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1.
Trials ; 24(1): 316, 2023 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most people with dementia live in the community, not in residential care. Therefore, quality informal care for them is critical for managing behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Music therapy has been shown to reduce BPSD. However, no randomised controlled trial has examined the effects of music interventions delivered by caregivers in home settings. The HOME-based caregiver-delivered music intervention for people living with dementia (HOMESIDE) trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-week music intervention in addition to standard care for BPSD. This article describes the statistical analysis plan. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: HOMESIDE is a large, pragmatic international three-arm parallel-group randomised controlled trial. Dyads (persons with dementia and caregiver) in Australia, Germany, the UK, Poland and Norway were randomised to receive music and standard care, reading and standard care or standard care alone. The primary outcome is BPSD (proxy) of the person living with dementia, measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire (NPI-Q) at 90 and 180 days post-randomisation. Longitudinal analysis will compare NPI-Q severity between music and standard care versus standard care alone. Secondary outcomes include quality of life and depression (both person with dementia and caregiver), cognition (person with dementia only), distress, resilience, competence and caregiver-patient relationship (caregiver only). Treatment effects will be obtained at 90 and 180 days post-randomisation, where applicable. Safety outcomes (adverse events, hospitalisations, deaths) will be summarised. DISCUSSION: This statistical analysis plan provides a detailed methodology for the analysis of HOMESIDE and will improve the validity of the study and reduce the potential for bias. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12618001799246. Registered on November 05, 2018. CLINICALTRIALS: gov NCT03907748. Registered on April 09, 2019.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Music , Humans , Caregivers , Australia , Quality of Life , Reading , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy
2.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 93(3): 1033-1040, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is giving rise to seemingly unrelated clinical conditions long after the infection has resolved. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine whether COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of dementia including Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study is based on longitudinal data from the IQVIATM Disease Analyzer database and included patients aged≥65 with an initial diagnosis of COVID-19 or acute upper respiratory infection (AURI) from 1,293 general practitioner practices between January 2020 and November 2021. AURI patients were matched 1 : 1 with COVID-19 patients using propensity scores based on sex, age, index quarter, health insurance type, the number of doctor visits, and comorbidities associated with dementia risk. Incidence rates of newly-diagnosed dementia were calculated using the person-years method. Poisson regression models were used to compute the incidence rate ratios (IRR). RESULTS: The present study included 8,129 matched pairs (mean age 75.1 years, 58.9% females). After 12 months of follow-up, 1.84% of the COVID-19 patients and 1.78% of the AURI patients had been diagnosed with dementia. The Poisson regression model resulted in an IRR of 1.05 (95% CI: 0.85-1.29). CONCLUSION: This study did not find any association between COVID-19 infection and one-year dementia incidence after controlling for all common risk factors for dementia. Because dementia is a progressive disease, which can be difficult to diagnose, a longer follow-up period might offer a better insight into a possible association between COVID-19 infection and an increased incidence of dementia cases in the future.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Dementia , Female , Humans , Aged , Male , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/etiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Risk Factors
3.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0283818, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The need to improve support following a diagnosis of dementia is widely recognised, but it is unclear how this can best be achieved within UK health and social care systems. A task-shared and task-shifted approach has been recommended, but there is limited guidance on how to achieve this in practice. As part of a programme of research, we developed an intervention to enhance the role of primary care in post-diagnostic care and support for people living with dementia and carers. METHODS: We used the Theory of Change to develop a complex intervention informed by initial literature reviews and qualitative work. The intervention was developed through an iterative series of workshops, meetings and task groups with a range of stakeholders, including the multidisciplinary project team, people living with dementia and carers, service managers, frontline practitioners, and commissioners. RESULTS: 142 participants contributed to intervention development through face-to-face or virtual meetings. The intervention comprises three complementary strands of work focusing on: developing systems, delivering tailored care and support, and building capacity and capability. Clinical dementia leads, based in primary care networks, will facilitate the intervention providing tailored expertise and support. CONCLUSION: The Theory of Change proved useful in providing structure and engaging stakeholders. The process was challenging, took longer and was less participative than intended due to restrictions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. We will next conduct a feasibility and implementation study to explore whether the intervention can be successfully delivered within primary care. If successful, the intervention offers practical strategies for delivering a task-shared and task-shifted approach to post-diagnostic support that could be adapted for similar health and social care contexts internationally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Humans , Caregivers , Pandemics , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy , Primary Health Care , COVID-19 Testing
4.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 37(5): 1043-1061, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274121

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The lack of cognitive assessment tools suitable for people with minimal formal education is a barrier to identify cognitive impairment in Vietnam. Our aims were to (i) evaluate the feasibility of conducting the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Basic (MoCA-B) and Informant Questionnaire On Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) remotely on the Vietnamese older adults, (ii) examine the association between the two tests, (iii) identify demographic factors correlated with these tools. Methods: The MoCA-B was adapted from the original English version, and a remote testing procedure was conducted. One hundred seventy-three participants aged 60 and above living in the Vietnamese southern provinces were recruited via an online platform during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: IQCODE results showed that the proportions of rural participants classified as having mild cognitive impairment and dementia were substantially higher than those in urban areas. Levels of education and living areas were associated with IQCODE scores. Education attainment was also the main predictor of MoCA-B scores (30% of variance explained), with an average of 10.5 points difference between those with no formal education and those who attended university. Conclusions: It is feasible to administer the IQCODE and MoCA-B remotely in the Vietnamese older population. Education attainment played a stronger role in predicting MoCA-B scores than IQCODE, suggesting the influence of this factor on MoCA-B scores. Further study is needed to develop socio-culturally appropriate cognitive screening tests for the Vietnamese population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Aged , Humans , Dementia/diagnosis , Feasibility Studies , Pandemics , Southeast Asian People , Vietnam/epidemiology , Neuropsychological Tests , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255613

ABSTRACT

The modern combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has substantially lowered the incidence of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). The dominant clinical features include deficits in cognitive processing speed, concentration, attention, and memory. As people living with HIV become older, with high rates of comorbidities and concomitant treatments, the prevalence and complexity of cognitive impairment are expected to increase. Currently, the management of HAD and milder forms of HAND is grounded on the best clinical practice, as there is no specific, evidence-based, proven intervention for managing cognitive impairment. The present article acknowledges the multifactorial nature of the cognitive impairments found in HIV patients, outlining the current concepts in the field of HAD. Major areas of interest include neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging to evaluate CNS status, focusing on greater reliability in the exclusion of associated diseases and allowing for earlier diagnosis. Additionally, we considered the evidence for neurological involvement in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, with wider consequences to population health than can be attributed to the virus itself. The indirect effects of COVID-19, including the increased adoption of telehealth, decreased access to community resources, and social isolation, represent a significant health burden, disproportionately affecting older adults with dementia who have limited social networks and increased functional dependence on the community and health system. This synopsis reviews these aspects in greater detail, identifying key gaps and opportunities for researchers and clinicians; we provide an overview of the current concepts in the field of HAD, with suggestions for diagnosing and managing this important neurological complication, which is intended to be applicable across diverse populations, in line with clinical observations, and closely representative of HIV brain pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , HIV Infections , Humans , Aged , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Reproducibility of Results , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/etiology , COVID-19 Testing
6.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 52(3): 515-517, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 50% to 80% of people living with dementia worldwide remain undiagnosed and undocumented and have no access to care and treatment. Telehealth services can be utilized as one of the options to improve access to a diagnosis, especially for people living in rural areas or affected by COVID-19 containment measures. OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of telehealth assessment for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: A summary of the Cochrane Review by McCleery et al. 2021, with comments from a rehabilitation perspective. RESULTS: Three cross-sectional diagnostic test accuracy studies (N = 136) were included. Participants were referred from primary care when presenting with cognitive symptoms or were identified as being at high risk of having dementia on a screening test in the care homes. The studies found that telehealth assessment correctly identified 80% to 100% of the people who were diagnosed with dementia during face-to-face assessment and also correctly identified 80% to 100% of people who did not have dementia. Only one study (N = 100) focused on MCI; 71% of participants who had MCI and 73% of participants who did not have MCI were correctly identified via telehealth assessment. Telehealth assessment in this study correctly identified 97% of the participants who had either MCI or dementia, but correctly identified only 22% of those who did not have either. CONCLUSION: Telehealth assessment for diagnosing dementia seems to have a good level of accuracy when compared to face-to-face assessment, although the small number of studies and small sample sizes and differences between the included studies indicate that the results are uncertain.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Telemedicine , Humans , Dementia/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , COVID-19 Testing
7.
Trials ; 23(1): 766, 2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Targeted exercise training is a promising strategy for promoting cognitive function and preventing dementia in older age. Despite the utility of exercise as an intervention, variation still exists in exercise-induced cognitive gains and questions remain regarding the type of training (i.e., what), as well as moderators (i.e., for whom) and mechanisms (i.e., how) of benefit. Both aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT) enhance cognitive function in older adults without cognitive impairment; however, the vast majority of trials have focused exclusively on AT. Thus, more research is needed on RT, as well as on the combination of AT and RT, in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a prodromal stage of dementia. Therefore, we aim to conduct a 6-month, 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial in older adults with MCI to assess the individual effects of AT and RT, and the combined effect of AT and RT on cognitive function and to determine the possible underlying biological mechanisms. METHODS: Two hundred and sixteen community-dwelling adults, aged 65 to 85 years, with MCI from metropolitan Vancouver will be recruited to participate in this study. Randomization will be stratified by biological sex and participants will be randomly allocated to one of the four experimental groups: (1) 4×/week balance and tone (BAT; i.e., active control); (2) combined 2×/week AT + 2×/week RT; (3) 2×/week AT + 2×/week BAT; or (4) 2×/week RT + 2×/week BAT. The primary outcome is cognitive function as measured by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive-Plus. Secondary outcomes include cognitive function, health-related quality of life, physical function, actigraphy measures, questionnaires, and falls. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 6 months (i.e., trial completion), and 18 months (i.e., 12-month follow-up). DISCUSSION: Establishing the efficacy of different types and combinations of exercise training to minimize cognitive decline will advance our ability to prescribe exercise as "medicine" to treat MCI and delay the onset and progression of dementia. This trial is extremely timely as cognitive impairment and dementia pose a growing threat to global public health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02737878 . Registered on April 14, 2016.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/prevention & control , Exercise/psychology , Humans , Prescriptions , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
8.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 23(3): 200-204, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213573

ABSTRACT

AIM: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to lifestyle restrictions and might be associated with long-term changes in cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the overall effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the cognitive trajectory of a cohort of patients with cognitive impairment. METHODS: We enrolled 160 patients who had been making regular visits to a medical center for dementia. Cognitive function was assessed based on changes in scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination before and during the COVID-19 pandemic throughout a 4-year period. The trajectory of cognitive decline was determined by carrying out a time series analysis using a state-space model. RESULTS: Crude analysis showed that the Mini-Mental State Examination scores decreased from 20.9 ± 4.4 points (mean ± SD) at the time of the initial cognitive assessments to 17.5 ± 5.6 points at the time of the final assessments, and the decline rate was 1.15 ± 1.78 points per year (P < 0.0001). The time series analysis showed an accelerated cognitive trajectory after the COVID-19 outbreak, and the average decline in the Mini-Mental State Examination scores was 0.46 points (95% confidence interval 0.034-0.91) per year before the COVID-19 pandemic, and a steeper decline of 1.87 points (95% confidence interval 1.34-2.67) per year after the outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the rate of cognitive decline in patients with cognitive impairment fourfold in comparison with before the pandemic. Specific strategies designed for cognitively older people in the "new normal" will reconcile both requirements, reducing the risk of infection, and maintaining their physical and psychological well-being. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2023; 23: 200-204.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dementia/diagnosis , Pandemics , Tokyo , Time Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology
9.
Age Ageing ; 51(12)2022 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: dementia may increase care home residents' risk of COVID-19, but there is a lack of evidence on this effect and on interactions with individual and care home-level factors. METHODS: we created a national cross-sectional retrospective cohort of care home residents in Wales for 1 September to 31 December 2020. Risk factors were analysed using multi-level logistic regression to model the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality. RESULTS: the cohort included 9,571 individuals in 673 homes. Dementia was diagnosed in 5,647 individuals (59%); 1,488 (15.5%) individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. We estimated the effects of age, dementia, frailty, care home size, proportion of residents with dementia, nursing and dementia services, communal space and region. The final model included the proportion of residents with dementia (OR for positive test 4.54 (95% CIs 1.55-13.27) where 75% of residents had dementia compared to no residents with dementia) and frailty (OR 1.29 (95% CIs 1.05-1.59) for severe frailty compared with no frailty). Analysis suggested 76% of the variation was due to setting rather than individual factors. Additional analysis suggested severe frailty and proportion of residents with dementia was associated with all-cause mortality, as was dementia diagnosis. Mortality analyses were challenging to interpret. DISCUSSION: whilst individual frailty increased the risk of COVID-19 infection, dementia was a risk factor at care home but not individual level. These findings suggest whole-setting interventions, particularly in homes with high proportions of residents with dementia and including those with low/no individual risk factors may reduce the impact of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Frailty , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Nursing Homes , Retrospective Studies , Prevalence , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy
10.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 852, 2022 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elder abuse is a serious issue with a global prevalence of 15.7% in the community setting. Persons with dementia are at higher risk of elder abuse than the older population in general. With a high and increasing prevalence of dementia this issue cannot be neglected. Hence, the aims of this study were 1) to describe the proportion of abusive episodes among home-dwelling persons with dementia and their informal caregivers, and 2) to explore differences between informal caregivers who have reported committing and not committing abusive acts. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among informal caregivers of home-dwelling persons with dementia in Norway from May to December 2021 with a total of 549 participants. RESULTS: Two-thirds of informal caregivers had committed at least one abusive episode toward the person with dementia in the past year (63.5% psychological abuse, 9.4% physical abuse, 3.9% financial abuse, 2.4% sexual abuse, 6.5% neglect). One-third of informal caregivers had experienced aggression from the person with dementia (33.9% psychological abuse, 7.8% physical abuse, 1.1% financial abuse, 1.4% sexual abuse). Tests for independence showed that the risk of abusive episodes from informal caregivers toward persons with dementia was higher when the informal caregiver was a spouse/partner of the person with dementia and if they experienced aggression from the person with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that a majority of informal caregivers commit some form of abusive episodes, and episodes that fall within the scope of psychological abuse are most frequent. This study expands knowledge about elder abuse among home-dwelling persons with dementia. Increased understanding of the dynamics of abuse is essential to be able to reduce risk and prevent abuse.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Elder Abuse , Humans , Aged , Caregivers/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/psychology , Elder Abuse/psychology , Norway/epidemiology
11.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 731, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current study investigated the relationship between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) knowledge and positive aspects of caregiving (PAC), in addition, how caregiving attitude and self-efficacy mediate or moderate this relationship. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-nine formal caregivers (51males and 178females) who has worked in nursing homes for more than a month were recruited.With a cross-sectional, face-to-face survey, structural questionnaires were implemented to evaluate formal caregiver's BPSD knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and PAC.A 13-item self-developed questionnaire was used to assess caregiver's BPSD knowledge about disease characteristics, care and risks, and treatment needs. Dementia attitude, self-efficacy and positive aspects of caregiving were measured by dementia attitude scale, the General self-efficacy scale, and Chinese version of positive aspects of caregiving respectively. Model 5 in the PROCESS micro was employed in order to verify the mediating effect of attitude and the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between BPSD knowledge and PAC. RESULTS: The results showed that greater BPSD knowledge was associated with increased PAC, and this relationship was fully mediated by increased friendly attitude toward people with dementia. Moreover, direct effect was moderated by self-efficacy, and that only among those with high self-efficacy, the direct effect of BPSD knowledge was found on promoting PAC. CONCLUSIONS: By elucidating the knowledge-attitude-practice pathway in handling patient's BPSD, the current study extends existing literature and provides insights for developing psychoeducation programs among formal caregivers.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Dementia , Caregivers/psychology , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Self Efficacy
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023680

ABSTRACT

Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). In LTCFs, nursing staff, including nurses and care workers, play a crucial role in managing BPSD as those most in contact with the residents. However, it is ambiguous where their focus should be for effective BPSD care. Thus, this paper aims to reveal BPSD care competencies for nursing staff in LTCFs and to outline an initial frame of education. A multiphase mixed-methods approach, which was conducted through topic modeling, qualitative interviews, and a Delphi survey, was used. From the results, a preliminary educational framework for nursing staff with categories of BPSD care competence was outlined with the four categories of BPSD care competence: using knowledge for assessment and monitoring the status of residents, individualizing approaches on how to understand residents and address BPSD, building relationships for shared decision-making, and securing a safe environment for residents and staff in LTCFs. This preliminary framework illuminates specific domains that need to be developed for competent BPSD care in LTCFs that are centered on nursing staff who directly assess and monitor the changing and deteriorating state of residents in LTCFs.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Nursing Staff , Aged , Dementia/diagnosis , Homes for the Aged , Humans , Long-Term Care , Nursing Homes , Nursing Staff/psychology
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e058810, 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020038

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Norwegian Registry of Persons Assessed for Cognitive Symptoms (NorCog) was established to harmonise and improve the quality of diagnostic practice across clinics assessing persons with cognitive symptoms in Norwegian specialist healthcare units and to establish a large research cohort with extensive clinical data. PARTICIPANTS: The registry recruits patients who are referred for assessment of cognitive symptoms and suspected dementia at outpatient clinics in Norwegian specialist healthcare units. In total, 18 120 patients have been included in NorCog during the period of 2009-2021. The average age at inclusion was 73.7 years. About half of the patients (46%) were diagnosed with dementia at the baseline assessment, 35% with mild cognitive impairment and 13% with no or subjective cognitive impairment; 7% received other specified diagnoses such as mood disorders. FINDINGS TO DATE: All patients have a detailed baseline characterisation involving lifestyle and demographic variables; activities of daily living; caregiver situation; medical history; medication; psychiatric, physical and neurological examinations; neurocognitive testing; blood laboratory work-up; and structural or functional brain imaging. Diagnoses are set according to standardised diagnostic criteria. The research biobank stores DNA and blood samples from 4000 patients as well as cerebrospinal fluid from 800 patients. Data from NorCog have been used in a wide range of research projects evaluating and validating dementia-related assessment tools, and identifying patient characteristics, symptoms, functioning and needs, as well as caregiver burden and requirement of available resources. FUTURE PLANS: The finish date of NorCog was originally in 2029. In 2021, the registry's legal basis was reformalised and NorCog got approval to collect and keep data for as long as is necessary to achieve the purpose of the registry. In 2022, the registry underwent major changes. Paper-based data collection was replaced with digital registration, and the number of variables collected was reduced. Future plans involve expanding the registry to include patients from primary care centres.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials , Dementia , Humans , Aged , Activities of Daily Living , Registries , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Cognition , Dementia/diagnosis
14.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 22(10): 832-838, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019266

ABSTRACT

AIM: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on facility- and home-dwelling people with dementia (PWD). METHODS: This observational study included two anonymous online survey questionnaires to explore the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan and the long-term impact during the 2 years from the onset of the pandemic. The participants were medical and long-term care facilities representatives for older people (945 facilities in the first survey, 686 in the second), and care managers (751 in the first survey, 241 in the second). A χ2 -test was carried out between the two surveys. RESULTS: For facility-dwelling PWD, activities that stimulate cognitive and physical functioning increased significantly compared with the first wave of the pandemic (P < 0.05). Also, a decline in cognitive and walking functions and falls increased in the second survey compared with the first (P < 0.01). For home-dwelling PWD, the broader impact of the pandemic on support for activities of daily living, social interaction and provision of medical care did not mitigate. The high prevalence of cognitive and physical functional decline in the first survey was similar in the second. CONCLUSIONS: The prolonged COVID-19 pandemic produced changes in the lives of home- and facility-dwelling PWD, with widespread negative consequences for them. Our findings are useful to consider preventive supports to mitigate or avoid functional decline and symptom exacerbation in PWD due to changes in their living environment and the care they receive in the COVID-19 era. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2022; 22: 832-838.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Dementia/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Neurodegener Dis Manag ; 12(4): 171-184, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009821

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment related to dementia is under-diagnosed in primary care despite availability of numerous cognitive assessment tools; under-diagnosis is more prevalent for members of racial and ethnic minority groups. Clinical decision-support systems may improve rates of primary care providers responding to positive cognitive assessments with appropriate follow-up. The 5-Cog study is a randomized controlled trial in 1200 predominantly Black and Hispanic older adults from an urban underserved community who are presenting to primary care with cognitive concerns. The study will validate a novel 5-minute cognitive assessment coupled with an electronic medical record-embedded decision tree to overcome the barriers of current cognitive assessment paradigms in primary care and facilitate improved dementia care.


Dementia is common, though under-recognized, in older adults (OAs). Primary care providers (PCPs) miss opportunities to help patients and their families manage the disease because of failure to, or delay to, make an appropriate diagnosis. Black and Hispanic OAs are more likely than White OAs to experience delayed diagnosis. Most available memory tests are too long for practical use by PCPs, and are ill suited to patients of diverse language, cultural and educational backgrounds. Studies have shown that even when patients test positive for dementia in primary care, PCPs often do not take follow-up action. Our improved memory test, the 5-Cog, is brief (5 min), not biased by language issues (uses pictures and symbols instead of words), and simple (doesn't require expensive technology and complex staff training). The 5-Cog is paired with a clinical decision support tool, providing tailored recommendations directly into the patient's medical record, and making it easier for PCPs to take appropriate action. This study will evaluate whether the 5-Cog paradigm results in improved dementia care.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy , Ethnicity , Humans , Minority Groups , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(8): e40384, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009809

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Electronic health records (EHRs) with large sample sizes and rich information offer great potential for dementia research, but current methods of phenotyping cognitive status are not scalable. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether natural language processing (NLP)-powered semiautomated annotation can improve the speed and interrater reliability of chart reviews for phenotyping cognitive status. METHODS: In this diagnostic study, we developed and evaluated a semiautomated NLP-powered annotation tool (NAT) to facilitate phenotyping of cognitive status. Clinical experts adjudicated the cognitive status of 627 patients at Mass General Brigham (MGB) health care, using NAT or traditional chart reviews. Patient charts contained EHR data from two data sets: (1) records from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2018, for 100 Medicare beneficiaries from the MGB Accountable Care Organization and (2) records from 2 years prior to COVID-19 diagnosis to the date of COVID-19 diagnosis for 527 MGB patients. All EHR data from the relevant period were extracted; diagnosis codes, medications, and laboratory test values were processed and summarized; clinical notes were processed through an NLP pipeline; and a web tool was developed to present an integrated view of all data. Cognitive status was rated as cognitively normal, cognitively impaired, or undetermined. Assessment time and interrater agreement of NAT compared to manual chart reviews for cognitive status phenotyping was evaluated. RESULTS: NAT adjudication provided higher interrater agreement (Cohen κ=0.89 vs κ=0.80) and significant speed up (time difference mean 1.4, SD 1.3 minutes; P<.001; ratio median 2.2, min-max 0.4-20) over manual chart reviews. There was moderate agreement with manual chart reviews (Cohen κ=0.67). In the cases that exhibited disagreement with manual chart reviews, NAT adjudication was able to produce assessments that had broader clinical consensus due to its integrated view of highlighted relevant information and semiautomated NLP features. CONCLUSIONS: NAT adjudication improves the speed and interrater reliability for phenotyping cognitive status compared to manual chart reviews. This study underscores the potential of an NLP-based clinically adjudicated method to build large-scale dementia research cohorts from EHRs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Algorithms , COVID-19 Testing , Cognition , Dementia/diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Medicare , Natural Language Processing , Reproducibility of Results , United States
17.
Age Ageing ; 51(8)2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: falls are common in older people, but associations between falls, dementia and frailty are relatively unknown. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on falls admissions has not been studied. AIM: to investigate the impact of dementia, frailty, deprivation, previous falls and the differences between years for falls resulting in an emergency department (ED) or hospital admission. STUDY DESIGN: longitudinal cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: older people (aged 65+) resident in Wales between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2020. METHODS: we created a binary (yes/no) indicator for a fall resulting in an attendance to an ED, hospital or both, per person, per year. We analysed the outcomes using multilevel logistic and multinomial models. RESULTS: we analysed a total of 5,141,244 person years of data from 781,081 individuals. Fall admission rates were highest in 2012 (4.27%) and lowest in 2020 (4.27%). We found an increased odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval]) of a fall admission for age (1.05 [1.05, 1.05] per year of age), people with dementia (2.03 [2.00, 2.06]) and people who had a previous fall (2.55 [2.51, 2.60]). Compared with fit individuals, those with frailty had ORs of 1.60 [1.58, 1.62], 2.24 [2.21, 2.28] and 2.94 [2.89, 3.00] for mild, moderate and severe frailty respectively. Reduced odds were observed for males (0.73 [0.73, 0.74]) and less deprived areas; most deprived compared with least OR 0.75 [0.74, 0.76]. CONCLUSIONS: falls prevention should be targeted to those at highest risk, and investigations into the reduction in admissions in 2020 is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Frailty , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Pandemics , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Wales/epidemiology
18.
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community-dwelling residents at potential risk of dementia and their families have difficulty detecting symptoms of dementia during an outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). We explored the characteristics of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in community-dwelling persons at the first time of dementia diagnosis and identified their associated variables. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using secondary data of dementia diagnosis tests was conducted. Data were reported by professional nurses and clinicians from 355 persons at the first time of dementia diagnosis in South Korea. BPSD and their associated variables were measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-K) assessment handbook and electronic medical records. RESULTS: The most common symptoms were apathy/indifference (72.1%), followed by irritability/lability (42.8%) and depression/dysphoria (42.0%). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that the strongest factor associated with BPSD was dementia type (ß = -0.18, p = 0.001) mostly severer in frontotemporal dementia, followed by activities of daily living dependency (ß = 0.15, p = 0.033), and number of medications (ß = 0.10, p = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Providing information based on the study findings to families who are caring for persons at potential risk of dementia, may be able to detect dementia symptoms early and manage appropriate care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/complications , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Independent Living
20.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 37(6)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881407
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