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1.
Arch Virol ; 167(11): 2249-2262, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075433

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an enteric virus that was first identified in 2012. Although PDCoV has been detected worldwide, there is little information about its circulation in western China. In this study, fecal samples were collected from piglets with watery diarrhea in western China between 2015 and 2018 for the detection of PDCoV. The positive rate was 29.9%. A PDCoV strain (CHN/CQ/BN23/2016, BN23) was isolated and selected for further investigation. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this strain formed an individual cluster between the early Chinese lineage and the Chinese lineage. RDP4 and SimPlot analysis demonstrated that strain BN23 is a recombinant of Thailand/S5015L/2015 and CHN-AH-2004. The pathogenicity of BN23 was evaluated in 3-day-old piglets. Challenged piglets developed serious clinical signs and died at 3 days post-inoculation. Our data show that PDCoV is prevalent in western China and that strain BN23 is highly pathogenic to newborn piglets. Therefore, more attention should be paid to emerging PDCoV strains in western China.


Subject(s)
Deltacoronavirus , Animals , China , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Deltacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Diarrhea/veterinary , Genomics , Phylogeny , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Virulence
2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e2443-e2455, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053020

ABSTRACT

The porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly discovered pig enteric coronavirus that can infect cells from various species. In Haiti, PDCoV infections in children with acute undifferentiated febrile fever were recently reported. Considering the great potential of inter-species transmission of PDCoV, we performed a comprehensive analysis of codon usage patterns and host adaptation profiles of 54 representative PDCoV strains with the spike (S) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the PDCoV S gene indicates that the PDCoV strains can be divided into five genogroups. We found a certain codon usage bias existed in the S gene, in which the synonymous codons are often ended with U or A. Heat map analysis revealed that all the PDCoV strains shared a similar codon usage trend. The PDCoV S gene with a dN/dS ratio lower than 1 reveals a negative selection on the PDCoV S gene. Neutrality analysis showed that natural selection is the dominant force in shaping the codon usage bias of the PDCoV S gene. Unexpectedly, host adaptation analysis reveals a higher adaptation level of PDCoV to Homo sapiens and Gallus gallus than to Sus scrofa. Compared to the USA lineage, the PDCoV strains in the Early China lineage and Thailand lineage were less adapted to their hosts, which indicates that the evolutionary process plays an important role in the adaptation ability of PDCoV. These findings of this study add to our understanding of PDCoV's evolution, adaptability, and inter-species transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Swine Diseases , Animals , Codon/genetics , Codon Usage , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus , Genome, Viral/genetics , Phylogeny , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
4.
Virulence ; 13(1): 1471-1485, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017508

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging enteropathogen causing severe diarrhoea, dehydration, and death in nursing piglets and enormous economic losses for the global swine industry. Furthermore, it can infect multiple animal species including humans. Therefore, a rapid, definitive diagnostic assay is required for the effective control of this zoonotic pathogen. To identify PDCoV, we developed a nucleic acid detection assay combining reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification (RT-RAA) with a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) targeting the highly conserved genomic region in the ORF1b gene. The RT-RAA-LFD assay exhibited good PDCoV detection reproducibility and repeatability and could be completed within 11 min. Ten minutes at 40 °C was required for nucleic acid amplification and 1 min at room temperature was needed for the visual LFD readout. The assay specifically detected PDCoV and did not cross-react with any other major swine pathogens. The 95% limit of detection (LOD) was 3.97 median tissue culture infectious dose PDCoV RNA per reaction. This performance was comparable to that of a reference TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR (trRT-PCR) assay for PDCoV. Of 149 swine small intestine, rectal swab, and serum samples, 71 and 75 tested positive for PDCoV according to RT-RAA-LFD and trRT-PCR, respectively. The diagnostic coincidence rate for both assays was 97.32% (145/149) and the kappa value was 0.946 (p < 0.001). Overall, the RT-RAA-LFD assay is a user-friendly diagnostic tool that can rapidly and visually detect PDCoV.


Subject(s)
Nucleic Acids , Recombinases , Animals , Deltacoronavirus , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Recombinases/genetics , Recombinases/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcription , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine
5.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010308

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging enteropathogen which mainly causes diarrhea, dehydration and death in nursing piglets, threatening the global swine industry. Moreover, it can infect multiple animal species and humans. Hence, reliable diagnostic assays are needed to better control this zoonotic pathogen. Here, a blocking ELISA was developed using a recombinant nucleocapsid (N) protein as the coating antigen paired with an N-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) as the detection antibody. The percent inhibition (PI) of the ELISA was determined using 384 swine serum samples, with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) as the reference method. Through receiver operating characteristic analysis in conjunction with Youden's index, the optimal PI cut-off value was determined to be 51.65%, which corresponded to a diagnostic sensitivity of 98.79% and a diagnostic specificity of 100%. Of the 330 serum samples tested positive via IFA, 326 and 4 were tested positive and negative via the ELISA, respectively, while the 54 serum samples tested negative via IFA were all negative via the ELISA. The overall coincidence rate between the two assays was 98.96% (380/384). The ELISA exhibited good repeatability and did not cross-react with antisera against other swine pathogens. Overall, this is the first report on developing a blocking ELISA for PDCoV serodiagnosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Swine
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006045

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the 21st century, humans have experienced three coronavirus pandemics, all of which were transmitted to humans via animals. Recent studies have found that porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) can infect humans, so swine enteric coronavirus (SeCoV) may cause harm through cross-species transmission. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and PDCoV have caused tremendous damage and loss to the pig industry around the world. Therefore, we analyzed the genome sequence data of these two SeCoVs by evolutionary dynamics and phylogeography, revealing the genetic diversity and spatiotemporal distribution characteristics. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis showed that TGEV could be divided into two different genotypes, and PDCoV could be divided into four main lineages. Based on the analysis results inferred by phylogeography, we inferred that TGEV might originate from America, PDCoV might originate from Asia, and different migration events had different migration rates. In addition, we also identified positive selection sites of spike protein in TGEV and PDCoV, indicating that the above sites play an essential role in promoting membrane fusion to achieve adaptive evolution. In a word, TGEV and PDCoV are the past and future of SeCoV, and the relatively smooth transmission rate of TGEV and the increasing transmission events of PDCoV are their respective transmission characteristics. Our results provide new insights into the evolutionary characteristics and transmission diversity of these SeCoVs, highlighting the potential for cross-species transmission of SeCoV and the importance of enhanced surveillance and biosecurity measures for SeCoV in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Swine Diseases , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Deltacoronavirus , Humans , Phylogeography , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/genetics
7.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987997

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a recently discovered enteropathogenic coronavirus and has caused significant economic impacts on the pork industry. Although studies have partly uncovered the molecular mechanism of PDCoV-host interaction, it requires further research. In this study, we explored the roles of Stromal Antigen 2 (STAG2) in PDCoV infection. We found that STAG2-deficient cells inhibited infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and PDCoV, whereas restoration of STAG2 expression in STAG2-depleted (STAG2-/-) IPEC-J2 cells line restored PDCoV infection, suggesting that STAG2 is involved in the PDCoV replication. Furthermore, we found that STAG2 deficiency results in robust interferon (IFN) expression. Subsequently, we found that STAG2 deficiency results in the activation of JAK-STAT signaling and the expression of IFN stimulated gene (ISG), which establish an antiviral state. Taken together, the depletion of STAG2 activates the JAK-STAT signaling and induces the expression of ISG, thereby inhibiting PDCoV replication. Our study provides new insights and potential therapeutic targets for unraveling the mechanism of PDCoV replication.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Coronavirus/physiology , Deltacoronavirus , Interferons/metabolism , Swine
8.
Microb Pathog ; 170: 105723, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983663

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emenging swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that can cause high mortality rate. It affects pigs of all ages, but most several in neonatal piglets. Little is known regarding the pathogenicity of PDCoV against 27-day-old piglets. In this study, 27-day-old piglets were experimentally infected with PDCoV CZ2020 from cell culture, the challenged piglets do not have obvious symptoms from 1 to 7 days post-challenge (DPC), while viral shedding was detected in rectal swab at 1 DPC. Tissues of small intestines displayed slight macroscopic and microscopic lesions with no viral antigen detection. On the other hand, 27-day-old piglets were infected with PDCoV from intestinal contents, the piglets developed mild to severe diarrhea, shedding increasing from 2 to 7 DPC, and developed macroscopic and microscopic lesions in small intestines with clear viral antigen confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. Indicating the small intestine was still the major target organ in PDCoV-challenged pigs at the age of 27-day-old. Diarrhea caused by PDCoV from intestinal contents in 27-day-old piglets is less reported. Thus, our results might provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PDCoV.


Subject(s)
Swine Diseases , Animals , Cell Culture Techniques , Deltacoronavirus , Diarrhea/pathology , Gastrointestinal Contents , Swine , Virulence
9.
J Virol ; 96(16): e0102722, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973796

ABSTRACT

Protein acetylation plays an important role during virus infection. Thus, it is not surprising that viruses always evolve elaborate mechanisms to regulate the functions of histone deacetylases (HDACs), the essential transcriptional and epigenetic regulators for deacetylation. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe diarrhea in suckling piglets and has the potential to infect humans. In this study, we found that PDCoV infection inhibited cellular HDAC activity. By screening the expressions of different HDAC subfamilies after PDCoV infection, we unexpectedly found that HDAC2 was cleaved. Ectopic expression of HDAC2 significantly inhibited PDCoV replication, while the reverse effects could be observed after treatment with an HDAC2 inhibitor (CAY10683) or the knockdown of HDAC2 expression by specific siRNA. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PDCoV-encoded nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5), a 3C-like protease, was responsible for HDAC2 cleavage through its protease activity. Detailed analyses showed that PDCoV nsp5 cleaved HDAC2 at glutamine 261 (Q261), and the cleaved fragments (amino acids 1 to 261 and 262 to 488) lost the ability to inhibit PDCoV replication. Interestingly, the Q261 cleavage site is highly conserved in HDAC2 homologs from other mammalian species, and the nsp5s encoded by seven tested mammalian coronaviruses also cleaved HDAC2, suggesting that cleaving HDAC2 may be a common strategy used by different mammalian coronaviruses to antagonize the antiviral role of HDAC2. IMPORTANCE As an emerging porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus that possesses the potential to infect humans, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is receiving increasing attention. In this work, we found that PDCoV infection downregulated cellular histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Of particular interest, the viral 3C-like protease, encoded by the PDCoV nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5), cleaved HDAC2, and this cleavage could be observed in the context of PDCoV infection. Furthermore, the cleavage of HDAC2 appears to be a common strategy among mammalian coronaviruses, including the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), to antagonize the antiviral role of HDAC2. To our knowledge, PDCoV nsp5 is the first identified viral protein that can cleave cellular HDAC2. Results from our study provide new targets to develop drugs combating coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deltacoronavirus/metabolism , Histone Deacetylase 2/metabolism , Swine Diseases , Animals , Humans , Mammals , Peptide Hydrolases , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology
10.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 5723-5738, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971295

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that causes diarrhea in suckling piglets and has the potential for cross-species transmission, posing a threat to animal and human health. However, the susceptibility profile of different species of mice to PDCoV infection and its evolutionary characteristics are still unclear. In the current study, we found that BALB/c and Kunming mice are susceptible to PDCoV. Our results showed that there were obvious lesions in intestinal and lung tissues from the infected mice. PDCoV RNAs were detected in the lung, kidney, and intestinal tissues from the infected mice of both strains, and there existed wider tissue tropism in the PDCoV-infected BALB/c mice. The RNA and protein levels of aminopeptidase N from mice were relatively high in the kidney and intestinal tissues and obviously increased after PDCoV infection. The viral-specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies against PDCoV were detected in the serum of infected mice. An interesting finding was that two key amino acid mutations, D138H and Q641K, in the S protein were identified in the PDCoV-infected mice. The essential roles of these two mutations for PDCoV-adaptive evolution were confirmed by cryo-electron microscope structure model analysis. The evolutionary characteristics of PDCoV among Deltacoronaviruses (δ-CoVs) were further analyzed. δ-CoVs from multiple mammals are closely related based on the phylogenetic analysis. The codon usage analysis demonstrated that similar codon usage patterns were used by most of the mammalian δ-CoVs at the global codon, synonymous codon, and amino acid usage levels. These results may provide more insights into the evolution, host ranges, and cross-species potential of PDCoV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Swine Diseases , Amino Acids , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , CD13 Antigens/genetics , CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Deltacoronavirus , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Phylogeny , RNA , Swine
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 271: 109494, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886124

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus that has the potential for cross-species infection. Many viruses have been reported to induce endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and activate the unfolded protein response (UPR). To date, little is known about whether and, if so, how the UPR is activated by PDCoV infection. Here, we investigated the activation state of UPR pathways and their effects on viral replication during PDCoV infection. We found that PDCoV infection induced ERS and activated all three known UPR pathways (inositol-requiring enzyme 1 [IRE1], activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], and PKR-like ER kinase [PERK]), as demonstrated by IRE1-mediated XBP1 mRNA cleavage and increased mRNA expression of XBP1s, ATF4, CHOP, GADD34, GRP78, and GRP94, as well as phosphorylated eIF2α expression. Through pharmacologic treatment, RNA interference, and overexpression experiments, we confirmed the negative role of the PERK-eIF2α pathway and the positive regulatory role of the ATF6 pathway, but found no obvious effect of IRE1 pathway, on PDCoV replication. Taken together, our results characterize, for the first time, the state of the ERS response during PDCoV infection and identify the PERK and ATF6 pathways as potential antiviral targets.


Subject(s)
Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Unfolded Protein Response , Animals , Deltacoronavirus , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Swine , eIF-2 Kinase/genetics , eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism
12.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884381

ABSTRACT

Avian species often serve as transmission vectors and sources of recombination for viral infections due to their ability to travel vast distances and their gregarious behaviors. Recently a novel deltacoronavirus (DCoV) was identified in sparrows. Sparrow deltacoronavirus (SpDCoV), coupled with close contact between sparrows and swine carrying porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) may facilitate recombination of DCoVs resulting in novel CoV variants. We hypothesized that the spike (S) protein or receptor-binding domain (RBD) from sparrow coronaviruses (SpCoVs) may enhance infection in poultry. We used recombinant chimeric viruses, which express S protein or the RBD of SpCoV (icPDCoV-SHKU17, and icPDCoV-RBDISU) on the genomic backbone of an infectious clone of PDCoV (icPDCoV). Chimeric viruses were utilized to infect chicken derived DF-1 cells, turkey poults, and embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) to examine permissiveness, viral replication kinetics, pathogenesis and pathology. We demonstrated that DF-1 cells in addition to the positive control LLC-PK1 cells are susceptible to SpCoV spike- and RBD- recombinant chimeric virus infections. However, the replication of chimeric viruses in DF-1 cells, but not LLC-PK1 cells, was inefficient. Inoculated 8-day-old turkey poults appeared resistant to icPDCoV-, icPDCoV-SHKU17- and icPDCoV-RBDISU virus infections. In 5-day-old ECEs, significant mortality was observed in PDCoV inoculated eggs with less in the spike chimeras, while in 11-day-old ECEs there was no evidence of viral replication, suggesting that PDCoV is better adapted to cross species infection and differentiated ECE cells are not susceptible to PDCoV infection. Collectively, we demonstrate that the SpCoV chimeric viruses are not more infectious in turkeys, nor ECEs than wild type PDCoV. Therefore, understanding the cell and host factors that contribute to resistance to PDCoV and avian-swine chimeric virus infections may aid in the design of novel antiviral therapies against DCoVs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Sparrows , Swine Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Poultry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine , Turkeys
13.
Vaccine ; 40(31): 4211-4219, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882606

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that causes diarrhea in pigs of various ages, especially in suckling piglets, and there are no effective measures to prevent and control PDCoV currently. In this study, two adjuvants Al(OH)3 and ODN2395 working through different mechanisms were used to prepare inactivated PDCoV vaccines, and the immune effects of PDCoV inactivated vaccines were assessed in mice. From the results, we found that both PDCoV/Al(OH)3 vaccine and PDCoV/2395 vaccine could induce IgG and neutralizing antibodies with high levels in mice. At the same time, cytokines of IFN-γ, IL-4 and chemokine ligand of CXCL13 in serum were significantly increased after immunization, and reached the highest levels in PDCoV/2395 vaccine group, which suggested that PDCoV/2395 could promote the production of both Th1 and Th2 polarized cytokines. In addition, histopathological observations showed that vaccination helped mice resist PDCoV infection. These results indicated that both the two inactivated vaccines have good immune effects. Moreover, the PDCoV/2395 vaccine worked better than the PDCoV/Al(OH)3 vaccine for PDCoV/2395 having the good ability to induce both humoral and cellular immunogenicity. The PDCoV/2395 inactivated vaccine developed in this study might be an effective tool for the prevention of PDCoV infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Swine Diseases , Animals , Cytokines , Deltacoronavirus , Mice , Swine , Vaccines, Inactivated
14.
Arch Virol ; 167(8): 1649-1657, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877845

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) have often been detected simultaneously in piglets with coronavirus diarrhea. However, the intestinal immune response to the interaction between circulating PDCoV and PEDV is unknown. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the intestinal immunity of neonatal piglets that were exposed first to PDCoV and then to PEDV. The amounts and distribution of CD3+ T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and goblet cells (GCs) in the small intestine were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and periodic acid-Schiff staining, respectively. The expression levels of pattern recognition receptors and downstream mediator cytokines were analyzed by qPCR and ELISA. The results showed that the numbers of GCs, CD3+ T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes in the duodenum and jejunum of the PDCoV + PEDV coinoculated piglets were increased compared with those of piglets inoculated with PEDV alone. The piglets in the PDCoV + PEDV group had significantly upregulated IFN-α and IFN-λ1 compared with the PEDV single-inoculated piglets. These results suggest that PDCoV + PEDV-coinfected piglets can activate intestinal antiviral immunity more strongly than piglets infected with PEDV alone, which provides new insight into the pathogenesis mechanism of swine enteric coronavirus coinfection that may be used for vaccination in the future.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Deltacoronavirus , Diarrhea/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine
15.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810319

ABSTRACT

We were interested in reading an article published by Wang et al. [...].


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Deltacoronavirus , Animals , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Swine
16.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810315

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) mainly causes severe diarrhea and intestinal pathological damage in piglets and poses a serious threat to pig farms. Currently, no effective reagents or vaccines are available to control PDCoV infection. Single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies can effectively inhibit virus infection and may be a potential therapeutic reagent for PDCoV treatment. In this study, a porcine phage display antibody library from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of piglets infected with PDCoV was constructed and used to select PDCoV-specific scFv. The library was screened with four rounds of biopanning using the PDCoV N protein, and the colony with the highest affinity to the PDCoV N protein was obtained (namely, N53). Then, the N53-scFv gene fragment was cloned into plasmid pFUSE-hIgG-Fc2 and expressed in HEK-293T cells. The scFv-Fc antibody N53 (namely, scFv N53) was purified using Protein A-sepharose. The reactive activity of the purified antibody with the PDCoV N protein was confirmed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Finally, the antigenic epitopes that the scFv N53 recognized were identified by a series of truncated PDCoV N proteins. The amino acid residues 82GELPPNDTPATTRVT96 of the PDCoV N protein were verified as the minimal epitope that can be recognized by the scFv-Fc antibody N53. In addition, the interaction between the scFv-Fc antibody N53 and the PDCoV N protein was further analyzed by molecule docking. In conclusion, our research provides some references for the treatment and prevention of PDCoV.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , Coronavirus Infections , Single-Chain Antibodies , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Deltacoronavirus , Epitopes , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Single-Chain Antibodies/genetics , Swine , Technology
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760651

ABSTRACT

PDCoV is an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus that mainly causes acute diarrhea in piglets, seriously affecting pig breeding industries worldwide. To date, the molecular mechanisms of PDCoV-induced immune and inflammatory responses or host responses in LLC-PK cells in vitro are not well understood. HSP90 plays important roles in various viral infections. In this study, HSP90AB1 knockout cells (HSP90AB1KO) were constructed and a comparative transcriptomic analysis between PDCoV-infected HSP90AB1WT and HSP90AB1KO cells was conducted using RNA sequencing to explore the effect of HSP90AB1 on PDCoV infection. A total of 1295 and 3746 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in PDCoV-infected HSP90AB1WT and HSP90AB1KO cells, respectively. Moreover, most of the significantly enriched pathways were related to immune and inflammatory response-associated pathways upon PDCoV infection. The DEGs enriched in NF-κB pathways were specifically detected in HSP90AB1WT cells, and NF-κB inhibitors JSH-23, SC75741 and QNZ treatment reduced PDCoV infection. Further research revealed most cytokines associated with immune and inflammatory responses were upregulated during PDCoV infection. Knockout of HSP90AB1 altered the upregulated levels of some cytokines. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the host response to PDCoV infection from the transcriptome perspective, which will contribute to illustrating the molecular basis of the interaction between PDCoV and HSP90AB1.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus , Gene Expression Profiling , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Immunity/genetics , Swine Diseases/etiology , Transcriptome , Animals , Computational Biology/methods , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Gene Ontology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Swine
18.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1467, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751714

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) can experimentally infect a variety of animals. Human infection by PDCoV has also been reported. Consistently, PDCoV can use aminopeptidase N (APN) from different host species as receptors to enter cells. To understand this broad receptor usage and interspecies transmission of PDCoV, we determined the crystal structures of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of PDCoV spike protein bound to human APN (hAPN) and porcine APN (pAPN), respectively. The structures of the two complexes exhibit high similarity. PDCoV RBD binds to common regions on hAPN and pAPN, which are different from the sites engaged by two alphacoronaviruses: HCoV-229E and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCoV). Based on structure guided mutagenesis, we identified conserved residues on hAPN and pAPN that are essential for PDCoV binding and infection. We report the detailed mechanism for how a deltacoronavirus recognizes homologous receptors and provide insights into the cross-species transmission of PDCoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Animals , Deltacoronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Swine
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 264: 109299, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559479

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging porcine enteric coronavirus that causes severe diarrhea in piglets and results in serious economic losses. There are no effective vaccines and antiviral drugs to prevent and treat PDCoV infection currently. Griffithsin (GRFT) is a lectin with potent antiviral activity against enveloped viruses because of its ability to specifically bind N-linked high-mannose oligosaccharides. GRFT has been reported to possess antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Here, we first confirmed the antiviral activity of GRFT against PDCoV in vitro. The infected cells (%) and virus titers were significantly decreased at concentration 1 µg/mL or above of GRFT. Time-course experiments revealed that GRFT inhibits PDCoV infection at the adsorption and penetration step. GRFT binding to PDCoV spike (S) protein on the surface wraps the virus and blocks its entry. The outstanding antiviral potency indicates that GRFT has the potential value as a candidate drug for the prevention and treatment of PDCoV infection.


Subject(s)
Deltacoronavirus , Plant Lectins , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Culture Techniques/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus/drug effects , Plant Lectins/pharmacology , Swine , Swine Diseases/drug therapy
20.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555020

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that causes diarrhea in nursing piglets. Studies showed that PDCoV uses porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) as an entry receptor, but the infection of pAPN-knockout cells or pigs with PDCoV revealed that pAPN might be not a critical functional receptor, implying there exists an unidentified receptor involved in PDCoV infection. Herein, we report that sialic acid (SA) can act as an attachment receptor for PDCoV invasion and facilitate its infection. We first demonstrated that the carbohydrates destroyed on the cell membrane using NaIO4 can alleviate the susceptibility of cells to PDCoV. Further study showed that the removal of SA, a typical cell-surface carbohydrate, could influence the PDCoV infectivity to the cells significantly, suggesting that SA was involved in the infection. The results of plaque assay and Western blotting revealed that SA promoted PDCoV infection by increasing the number of viruses binding to SA on the cell surface during the adsorption phase, which was also confirmed by atomic force microscopy at the microscopic level. In in vivo experiments, we found that the distribution levels of PDCoV and SA were closely relevant in the swine intestine, which contains huge amount of trypsin. We further confirmed that SA-binding capacity to PDCoV is related to the pre-treatment of PDCoV with trypsin. In conclusion, SA is a novel attachment receptor for PDCoV infection to enhance its attachment to cells, which is dependent on the pre-treatment of trypsin on PDCoV. This study paves the way for dissecting the mechanisms of PDCoV-host interactions and provides new strategies to control PDCoV infection.


Subject(s)
Deltacoronavirus/physiology , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Trypsin/metabolism , Virus Attachment , Animals , Carbohydrates , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Membrane/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Deltacoronavirus/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Intestines/metabolism , Intestines/virology , Periodic Acid/pharmacology , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Trypsin/pharmacology
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