducted for the observation period of January 1, 2020, through June 30, 2021. We estimated a 2-stage model, first adjusting for patient-level sociodemographic, clinical, and cost-sharing factors, using generalized estimating equations with a logit distribution, along with a second-stage multinomial generalized estimating equations model that included an inverse propensity score treatment weight to adjust for the likelihood of APC use. Factors associated with APC use and virtual care use were separately assessed for the 3 sites. RESULTS: Included in the first-stage models were datasets with total person-months of 7,055,549, 11,014,430, and 4,176,934, respectively. Older age, female sex, greater comorbidity, and Black race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with higher likelihood of any APC use in any month; measures of greater patient cost-sharing were associated with a lower likelihood. Conditional on APC use, older age, and adults identifying as Black, Asian, or Hispanic were less likely to use virtual care. CONCLUSIONS: As the transition in health care continues to evolve, our findings suggest that to ensure vulnerable patient groups receive high quality health care, outreach interventions to reduce barriers to virtual care use may be warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Telemedicine , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Delivery of Health Care/methods
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252188

ABSTRACT

E-Health represents one of the pillars of the modern healthcare system and a strategy involving the use of digital and telemedicine tools to provide assistance to an increasing number of patients, reducing, at the same time, healthcare costs. Measuring and understanding the economic value and performance of e-Health tools is, therefore, essential to understanding the outcome and best uses of such technologies. The aim of this paper is to determine the most frequently used methods for measuring the economic value and the performance of services in the framework of e-Health, considering different pathologies. An in-depth analysis of 20 recent articles, rigorously selected from more than 5000 contributions, underlines a great interest from the clinical community in economic and performance-related topics. Several diseases are the object of detailed clinical trials and protocols, leading to various economic outcomes, especially in the COVID-19 post-pandemic era. Many e-Health tools are mentioned in the studies, especially those that appear more frequently in people's lives outside of the clinical setting, such as apps and web portals, which allow for clinicians to keep in contact with their patients. While such e-Health tools and programs are increasingly studied from practical perspectives, such as in the case of Virtual Hospital frameworks, there is a lack of consensus regarding the recommended models to map and report their economic outcomes and performance. More investigations and guidelines by scientific societies are advised to understand the potential and path of such an evolving and promising phenomenon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Health Care Costs
5.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 341, 2023 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Opioid addiction and overdose is a public health problem in the United States and is expected to remain with substance use increasing due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Communities that approach this issue through multi-sector partnerships experience more positive health outcomes. Understanding motivation for stakeholder engagement in these efforts is essential to successful adoption, implementation, and sustainability particularly in the shifting landscape of needs and resources. METHODS: A formative evaluation was conducted on the C.L.E.A.R. Program in Massachusetts, a state heavily impacted by the opioid epidemic. A stakeholder power analysis identified appropriate stakeholders for the study (n = 9). The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) guided data collection and analysis. Surveys (n = 8) examined perception and attitudes on the program; motivations and communication for engagement; and, benefits and barriers to collaboration. Stakeholder interviews (n = 6) explored the quantitative findings in more detail. Surveys were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a content analysis with deductive approach was conducted for stakeholder interviews. The Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) Theory guided recommendations for communications to engage stakeholders. RESULTS: Agencies represented a range of sectors and the majority (n = 5) were familiar with the C.L.E.A.R. PROGRAM: Despite the many strengths of the program and existing collaboration, based on the coding densities of each CFIR construct stakeholders identified crucial gaps in the services the program provided and noted that the overall infrastructure of the program could be enhanced. Opportunities for strategic communication to address the stages of DOI align with the gaps identified in the CFIR domains to result in increased agency collaboration and expansion of services into the surrounding communities to ensure sustainability of the C.L.E.A.R. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored factors necessary for ongoing multi-sector collaboration and sustainability of an existing community-based program especially given the changing context from COVID-19. Findings informed both program revisions and communication strategies to promote the program to new and existing collaborating agencies and the community served, and identify effective communication approaches across sectors. This is essential for successful implementation and sustainability of the program, especially as it is adapted and expanded to address post-pandemic times. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study does not report results of a health care intervention on human participants, however it was reviewed and determined an exempt study with the Boston University Institutional Review Board (IRB #H-42107).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opiate Overdose , Humans , United States , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Communication
6.
Health Syst Reform ; 9(2): 2176022, 2023 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263104

ABSTRACT

Innovation by health service organizations can enable adaptation to and transformation of challenges caused by health shocks. Drawing on results from case studies in Brazil, Canada, and Japan, this study looked at innovations the study hospitals introduced in response to challenges caused by COVID-19 to identify: 1) attributes of the innovations that make them conducive to adoption; and 2) organizational factors that facilitate the creation and implementation of innovative health care approaches during health system shocks. Qualitative information was gathered using key informant interviews, participatory observations at the study hospitals and a review of relevant documentation. A thematic approach was used for analysis, and a cross-country comparison framework was prepared to synthesize findings from the case studies in the three countries. In response to the disruptions caused by COVID-19, the study hospitals undertook innovative changes in services, processes, organizational structures, and operational policy. The driving force behind the innovations was the need and urgency generated by the unprecedented nature of the pandemic. With COVID-19, if an innovation met the perceived needs of hospitals and provided an operational advantage, some level of complexity in the implementation appeared to be acceptable. The study findings suggest that for hospitals to create and implement innovations in response to health shocks, they need to: have adaptive and flexible organizational structures; build and maintain functioning communication systems; have committed leadership; ensure all staff share an understanding of hospital organizational and professional missions; and establish social networks that facilitate the creation and implementation of new ideas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Japan/epidemiology
7.
Glob Health Action ; 16(1): 2133723, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2187583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community engagement and involvement (CEI) was crucial for the COVID-19 pandemic response, particularly among the urban poor in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, no evidence synthesis explores how CEI can benefit public health emergencies. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic scoping review of the CEI with an emphasis on stakeholder identification, accountability mapping, the support system, and the engagement process among urban poor populations in LMICs during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We searched eleven databases, including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CINAHL, following the PRISMA-2020 guidelines to find articles published between November 2019 and August 2021. PROSPERO registration No: CRD42021283599. We performed the quality assessment using a mixed-method appraisal tool. We synthesized the findings using thematic framework analysis. RESULTS: We identified 6490 records. After the title and abstract screening, 133 studies were selected for full-text review, and finally, we included 30 articles. Many stakeholders were involved in COVID-19 support, particularly for health care, livelihoods, and WASH infrastructure, and their accountability mapping by adopting an interest - influence matrix. This review emphasizes the significance of meaningful CEI in designing and implementing public health efforts for pandemic management among urban slum populations. The interest - influence matrix findings revealed that specific community volunteers, community-based organizations, and civil society organizations had high interest but less influence, indicating that it is necessary to recognize and engage them. CONCLUSION: Motivation is crucial for those with high influence but less interest, such as corporate responsibility/conscience and private food supply agencies, for the health system's preparedness plan among urban populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Developing Countries , Humans , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Community Participation
9.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 302, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139265

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Telemedicine is increasingly relied upon for care delivery in primary care, but the impact of visit type on clinical ordering behavior is uncertain. METHODS: Within Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we identified patients who self-scheduled and completed telemedicine encounters with their personal primary care provider or another available primary care provider in the same medical group, between April 1st, 2020, and October 31st, 2020, while physical distancing restrictions for COVID-19 were in place. We collected patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, measures of technology access, and categorized the most common primary encounter diagnoses. We measured proportions of patient-scheduled video versus telephone visits for each of eight diagnosis groups (Skin & Soft Tissue, Musculoskeletal Pain, Back Pain, General Gastrointestinal, Hypertension & Diabetes, Mental Health, Upper Respiratory, and Abdominal Pain), and compared physician orders for medications, antibiotics, lab and imaging studies by visit type within each diagnosis group. RESULTS: There were 273,301 included encounters, with 86,676 (41.5%) video visits and 122,051 (58.5%) telephone visits. Of the diagnosis groups, Skin & Soft Tissue conditions had the highest proportion of video visits (59.7%), while Mental Health conditions had the highest proportion of telephone visits (71.1%). After adjusting for covariates, the overall rates of medication orders (46.6% vs. 44.5%), imaging orders (17.3% vs. 14.9%), lab orders (19.5% vs. 17.2%), and antibiotic orders (7.5% vs. 5.2%) were higher during video visits as compared to telephone visits (p < 0.05). The largest difference within diagnosis groups was for Skin & Soft Tissue conditions, where the rate of medication orders was 9.1% higher than during video visits than telephone visits (45.5% vs. 36.5%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We observed statistically significant differences in clinician orders by visit type during telemedicine encounters for common primary care conditions. Our findings suggest that, for certain conditions, visual information conveyed during video visits may promote clinical work-up and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Telephone , Primary Health Care
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110218

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a deadly disease that affects the lungs and air supply of the human body. Coronavirus and its variants also affect the airways of the lungs. Asthma patients approach hospitals mostly in a critical condition and require emergency treatment, which creates a burden on health institutions during pandemics. The similar symptoms of asthma and coronavirus create confusion for health workers during patient handling and treatment of disease. The unavailability of patient history to physicians causes complications in proper diagnostics and treatments. Many asthma patient deaths have been reported especially during pandemics, which necessitates an efficient framework for asthma patients. In this article, we have proposed a blockchain consortium healthcare framework for asthma patients. The proposed framework helps in managing asthma healthcare units, coronavirus patient records and vaccination centers, insurance companies, and government agencies, which are connected through the secure blockchain network. The proposed framework increases data security and scalability as it stores encrypted patient data on the Interplanetary File System (IPFS) and keeps data hash values on the blockchain. The patient data are traceable and accessible to physicians and stakeholders, which helps in accurate diagnostics, timely treatment, and the management of patients. The smart contract ensures the execution of all business rules. The patient profile generation mechanism is also discussed. The experiment results revealed that the proposed framework has better transaction throughput, query delay, and security than existing solutions.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Blockchain , Humans , Pandemics , Computer Security , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy
12.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25 Suppl 4: e26002, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047702

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Differentiated service delivery (DSD) models for HIV are a person-centred approach to providing services across the HIV care cascade; DSD has an increasing policy and implementation support in high-burden HIV countries. The life-course approach to DSD for HIV treatment has focused on earlier life phases, childhood and adolescence, families, and supporting sexual and reproductive health during childbearing years. Older adults, defined as those over the age of 50, represent a growing proportion of HIV treatment cohorts with approximately 20% of those supported by PEPFAR in this age band and have specific health needs that differ from younger populations. Despite this, DSD models have not been designed or implemented to address the health needs of older adults. DISCUSSION: Older adults living with HIV are more likely to have significant co-morbid medical conditions. In addition to the commonly discussed co-morbidities of hypertension and diabetes, they are at increased risk of cognitive impairment, frailty and mental health conditions. Age and HIV-related cognitive impairment may necessitate the development of adapted educational materials. Identifying the optimal package of differentiated services to this population, including the frequency of clinical visits, types and location of services is important as is capacitating the healthcare cadres to adapt to these challenges. Technological advances, which have made remote monitoring of adherence and other aspects of disease management easier for younger populations, may not be as readily available or as familiar to older adults. To date, adaptations to service delivery have not been scaled and are limited to nascent programmes working to integrate treatment of common co-morbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Older individuals living with HIV may benefit from a DSD approach that adapts care to the specific challenges of ageing with HIV. Models could be developed and validated using outcome measures, such as viral suppression and treatment continuity. DSD models for older adults should consider their specific health needs, such as high rates of co-morbidities. This may require educational materials, health worker capacity building and outreach designed specifically to treat this age group.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , HIV Infections , Aging , Delivery of Health Care/methods , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , Middle Aged
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4207, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004790

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial and lasting impact on care provision, particularly in the field of cancer care. National steering has helped monitor the health situation and adapt the provision and organisation of care. Based on data from the French administrative healthcare database (SNDS) on the entire French population (67 million people), screening, diagnostic and therapeutic activity was monitored and compared 2019 on a monthly basis. A noteworthy decline in all activities (with the exception of chemotherapy) was observed during the first lockdown in France. Over the months that followed, this activity returned to normal but did not make up for the shortfall from the first lockdown. Finally, during the lockdown in late 2020, cancer care activity was conserved. In brief, in 2020, the number of mammograms decreased by 10% (- 492,500 procedures), digestive endoscopies by 19% (- 648,500), and cancer-related excision by 6% (- 23,000 surgical procedures). Hospital radiotherapy activity was down 3.8% (- 4400 patients) and that in private practice was down 1.4% (- 1600 patients). Chemotherapy activity increased by 2.2% (7200 patients), however. To summarize, COVID-19 had a very substantial impact during the first lockdown. Safeguarding cancer care activity helped limit this impact over the months that followed, but the situation remains uncertain. Further studies on the medium- and long-term impact on individuals (survival, recurrence, after-effects) will be conducted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/therapy , Oncology Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/methods , France/epidemiology , Humans
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(8): 3013-3030, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963152

ABSTRACT

Significant progress has been made in using information and communication technologies in medicine, by impacting the quality of health-care delivery system and patient care, and paving the way for ground-breaking tools for e-health and clinical decision-support systems. This study investigates the extent to which the evolution of telemedicine applications has been used to support patient care in Latin America (LATAM) amidst the pandemic. Theoretically, the study applied the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology to identify the impact of telemedicine in the region. Practically, the paper provides a systematic mapping study of the different domain areas and methodological progress in Telemedicine that occurred during the pandemic, and applied a text mining technique to understand the intensities of the terms expressed by the analyzed studies. The results show that while telemedicine has not been extensively used, a greater percentage of the studies report that telemedicine was effective. Approximately 70% positive emotional valence score was found. The paper also provides an empirical discussion and recommendations for the next steps in ample adoption of telemedicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics
16.
BMJ ; 375: n3010, 2021 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956799

ABSTRACT

In healthcare there are different forms of taking care or taking precautions. When using a therapeutic intervention, one takes care by implementing it appropriately. When the appropriate intervention is pharmacological that means giving an appropriate formulation of a medication in an appropriate dosage regimen. If the intervention might cause harm, but the benefit:harm balance is favourable, one might do nothing apart from monitoring or one might introduce a preventive strategy, such as the use of mesna when giving an oxazaphosphorine such as cyclophosphamide. Vaccination and contraception are both examples of precautionary measures that have an excellent benefit:harm balance. But when the benefit:harm balance of an intervention is unfavourable the precaution to be taken is avoidance of the intervention. That, and only that, form of precaution, avoidance to avoid harm, is a defining feature of the precautionary principle.


Subject(s)
Decision Making , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Patient Safety , Risk Assessment , Humans
17.
Health Expect ; 25(4): 1988-2001, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reflections on the response to the COVID-19 pandemic often evoke the concept of 'resilience' to describe the way health systems adjusted and adapted their functions to withstand the disturbance of a crisis, and in some cases, improve and transform in its wake. Drawing from this, this study focuses on the role of consumer representatives in healthcare services in initiating changes to the way they participated in the pandemic response in the state of New South Wales in Australia. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with two cohorts of consumer representatives. Cohort A included experienced and self-identified consumer leaders, who worked together in a COVID-19 Consumer Leaders Taskforce; Cohort B included participants outside of this group, and purposively included consumer representatives from rural and regional areas, and culturally and linguistically diverse communities. RESULTS: The pause in consumer engagement to support health service decision-making in responding to the pandemic forced consumer representatives to consider alternative approaches to participate. Some initiated networking with each other, forming new collaborations to produce consumer-led research and guidelines on pandemic-related patient care. Others mobilized support from community and politicians to lobby for specific healthcare issues in their local areas. CONCLUSION: The response to the COVID-19 pandemic made visible the brittle nature of previous engagement processes of involving consumers in organizational design and governance. However, the momentum for proactive self-organization in an unexpected crisis created space for consumer representatives to reset and reimagine their role as active partners in health services. Their ability to adapt and adjust ways of working are key assets for a resilient health system. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: This project is a collaborative study between academic researchers and health consumer (patient and public) representatives. It followed the principles of codesign and coresearch, whereby both consumer representatives and academic researchers contributed equally to all stages of the project. The study was cofunded by both academic institutions and consumer representative organizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Participation , Delivery of Health Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Community Participation/methods , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Humans , New South Wales/epidemiology , Pandemics
18.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 11(3): 237-246, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908987

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 has further increased the urgent need for digital transformation within the health care settings, with the use of artificial intelligence/deep learning, internet of things, telecommunication network/virtual platform, and blockchain. The recent advent of metaverse, an interconnected online universe, with the synergistic combination of augmented, virtual, and mixed reality described several years ago, presents a new era of immersive and real-time experiences to enhance human-to-human social interaction and connection. In health care and ophthalmology, the creation of virtual environment with three-dimensional (3D) space and avatar, could be particularly useful in patient-fronting platforms (eg, telemedicine platforms), operational uses (eg, meeting organization), digital education (eg, simulated medical and surgical education), diagnostics, and therapeutics. On the other hand, the implementation and adoption of these emerging virtual health care technologies will require multipronged approaches to ensure interoperability with real-world virtual clinical settings, user-friendliness of the technologies and clinical efficiencies while complying to the clinical, health economics, regulatory, and cybersecurity standards. To serve the urgent need, it is important for the eye community to continue to innovate, invent, adapt, and harness the unique abilities of virtual health care technology to provide better eye care worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ophthalmology , Telemedicine , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Humans
19.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 26(8): 4187-4196, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891403

ABSTRACT

Worldwide up to May 2022 there have been 515 million cases of COVID-19 infection and over 6 million deaths. The World Health Organization estimated that 115,000 healthcare workers died from COVID-19 from January 2020 to May 2021. This toll on human lives prompted this review on 5G based networking primarily on major components of healthcare delivery: diagnosis, patient monitoring, contact tracing, diagnostic imaging tests, vaccines distribution, emergency medical services, telesurgery and robot-assisted tele-ultrasound. The positive impact of 5G as core technology for COVID-19 applications enabled exchange of huge data sets in fangcang (cabin) hospitals and real-time contact tracing, while the low latency enhanced robot-assisted tele-ultrasound, and telementoring during ophthalmic surgery. In other instances, 5G provided a supportive technology for applications related to COVID-19, e.g., patient monitoring. The feasibility of 5G telesurgery was proven, albeit by a few studies on real patients, in very low samples size in most instances. The important future applications of 5G in healthcare include surveillance of elderly people, the immunosuppressed, and nano- oncology for Internet of Nano Things (IoNT). Issues remain and these require resolution before routine clinical adoption. These include infrastructure and coverage; health risks; security and privacy protection of patients' data; 5G implementation with artificial intelligence, blockchain, and IoT; validation, patient acceptance and training of end-users on these technologies.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Aged , Artificial Intelligence , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Humans , Privacy
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