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1.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether children receiving immunosuppressive therapies for neuroimmunologic disorders had (1) increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection or to develop more severe forms of COVID-19; (2) increased relapses or autoimmune complications if infected; and (3) changes in health care delivery during the pandemic. METHODS: Patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment were recruited to participate in a retrospective survey evaluating the period from March 14, 2020, to March 30, 2021. Demographics, clinical features, type of immunosuppressive treatment, suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in the patients or cohabitants, and changes in care delivery were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three children were included: 84 (55%) female, median age 13 years (interquartile range [8-16] years), 79 (52%) on immunosuppressive treatment. COVID-19 was suspected or confirmed in 17 (11%) (all mild), with a frequency similar in patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment (11/79 [14%] vs 6/74 [8%], p = 0.3085). The frequency of neurologic relapses was similar in patients with (18%) and without (21%) COVID-19. Factors associated with COVID-19 included having cohabitants with COVID-19 (p < 0.001) and lower blood levels of vitamin D (p = 0.039). Return to face-to-face schooling or mask type did not influence the risk of infection, although 43(28%) children had contact with a classmate with COVID-19. Clinic visits changed from face to face to remote for 120 (79%) patients; 110 (92%) were satisfied with the change. DISCUSSION: In this cohort of children with neuroimmunologic disorders, the frequency of COVID-19 was low and not affected by immunosuppressive therapies. The main risk factors for developing COVID-19 were having cohabitants with COVID-19 and low vitamin D levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Child , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Masks/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin D/blood
2.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20 Suppl 3: 57-63, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) programs and people with CF (PwCF) employed various monitoring methods for virtual care during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper characterizes experiences with remote monitoring across the U.S. CF community. METHODS: The CF Foundation (CFF) sponsored distribution of home spirometers (April 2020 to May 2021), surveys to PwCF and CF programs (July to September 2020), and a second program survey (April to May 2021). We used mixed methods to explore access, use, and perspectives regarding the use of remote monitoring in future care. RESULTS: By October 2020, 13,345 spirometers had been distributed, and 19,271 spirometers by May 2021. Programs (n=286) estimated proportions of PwCF with home devices increased over seven months: spirometers (30% to 70%), scales (50% to 70%), oximeters (5% to 10%) with higher estimates in adult programs for spirometers and oximeters. PwCF (n=378) had access to scales (89%), followed by oximeters (48%) and spirometers (47%), often using scales and oximeters weekly, and spirometers monthly. Over both surveys, some programs had no method to collect respiratory specimens for cultures associated with telehealth visits (47%, n=132; 41%, n=118). Most programs (81%) had a process for phlebotomy associated with a telehealth visit, primarily through off-site labs. Both PwCF and programs felt future care should advance remote monitoring and recommended improvements for access, training, and data collection systems. CONCLUSIONS: PwCF and programs experienced unprecedented access to remote monitoring and raised its importance for future care. Improvements to current systems may leverage these shared experiences to augment future care models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Equipment and Supplies/supply & distribution , Home Care Services , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Spirometry , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Home Care Services/organization & administration , Home Care Services/standards , Humans , Models, Organizational , Needs Assessment , Oximetry/instrumentation , Oximetry/methods , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2 , Spirometry/instrumentation , Spirometry/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/standards , United States/epidemiology
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25283, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573903

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has affected the lives of millions of people by causing a dramatic impact on many health care systems and the global economy. This devastating pandemic has brought together communities across the globe to work on this issue in an unprecedented manner. OBJECTIVE: This case study describes the steps and methods employed in the conduction of a remote online health hackathon centered on challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. It aims to deliver a clear implementation road map for other organizations to follow. METHODS: This 4-day hackathon was conducted in April 2020, based on six COVID-19-related challenges defined by frontline clinicians and researchers from various disciplines. An online survey was structured to assess: (1) individual experience satisfaction, (2) level of interprofessional skills exchange, (3) maturity of the projects realized, and (4) overall quality of the event. At the end of the event, participants were invited to take part in an online survey with 17 (+5 optional) items, including multiple-choice and open-ended questions that assessed their experience regarding the remote nature of the event and their individual project, interprofessional skills exchange, and their confidence in working on a digital health project before and after the hackathon. Mentors, who guided the participants through the event, also provided feedback to the organizers through an online survey. RESULTS: A total of 48 participants and 52 mentors based in 8 different countries participated and developed 14 projects. A total of 75 mentorship video sessions were held. Participants reported increased confidence in starting a digital health venture or a research project after successfully participating in the hackathon, and stated that they were likely to continue working on their projects. Of the participants who provided feedback, 60% (n=18) would not have started their project without this particular hackathon and indicated that the hackathon encouraged and enabled them to progress faster, for example, by building interdisciplinary teams, gaining new insights and feedback provided by their mentors, and creating a functional prototype. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into how online hackathons can contribute to solving the challenges and effects of a pandemic in several regions of the world. The online format fosters team diversity, increases cross-regional collaboration, and can be executed much faster and at lower costs compared to in-person events. Results on preparation, organization, and evaluation of this online hackathon are useful for other institutions and initiatives that are willing to introduce similar event formats in the fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Internet , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 51, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547785

ABSTRACT

Implementing health-system strengthening policies remains a challenge in Africa. Past successes, predictable but unanticipated flaws, underutilization of health services, traditional medicine, global inequity and poor practice by local stakeholders are some of the reasons many African countries have made little progress towards attaining global health goals. As a result, Africa has the highest disease burden despite multiple efforts from the global health community. These raise the question: what has to change so that health systems strengthening efforts in Africa are successful?


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Global Health , Health Policy , Africa , Health Services Misuse , Humans , Implementation Science
5.
Ind Health ; 59(5): 293-297, 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547177

ABSTRACT

This paper reviews three viewpoints regarding the society after the COVID-19 infection on the concept of safety management. The first is the relationship between With COVID-19 and a zero risk. As a result of coexistence with COVID-19 for more than one year, the Japanese society thought that a zero risk is difficult to accomplish, and some risks will be accepted to maintain social activities. This leads a change in a way of thinking from zero risk to risk-based safety management. The second is the change in the way of working. As a result of having experienced remote work forcibly, it will become the hybrid model that incorporated remote work in a conventional method. Personnel evaluation changes from the seniority system to the job evaluation type, and each person's professional ability will be more focused on. The third is the review of the Japanese society system. In Japan, although the infection level was controlled to some extent by the groupism of the self-restraint of actions by mutual monitoring, there is a limit of managing based on groupism. Moreover, as seen in the delay of vaccine development and the medical care collapse, these problems should be improved by changing Japanese society system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Safety Management/organization & administration , Teleworking , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Drug Development , Fukushima Nuclear Accident , Humans , Japan , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
7.
11.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 6770, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513371

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The COVID-19 pandemic led to several changes to methadone treatment protocols at federal opioid treatment programs in the USA. ISSUE: Protocol changes were designed to reduce transmission of COVID-19 while allowing for continuity of care, but those changes also demonstrated that many policies surrounding opioid use disorder care in the USA cause unnecessary burdens to patients. In this commentary, we describe how current policies create and maintain fatal barriers to methadone treatment for people in rural communities who have opioid use disorder, and highlight how COVID-19 adaptations and more flexible methadone models in other countries can better allow for effective and accessible care. Reasons and ways to address these issues to create lasting solutions for rural communities are discussed. LESSONS LEARNED: We focus on three lessons: (1) methadone dispensing and take-home schedules during COVID-19, (2) telehealth services during COVID-19, and (3) international models in use prior to COVID-19. We then outline recommendations for each lesson to improve access to methadone treatment long term for rural communities in the USA. There is an urgent need to implement recommendations that maintain flexible approaches and address methadone treatment barriers in the rural USA. To achieve lasting health policy change and combat stigma about addiction and methadone treatment, there is a need for advocacy efforts that give voice to rural residents impacted by inequitable access to methadone treatment and rural-tailored educational initiatives that promote the evidence base for methadone. We hope opioid treatment program directors, regulatory authorities, and health policymakers consider our recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility , Methadone/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Opioid-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Rural Population , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods , Opioid-Related Disorders/psychology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 42, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513183

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has impacted many facets of everyday daily life, resulting in far-reaching consequences on social interaction, regional and global economies, and healthcare delivery systems. Numerous reports have commented on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical education in various world regions. However, we know little about the influence of the pandemic on medical education in Africa. Here, we discuss the potential impact of COVID-19 on teaching and learning in undergraduate medical education in sub-Saharan Africa, illustrating some of the unexpected benefits and challenges the pandemic presents for medical education in sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Africa South of the Sahara , Humans , Learning , Teaching
14.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 220, 2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505868

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects all components of the respiratory system, including the neuromuscular breathing apparatus, conducting and respiratory airways, pulmonary vascular endothelium, and pulmonary blood flow. In contrast to other respiratory viruses, children have less severe symptoms when infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A minority of children experience a post-infectious inflammatory syndrome, the pathology and long-term outcomes of which are poorly understood. The reason for the lower burden of symptomatic disease in children is not yet clear, but several pathophysiological characteristics are postulated. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought distinct challenges to the care of children globally. Proper recommendations have been proposed for a range of non-asthmatic respiratory disorders in children, including primary ciliary dyskinesia and cystic fibrosis. These recommendations involve the continuation of the treatment during this period and ways to maintain stability. School closures, loss of follow-up visit attendance, and loss of other protective systems for children are the indirect outcomes of measures to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, COVID-19 has reshaped the delivery of respiratory care in children, with non-urgent and elective procedures being postponed, and distancing imperatives have led to rapid scaling of telemedicine. The pandemic has seen an unprecedented reorientation in clinical trial research towards COVID-19 and a disruption in other trials worldwide, which will have long-lasting effects on medical science. In this narrative review, we sought to outline the most recent findings on the direct and indirect effects of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on pediatric respiratory chronic diseases other than asthma, by critically revising the most recent literature on the subject.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Respiratory Tract Diseases/complications
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27418, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501202

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The occurrence of COVID-19 pandemic had a significant negative effect on health care systems over the last year. Health care providers were forced to focus mainly on COVID-19 patients, neglecting in many cases equally important diseases, both acute and chronic. Therefore, also screening and diagnostic strategies for HIV could have been significantly impaired.This retrospective, multicenter, observational study aimed at assessing the number and characteristics of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses during COVID-19 pandemic in Italy and compared characteristics of people living with HIV at diagnosis between pre- and post-COVID-19 era (2019 vs 2020).Our results showed a significant reduction of HIV diagnoses during pandemic. By contrast, people living with HIV during pandemic were older and were diagnosed in earlier stage of disease (considering CD4+ T cell count) compared to those who were diagnosed the year before. Moreover, there was a significant decrease of new HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men, probably for the impact of social distancing and restriction applied by the Italian Government. Late presentation incidence, if numbers in 2020 were lower than those in 2019, is still an issue.Routinely performing HIV testing in patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection is identifying and linking to care underdiagnosed people living with HIV earlier. Thus, combined tests (HIV and SARS-CoV-2) should be implemented in patients with SARS-CoV-2 symptoms overlapping HIV's ones. Lastly, our results lastly showed how urgent implementation of a national policy for HIV screening is necessary.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Adult , CD4 Lymphocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Front Health Serv Manage ; 38(1): 4-13, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455389

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Across the healthcare landscape, the COVID-19 pandemic has been incredibly challenging. It also has been a catalyst for change. It has ignited a redesign of the US health system and presented opportunities in areas such as caregiver and patient communication, digital practice, telehealth and virtual care, and more. Notably, the pandemic also has shined a new light on caregiver well-being. As executive leaders of Cleveland Clinic's Caregiver Office, our top priority throughout the pandemic has been to support our caregivers professionally and personally-to help them be their best for themselves and for their fellow caregivers, our patients, our organization, and our communities. Today, Cleveland Clinic is realizing the profound impact of many of the strategies put in place during the pandemic and seeing how COVID-19 accelerated our organization's unified vision for caregiver well-being. This article offers insight into Cleveland Clinic's commitment to caregiver well-being, highlights actions we undertook during the pandemic, shares the resulting lessons we learned, and showcases how those lessons are shaping our future caregiver well-being strategy.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Caregivers/standards , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Personnel/standards , Holistic Health , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ohio , Organizational Culture , Organizational Objectives , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Front Health Serv Manage ; 38(1): 39-44, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455388

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Well-being, engagement, and burnout among clinicians are interconnected, and the common denominator is energy. Decades of research show that employees' energy is a decisive factor in achieving organizational outcomes. Knowing this, healthcare leaders can create well-being programs with measurable outcomes that make a positive impact on the bottom line. Just as important, leaders can avoid wasting money on fruitless efforts. How can clinician well-being be incorporated in organizational culture and strategic and operational plans? What are the special challenges to achieving clinician well-being? What key leadership actions promote and protect the well-being of clinicians? Which approaches are most effective during a crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic? This article addresses those questions by presenting the rationale and methodology behind well-being programs that also address engagement and burnout so that clinicians can succeed in times of crisis and beyond.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Work Engagement , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organizational Culture , Organizational Objectives , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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