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1.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256330, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has proved to have an indirect impact on essential health services in several parts of the world which could lead to increased morbidity and mortality and loss of the gains made in the past decades. There were no synthesized scientific evidences which could show the impact of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic on essential health services in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impacts of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic on essential health services provision in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A pre-post study design was used to assess the impacts of COVID-19 on essential health services delivery in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia in the second quarter of 2020 (Post COVID-19) compared to similar quarter in 2019 (Pre COVID-19). The study focuses on five categories; namely; maternal, neonatal and child health care; communicable diseases with a focus on HIV and TB-HIV co-infection; prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV; basic emergency, outpatient, inpatient and blood bank services, non-communicable diseases and road traffic accidents (RTAs). Analysis was done using Stata version 14.0 software package. The effects of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic were calculated taking the differences between post COVID -19 and pre COVID-19 periods and the levels of service disruptions presented using proportions. Wilcoxon sign rank test was done and a significance level of ≤0.05 was considered as having significant difference among the two quarters. RESULTS: There were significant increase in institutional delivery, delivery by Caesarian Section (CS), still birth, postnatal care within 7 days of delivery, the number of children who received all vaccine doses before 1st birthday, the number of under 5 children screened and had moderate acute malnutrition, the number of under 5 children screened and had severe acute malnutrition and children with SAM admitted for management. However, there were significant decrease in HIV testing and detection along with enrolment to antiretroviral therapy (ART) care, number of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk ≥ 30% received treatment, RTAs, total units of blood received from national blood transfusion service (NBTS) and regional blood banks, total number of units of blood transfused and emergency referral. There were no significant changes in outpatient visits and admissions. CONCLUSION: Despite commendable achievements in maintaining several of the essential health services, COVID-19 has led to an increase in under nutrition in under five children, decline in HIV detection and care, CVD, cervical cancer screening and blood bank services. Therefore, governments, local and international agencies need to introduce innovative ways to rapidly expand and deliver services in the context of COVID-19. Moreover, lower income countries have to customize comprehensive and coordinated community-based health care approaches, including outreach and campaigns. In addition, countries should ensure that NCDs are incorporated in their national COVID-19 response plans to provide essential health care services to people living with NCDs and HIV or HIV-TB co-infection during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Ethiopia , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pandemics , Postnatal Care , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 51, 2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdowns, pregnant women's fear from hospitalization in addition to uncertainties about appropriate birthing practices at the beginning of the pandemic may have affected the health outcomes of mother-infant couples. We aimed to explore whether pregnancy outcomes including the rates of cesarean delivery (CS), preterm, and low birth weight (LBW) births have changed during the pandemic period compared with the pre-pandemic period. METHODS: We applied a population-based retrospective cohort, before-after approach in 2020 vs. similar calendar months in 2019 for five periods [Jan-Feb (pre-pandemic); March-May (1st wave and lockdown); June-August; September-October; November-December (2nd wave and lockdown)]. The data was modelled through multiple logistic regressions using key outcomes; CS, preterm, and LBW births as the dependent variables, and adjustments were made for independent variables in SPSS software. We evaluated the modification of years by periods by adding interaction term (yearXperiod) to the model. RESULTS: The rate of CS in hospital births increased from 57.7% in 2019 to 60.2% in 2020. CS rates were significantly increased during the 3rd and 4th periods. The overall preterm rate was 11%. When singleton pregnancies were considered, adjusted multivariable analyses showed a decrease in preterm proportions during all time periods with respect to the pre-pandemic period. The percentage of LBW was 7.7% during the pandemic period and was found to be significantly reduced compared to the pre-pandemic period. There was a significant reduction in LBW rates in all periods except the second lockdown period. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested significant reductions in preterm and LBW births possibly due to the indirect effects of the pandemic. Moreover, strategies need to be considered to address the increased CS rates and shifting of maternity service utilization to private facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Logistic Models , Pregnancy , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology
3.
BJOG ; 129(3): 493-499, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636549

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of delivery on the pO2 /FiO2 ratio (P/F ratio) in patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and to compare characteristics between delivered and undelivered pregnant patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Four hospitals in Houston, Texas. POPULATION: Pregnant patients admitted to the hospital for COVID-19. METHODS: Among patients with ARDS who were delivered during their hospitalisation for COVID-19, linear mixed models were used to investigate time trends before and after delivery of the P/F ratio. Patient characteristics were compared between patients delivered during their hospitalisation for COVID-19 and those discharged undelivered. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The P/F ratio, age, gestational age, length of stay and severity of illness, RESULTS: Between 4 May 2020 and 26 July 2020, a total of 61 pregnant patients were admitted for COVID-19. Baseline characteristics were similar between the study groups. Delivery occurred in 21 (34%) of patients during their hospitalisation for COVID-19. Delivered patients had more severe disease and were admitted at a later gestational age than patients not delivered. Ten of these 21 patients (48%) were delivered preterm; of these, six were delivered due to complications of COVID-19 and four were delivered for obstetric indications. In patients with ARDS who were delivered (n = 17), the P/F ratio had a negative slope that improved after delivery. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-related ARDS in pregnancy requires multidisciplinary care and individualised decision-making, but delivery slows the deterioration of the P/F ratio in these patients. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Delivery improves the P/F ratio in COVID-19-related ARDS, though individualised delivery management is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Oxygen/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(44): e309, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed maternal and neonatal outcomes of critically ill pregnant and puerperal patients in the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Records of pregnant and puerperal women with polymerase chain reaction positive COVID-19 virus who were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March 2020 to August 2021 were investigated. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, pharmacotherapy, and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. These outcomes were compared between patients that were discharged from ICU and patients who died in ICU. RESULTS: Nineteen women were included in this study. Additional oxygen was required in all cases (100%). Eight patients (42%) were intubated and mechanically ventilated. All patients that were mechanically ventilated have died. Increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) was seen in all patients (100%). D-dimer values increased in 15 patients (78.9%); interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased in 16 cases (84.2%). Sixteen patients used antiviral drugs. Eleven patients were discharged from the ICU and eight patients have died due to complications of COVID-19 showing an ICU mortality rate of 42.1%. Mean number of hospitalized days in ICU was significantly lower in patients that were discharged (P = 0.037). Seventeen patients underwent cesarean-section (C/S) (89.4%). Mean birth week was significantly lower in patients who died in ICU (P = 0.024). Eleven preterm (57.8%) and eight term deliveries (42.1%) occurred. CONCLUSION: High mortality rate was detected among critically ill pregnant/parturient patients followed in the ICU. Main predictors of mortality were the need of invasive mechanical ventilation and higher number of days hospitalized in ICU. Rate of C/S operations and preterm delivery were high. Pleasingly, the rate of neonatal death was low and no neonatal COVID-19 occurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Puerperal Disorders/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 106(6): 627-634, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503592

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with delivery room respiratory support in at-risk infants who are initially vigorous and received delayed cord clamping (DCC). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Two perinatal centres in Melbourne, Australia. PATIENTS: At-risk infants born at ≥35+0 weeks gestation with a paediatric doctor in attendance who were initially vigorous and received DCC for >60 s. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Delivery room respiratory support defined as facemask positive pressure ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure and/or supplemental oxygen within 10 min of birth. RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety-eight infants born at a median (IQR) gestational age of 39+3 (38+2-40+2) weeks were included. Cord clamping occurred at a median (IQR) of 128 (123-145) s. Forty-four (15%) infants received respiratory support at a median of 214 (IQR 156-326) s after birth. Neonatal unit admission for respiratory distress occurred in 32% of infants receiving delivery room respiratory support vs 1% of infants who did not receive delivery room respiratory support (p<0.001). Risk factors independently associated with delivery room respiratory support were average heart rate (HR) at 90-120 s after birth (determined using three-lead ECG), mode of birth and time to establish regular cries. Decision tree analysis identified that infants at highest risk had an average HR of <165 beats per minute at 90-120 s after birth following caesarean section (risk of 39%). Infants with an average HR of ≥165 beats per minute at 90-120 s after birth were at low risk (5%). CONCLUSIONS: We present a clinical decision pathway for at-risk infants who may benefit from close observation following DCC. Our findings provide a novel perspective of HR beyond the traditional threshold of 100 beats per minute.


Subject(s)
Critical Pathways/standards , Delivery, Obstetric , Electrocardiography/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Umbilical Cord , Australia/epidemiology , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/methods , Clinical Decision-Making , Constriction , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/adverse effects , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gestational Age , Heart Rate , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , Time-to-Treatment/standards , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data
6.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 1055-1070, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482855

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has afflicted the health of children and women across all age groups. Since the outbreak of the pandemic in December 2019, various epidemiologic, immunologic, clinical, and pharmaceutical studies have been conducted to understand its infectious characteristics, pathogenesis, and clinical profile. COVID-19 affects pregnant women more seriously than nonpregnant women, endangering the health of the newborn. Changes have been implemented to guidelines for antenatal care of pregnant women, delivery, and newborn care. We highlight the current trends of clinical care in pregnant women and newborns during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/methods , COVID-19/transmission , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy
9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256330, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has proved to have an indirect impact on essential health services in several parts of the world which could lead to increased morbidity and mortality and loss of the gains made in the past decades. There were no synthesized scientific evidences which could show the impact of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic on essential health services in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impacts of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic on essential health services provision in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A pre-post study design was used to assess the impacts of COVID-19 on essential health services delivery in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia in the second quarter of 2020 (Post COVID-19) compared to similar quarter in 2019 (Pre COVID-19). The study focuses on five categories; namely; maternal, neonatal and child health care; communicable diseases with a focus on HIV and TB-HIV co-infection; prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV; basic emergency, outpatient, inpatient and blood bank services, non-communicable diseases and road traffic accidents (RTAs). Analysis was done using Stata version 14.0 software package. The effects of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic were calculated taking the differences between post COVID -19 and pre COVID-19 periods and the levels of service disruptions presented using proportions. Wilcoxon sign rank test was done and a significance level of ≤0.05 was considered as having significant difference among the two quarters. RESULTS: There were significant increase in institutional delivery, delivery by Caesarian Section (CS), still birth, postnatal care within 7 days of delivery, the number of children who received all vaccine doses before 1st birthday, the number of under 5 children screened and had moderate acute malnutrition, the number of under 5 children screened and had severe acute malnutrition and children with SAM admitted for management. However, there were significant decrease in HIV testing and detection along with enrolment to antiretroviral therapy (ART) care, number of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk ≥ 30% received treatment, RTAs, total units of blood received from national blood transfusion service (NBTS) and regional blood banks, total number of units of blood transfused and emergency referral. There were no significant changes in outpatient visits and admissions. CONCLUSION: Despite commendable achievements in maintaining several of the essential health services, COVID-19 has led to an increase in under nutrition in under five children, decline in HIV detection and care, CVD, cervical cancer screening and blood bank services. Therefore, governments, local and international agencies need to introduce innovative ways to rapidly expand and deliver services in the context of COVID-19. Moreover, lower income countries have to customize comprehensive and coordinated community-based health care approaches, including outreach and campaigns. In addition, countries should ensure that NCDs are incorporated in their national COVID-19 response plans to provide essential health care services to people living with NCDs and HIV or HIV-TB co-infection during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Ethiopia , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pandemics , Postnatal Care , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 134, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359429

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has challenged health systems around the world. This study was designed to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 infection, the common clinical features at presentation and the pregnancy outcome at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Edo State, Nigeria. METHODS: a cross-sectional analytical study of all confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection from April to September 2020. RESULTS: out of 69 suspected cases that were tested, 19 (28.4%) were confirmed with COVID-19 infection. The common presenting complaints were fever (68.4 %), cough (57.9 %), sore throat (31.6%), malaise (42.1%), loss of taste (26.3%), anosmia (21.1%), and difficulty with breathing (10.6%). In terms of treatment outcome, 57.9% delivered while 36.8% recovered with pregnancy on-going, and 1 (5.3%) maternal death. Of the 11 women who delivered, 45.4% had vaginal deliveries and 54.6 % had Caesarean section. The mean birth weight was 3.1kg and most of the neonates (81.8%) had normal Apgar scores at birth. There was 1 perinatal death from prematurity, birth asphyxia, and intrauterine growth restriction. The commonest diagnosed co-morbidity of pregnancy was preeclampsia and it was significantly associated with severe COVID-19 disease requiring oxygen supplementation (P = 0.028). CONCLUSION: the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 in pregnancy are similar to those described in the non-pregnant population. It did not seem to worsen the maternal or foetal pregnancy outcome. The occurrence of preeclampsia is significantly associated with severe COVID-19 infection requiring respiratory support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Death/statistics & numerical data , Nigeria , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
11.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 304(3): 679-686, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248724

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 has captured the world. We hypothesized that this pandemic reduced referral of other non-COVID-19 patients to the hospitals or clinics, including gynecological and perinatological referrals. Women can be at risk in limited use of health services. METHODS: In this retrospective study, referrals from gynecologic oncology, perinatology, and gynecology clinics in a large teaching hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) were compared from February 20 to May 20, 2020, with the same period in 2019. Finally, referral trends in 2020 were compared with the COVID-19 admission pattern. RESULTS: Total admissions to all three clinics declined 63% in 2020 compared to 2019. There was a significant relationship between the number of visits to three clinics during these2  years (p < 0.001). The reduction in referrals to the gynecology clinic was more than gynecologic oncology and perinatology. The COVID-19 referral pattern was conversely linked to gynecology-related admissions. CONCLUSION: As the pandemic situation makes patients hesitant to go to the hospitals or not, health policymakers should consider other non-COVID issues, including maternal and fetal concerns. Providing safe places for other patients to visit is a goal that can be achieved through developing guidelines for nosocomial hygiene and training informed healthcare staff. Moreover, non-urgent visits should be avoided or postponed. This issue calls for new strategies, including telemedicine in situations similar to the current pandemic to both identify and manage such conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Genital Neoplasms, Female/epidemiology , Gynecology/statistics & numerical data , Perinatology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Maternity/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Obstetrics/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 60(3): 458-462, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208620

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women with Covid-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This case series study was performed to investigate demographic, clinical and obstetric characteristics of 26 pregnant women with COVID-19 referring to a university hospital of Kashan during the epidemic of COVID-19 (March to May 2020). RESULTS: The mean gestational age of the patients at admission and delivery was 31.8 ± 5.2 and 36.3 ± 3.4 weeks, respectively. The most common symptoms were fever (96.2%) followed by dyspnea and cough (30.8%). The findings of lung CT scan showed abnormalities confirming the pneumonia in 22 patients (84.6%). Cesarean section was performed in 69.2% of the mothers. The most common maternal-fetal outcome was preterm delivery (38%). Two mothers were transferred to the ICU due to deterioration in clinical condition and they underwent mechanical ventilation without any maternal death. The most common neonatal outcomes were prematurity (38%) and low birth weight (34.6%). No cases of confirmed COVID-19 were observed in the neonates. CONCLUSION: Clinical manifestations and laboratory and radiographic findings in pregnant women with COVID-19 are similar to the general population. Common outcomes of pregnancy and delivery in mothers included increased rate of preterm delivery and cesarean section. The most prevalent neonatal outcomes included prematurity and LBW. Careful monitoring of pregnant women with COVID-19 is recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/virology
13.
Ginekol Pol ; 92(5): 387-391, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207898

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is an unusual phenomenon in the modern obstetric and midwifery history. Hospital staff from the isolation wards were trained in the safety and proper use of the hazardous materials suit and the proper managing of the biohazard materials. We were not expecting the situation, so we started to create more restrictions than facilities for mothers giving birth. In the context of infection risk for the fetus, scientists still search for vertical transmission evidence, but available data are ambiguous, and more research is needed. Concerning the infant safety and to minimalize the infection risk for medical teams, the first Polish guidelines published by the national consultants in obstetrics, midwifery, neonatology, and perinatology regarding the safest formula of birth were as the following: in the case of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, the cesarean section for epidemic indications should be considered, except in an advanced or rapid labor. In the lately updated consensus (14th May), it was written that because the risk of vertical and intranatal SARS-CoV-2 transmission seemed to be low, the SARS-CoV-2 infection was not the main indication to perform cesarean section for any longer. Regardless of the birth formula, the newborns are separated from their mothers immediately after the labor in Polish obstetrician hospitals. The Polish Lactation Study Centre, consociating International Breastfeeding Certified Lactation Consultant, recommends feeding the newborn with its own mother's milk, even if she is infected with SARS-CoV-2 and isolated from her infant.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Humans , Infant , Poland/epidemiology , Postnatal Care/standards , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(6): 881-891, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201551

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: High maternal and neonatal mortality rates in developing regions like Pakistan are linked to low rates of institutional deliveries. One way to improve rates of institutional deliveries is through improving institutional delivery service satisfaction in women. The aim of this research is to identify which factors influence delivery service satisfaction during the period of COVID-19 and which socio-demographic characteristics of women are associated with greater fear of catching COVID-19 during institutional deliveries. METHODS: A total of 190 women who had given birth between May to June, 2020, were sampled from two private and two public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. A standardized tool was modified for use and a combination of descriptive statistics and multivariate regression was applied. RESULTS: The results reveal that a majority of women, at 74.7%, are afraid of contracting COVID-19; specifically, women delivering at public hospitals, those who are illiterate or semi-literate, with more than four children, with low household income, and who are unemployed. Regression models are used to identify factors related to higher satisfaction, including the following: (i) pre-delivery care (explanatory power of R2 = 0.651); (ii) during delivery care (R2 = 0.716); (iii) after delivery care for women (R2 = 0.525); and (iv) after delivery care for newborn (R2 = 0.780). The main areas which influence satisfaction include the following: service quality of staff and administration; maintenance of hygiene and sanitation; involvement in decision-making; provision of necessary information; and advice for breastfeeding, immunization and family planning. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: Based on our findings, we recommend improved regulation of delivery services in both public and private hospitals and increased protection for disadvantaged women groups to maintain service quality during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Child Health , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Health , Personal Satisfaction , Adult , Female , Humans , Pakistan , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217523, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198345

ABSTRACT

Importance: The incidence of mother-to-newborn SARS-CoV-2 transmission appears low and may be associated with biological and social factors. However, data are limited on the factors associated with neonatal clinical or viral testing outcomes. Objective: To ascertain the percentage of neonates who were born to mothers with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results during the birth hospitalization, the clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with neonatal test result positivity, and the clinical and virological outcomes for newborns during hospitalization and 30 days after discharge. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study included 11 academic or community hospitals in Massachusetts and mother-neonate dyads whose delivery and discharge occurred between March 1, 2020, and July 31, 2020. Eligible dyads were identified at each participating hospital through local COVID-19 surveillance and infection control systems. Neonates were born to mothers with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results within 14 days before to 72 hours after delivery, and neonates were followed up for 30 days after birth hospital discharge. Exposures: Hypothesized maternal risk factors in neonatal test result positivity included maternal COVID-19 symptoms, vaginal delivery, rooming-in practice, Black race or Hispanic ethnicity, and zip code-derived social vulnerability index. Delivery indicated by worsening maternal COVID-19 symptoms was hypothesized to increase the risk of adverse neonatal health outcomes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes for neonates were (1) positive SARS-CoV-2 test results, (2) indicators of adverse health, and (3) clinical signs and viral testing. Test result positivity was defined as at least 1 positive result on a specimen obtained by nasopharyngeal swab using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. Clinical and testing data were obtained from electronic medical records of nonroutine health care visits within 30 days after hospital discharge. Results: The cohort included 255 neonates (mean [SD] gestational age at birth, 37.9 [2.6] weeks; 62 [24.3%] with low birth weight or preterm delivery) with 250 mothers (mean [SD] age, 30.4 [6.3] years; 121 [48.4%] were of Hispanic ethnicity). Of the 255 neonates who were born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 225 (88.2%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and 5 (2.2%) had positive results during the birth hospitalization. High maternal social vulnerability was associated with higher likelihood of neonatal test result positivity (adjusted odds ratio, 4.95; 95% CI, 1.53-16.01; P = .008), adjusted for maternal COVID-19 symptoms, delivery mode, and rooming-in practice. Adverse outcomes during hospitalization were associated with preterm delivery indicated by worsening maternal COVID-19 symptoms. Of the 151 newborns with follow-up data, 28 had nonroutine clinical visits, 7 underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing, and 1 had a positive result. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings emphasize the importance of both biological and social factors in perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection outcomes. Newborns exposed to SARS-CoV-2 were at risk for both direct and indirect adverse health outcomes, supporting efforts of ongoing surveillance of the virus and long-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Delivery, Obstetric , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Socioeconomic Factors
16.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 150(1): 41-46, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few case reports and clinical series exist on pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 who delivered. OBJECTIVE: To review the available information on mode of delivery, vertical/peripartum transmission, and neonatal outcome in pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2. SEARCH STRATEGY: Combination of the following key words: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, and pregnancy in Embase and PubMed databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: Papers reporting cases of women infected with SARS-CoV-2 who delivered. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The following was extracted: author; country; number of women; study design; gestational age at delivery; selected clinical maternal data; mode of delivery; selected neonatal outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: In the 13 studies included, vaginal delivery was reported in 6 cases (9.4%; 95% CI, 3.5-19.3). Indication for cesarean delivery was worsening of maternal conditions in 31 cases (48.4%; 95% CI, 35.8-61.3). Two newborns testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time RT-PCR assay were reported. In three neonates, SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM levels were elevated but the RT-PCR test was negative. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of vertical or peripartum transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is low, if any, for cesarean delivery; no data are available for vaginal delivery. Low frequency of spontaneous preterm birth and general favorable immediate neonatal outcome are reassuring.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , COVID-19 , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 150(1): 47-52, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical presentation and outcomes of COVID-19 infection during pregnancy remain limited and fragmented. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the existing literature on COVID-19 infection during pregnancy and childbirth, particularly concerning clinical presentation and outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: A systematic search of LitCovid, EBSCO MEDLINE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus electronic databases. The references of relevant studies were also searched. SELECTION CRITERIA: Identified titles and abstracts were screened to select original reports and cross-checked for overlap of cases. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: A descriptive summary organized by aspects of clinical presentations (symptoms, imaging, and laboratory) and outcomes (maternal and perinatal). MAIN RESULTS: We identified 33 studies reporting 385 pregnant women with COVID-19 infection: 368 (95.6%) mild; 14 (3.6%) severe; and 3 (0.8%) critical. Seventeen women were admitted to intensive care, including six who were mechanically ventilated and one maternal mortality. A total of 252 women gave birth, comprising 175 (69.4%) cesarean and 77 (30.6%) vaginal births. Outcomes for 256 newborns included four RT-PCR positive neonates, two stillbirths, and one neonatal death. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection during pregnancy probably has a clinical presentation and severity resembling that in non-pregnant adults. It is probably not associated with poor maternal or perinatal outcomes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Parturition , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e215854, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182077

ABSTRACT

Importance: Ensuring access to prenatal care services in the US is challenging, and implementation of telehealth options was limited before the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in vulnerable populations, given the regulatory requirements for video visit technology. Objective: To explore the association of audio-only virtual prenatal care with perinatal outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study compared perinatal outcomes of women who delivered between May 1 and October 31, 2019 (n = 6559), and received in-person prenatal visits only with those who delivered between May 1 and October 31, 2020 (n = 6048), when audio-only virtual visits were integrated into prenatal care during the COVID-19 pandemic, as feasible based on pregnancy complications. Parkland Health and Hospital System in Dallas, Texas, provides care to the vulnerable obstetric population of the county via a high-volume prenatal clinic system and public maternity hospital. All deliveries of infants weighing more than 500 g, whether live or stillborn, were included. Exposures: Prenatal care incorporating audio-only prenatal care visits. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of placental abruption, stillbirth, neonatal intensive care unit admission in a full-term (≥37 weeks) infant, and umbilical cord blood pH less than 7.0. Visit data, maternal characteristics, and other perinatal outcomes were also examined. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 6559 women who delivered in 2019 was 27.8 (6.4) years, and the age of the 6048 women who delivered in 2020 was 27.7 (6.5) years (P = .38). Of women delivering in 2020, 1090 (18.0%) were non-Hispanic Black compared with 1067 (16.3%) in 2019 (P = .04). In the 2020 cohort, 4067 women (67.2%) attended at least 1 and 1216 women (20.1%) attended at least 3 audio-only virtual prenatal visits. Women who delivered in 2020 attended a greater mean (SD) number of prenatal visits compared with women who delivered in 2019 (9.8 [3.4] vs 9.4 [3.8] visits; P < .001). In the 2020 cohort, 173 women (2.9%) experienced the composite outcome, which was not significantly different than the 195 women (3.0%) in 2019 (P = .71). In addition, the rate of the composite outcome did not differ substantially when examined according to the number of audio-only virtual visits attended. Conclusions and Relevance: Implementation of audio-only virtual prenatal visits was not associated with changes in perinatal outcomes and increased prenatal visit attendance in a vulnerable population during the COVID-19 pandemic when used in a risk-appropriate model.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prenatal Care/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Texas/epidemiology
19.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 8(1)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 on pregnant inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients is currently unknown. Reconfiguration of services during the pandemic may negatively affect medical and obstetric care. We aimed to examine the impacts on IBD antenatal care and pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective data were recorded in consecutive patients attending for IBD antenatal care including outpatient appointments, infusion unit visits and advice line encounters. RESULTS: We included 244 pregnant women with IBD, of which 75 (30.7%) were on biologics in whom the treatment was stopped in 29.3% at a median 28 weeks gestation. In addition, 9% of patients were on corticosteroids and 21.5% continued on thiopurines. The care provided during 460 patient encounters was not affected by the pandemic in 94.1% but 68.2% were performed via telephone (compared with 3% prepandemic practice; p<0.0001). One-hundred-ten women delivered 111 alive babies (mean 38.2 weeks gestation, mean birth weight 3324 g) with 12 (11.0%) giving birth before week 37. Birth occurred by vaginal delivery in 72 (56.4%) and by caesarean section in 48 (43.6%) cases. Thirty-three were elective (12 for IBD indications) and 15 emergency caesarean sections. Breast feeding rates were low (38.6%). Among 244 pregnant women with IBD, 1 suspected COVID-19 infection was recorded. CONCLUSION: IBD antenatal care adjustments during the COVID-19 pandemic have not negatively affected patient care. Despite high levels of immunosuppression, only a single COVID-19 infection occurred. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were infrequent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Allopurinol/analogs & derivatives , Allopurinol/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Withholding Treatment
20.
BJOG ; 128(5): 908-915, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that delayed cord clamping (DCC) is safe in mothers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective observational study involving epidemiological information from 403 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 between 1 March and 31 May 2020. Data were collected from 70 centres that participate in the Spanish Registry of COVID-19. METHODS: Patients' information was collected from their medical chart. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The rate of perinatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and development of the infection in neonates within 14 days postpartum. RESULTS: The early cord clamping (ECC) group consisted of 231 infants (57.3%) and the DCC group consisted of 172 infants (42.7%). Five positive newborns (1.7% of total tests performed) were identified with the nasopharyngeal PCR tests performed in the first 12 hours postpartum, two from the ECC group (1.7%) and three from the DCC group (3.6%). No significant differences between groups were found regarding neonatal tests for SARS-CoV-2. No confirmed cases of vertical transmission were detected. The percentage of mothers who made skin-to-skin contact within the first 24 hours after delivery was significantly higher in the DCC group (84.3% versus 45.9%). Breastfeeding in the immediate postpartum period was also significantly higher in the DCC group (77.3% versus 50.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study show no differences in perinatal outcomes when performing ECC or DCC, and skin-to-skin contact, or breastfeeding. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: This study demonstrates that delayed cord clamping is safe in mothers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Constriction , Delivery, Obstetric , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Umbilical Cord/surgery , Adult , Breast Feeding/methods , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Kangaroo-Mother Care Method/methods , Kangaroo-Mother Care Method/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment
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