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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 852, 2022 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elder abuse is a serious issue with a global prevalence of 15.7% in the community setting. Persons with dementia are at higher risk of elder abuse than the older population in general. With a high and increasing prevalence of dementia this issue cannot be neglected. Hence, the aims of this study were 1) to describe the proportion of abusive episodes among home-dwelling persons with dementia and their informal caregivers, and 2) to explore differences between informal caregivers who have reported committing and not committing abusive acts. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among informal caregivers of home-dwelling persons with dementia in Norway from May to December 2021 with a total of 549 participants. RESULTS: Two-thirds of informal caregivers had committed at least one abusive episode toward the person with dementia in the past year (63.5% psychological abuse, 9.4% physical abuse, 3.9% financial abuse, 2.4% sexual abuse, 6.5% neglect). One-third of informal caregivers had experienced aggression from the person with dementia (33.9% psychological abuse, 7.8% physical abuse, 1.1% financial abuse, 1.4% sexual abuse). Tests for independence showed that the risk of abusive episodes from informal caregivers toward persons with dementia was higher when the informal caregiver was a spouse/partner of the person with dementia and if they experienced aggression from the person with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that a majority of informal caregivers commit some form of abusive episodes, and episodes that fall within the scope of psychological abuse are most frequent. This study expands knowledge about elder abuse among home-dwelling persons with dementia. Increased understanding of the dynamics of abuse is essential to be able to reduce risk and prevent abuse.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Elder Abuse , Humans , Aged , Caregivers/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/psychology , Elder Abuse/psychology , Norway/epidemiology
2.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 731, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current study investigated the relationship between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) knowledge and positive aspects of caregiving (PAC), in addition, how caregiving attitude and self-efficacy mediate or moderate this relationship. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-nine formal caregivers (51males and 178females) who has worked in nursing homes for more than a month were recruited.With a cross-sectional, face-to-face survey, structural questionnaires were implemented to evaluate formal caregiver's BPSD knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and PAC.A 13-item self-developed questionnaire was used to assess caregiver's BPSD knowledge about disease characteristics, care and risks, and treatment needs. Dementia attitude, self-efficacy and positive aspects of caregiving were measured by dementia attitude scale, the General self-efficacy scale, and Chinese version of positive aspects of caregiving respectively. Model 5 in the PROCESS micro was employed in order to verify the mediating effect of attitude and the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between BPSD knowledge and PAC. RESULTS: The results showed that greater BPSD knowledge was associated with increased PAC, and this relationship was fully mediated by increased friendly attitude toward people with dementia. Moreover, direct effect was moderated by self-efficacy, and that only among those with high self-efficacy, the direct effect of BPSD knowledge was found on promoting PAC. CONCLUSIONS: By elucidating the knowledge-attitude-practice pathway in handling patient's BPSD, the current study extends existing literature and provides insights for developing psychoeducation programs among formal caregivers.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Dementia , Caregivers/psychology , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Self Efficacy
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023680

ABSTRACT

Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). In LTCFs, nursing staff, including nurses and care workers, play a crucial role in managing BPSD as those most in contact with the residents. However, it is ambiguous where their focus should be for effective BPSD care. Thus, this paper aims to reveal BPSD care competencies for nursing staff in LTCFs and to outline an initial frame of education. A multiphase mixed-methods approach, which was conducted through topic modeling, qualitative interviews, and a Delphi survey, was used. From the results, a preliminary educational framework for nursing staff with categories of BPSD care competence was outlined with the four categories of BPSD care competence: using knowledge for assessment and monitoring the status of residents, individualizing approaches on how to understand residents and address BPSD, building relationships for shared decision-making, and securing a safe environment for residents and staff in LTCFs. This preliminary framework illuminates specific domains that need to be developed for competent BPSD care in LTCFs that are centered on nursing staff who directly assess and monitor the changing and deteriorating state of residents in LTCFs.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Nursing Staff , Aged , Dementia/diagnosis , Homes for the Aged , Humans , Long-Term Care , Nursing Homes , Nursing Staff/psychology
4.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 22(10): 832-838, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019266

ABSTRACT

AIM: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on facility- and home-dwelling people with dementia (PWD). METHODS: This observational study included two anonymous online survey questionnaires to explore the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan and the long-term impact during the 2 years from the onset of the pandemic. The participants were medical and long-term care facilities representatives for older people (945 facilities in the first survey, 686 in the second), and care managers (751 in the first survey, 241 in the second). A χ2 -test was carried out between the two surveys. RESULTS: For facility-dwelling PWD, activities that stimulate cognitive and physical functioning increased significantly compared with the first wave of the pandemic (P < 0.05). Also, a decline in cognitive and walking functions and falls increased in the second survey compared with the first (P < 0.01). For home-dwelling PWD, the broader impact of the pandemic on support for activities of daily living, social interaction and provision of medical care did not mitigate. The high prevalence of cognitive and physical functional decline in the first survey was similar in the second. CONCLUSIONS: The prolonged COVID-19 pandemic produced changes in the lives of home- and facility-dwelling PWD, with widespread negative consequences for them. Our findings are useful to consider preventive supports to mitigate or avoid functional decline and symptom exacerbation in PWD due to changes in their living environment and the care they receive in the COVID-19 era. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2022; 22: 832-838.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Dementia/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Neurodegener Dis Manag ; 12(4): 171-184, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009821

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment related to dementia is under-diagnosed in primary care despite availability of numerous cognitive assessment tools; under-diagnosis is more prevalent for members of racial and ethnic minority groups. Clinical decision-support systems may improve rates of primary care providers responding to positive cognitive assessments with appropriate follow-up. The 5-Cog study is a randomized controlled trial in 1200 predominantly Black and Hispanic older adults from an urban underserved community who are presenting to primary care with cognitive concerns. The study will validate a novel 5-minute cognitive assessment coupled with an electronic medical record-embedded decision tree to overcome the barriers of current cognitive assessment paradigms in primary care and facilitate improved dementia care.


Dementia is common, though under-recognized, in older adults (OAs). Primary care providers (PCPs) miss opportunities to help patients and their families manage the disease because of failure to, or delay to, make an appropriate diagnosis. Black and Hispanic OAs are more likely than White OAs to experience delayed diagnosis. Most available memory tests are too long for practical use by PCPs, and are ill suited to patients of diverse language, cultural and educational backgrounds. Studies have shown that even when patients test positive for dementia in primary care, PCPs often do not take follow-up action. Our improved memory test, the 5-Cog, is brief (5 min), not biased by language issues (uses pictures and symbols instead of words), and simple (doesn't require expensive technology and complex staff training). The 5-Cog is paired with a clinical decision support tool, providing tailored recommendations directly into the patient's medical record, and making it easier for PCPs to take appropriate action. This study will evaluate whether the 5-Cog paradigm results in improved dementia care.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy , Ethnicity , Humans , Minority Groups , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(8): e40384, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009809

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Electronic health records (EHRs) with large sample sizes and rich information offer great potential for dementia research, but current methods of phenotyping cognitive status are not scalable. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether natural language processing (NLP)-powered semiautomated annotation can improve the speed and interrater reliability of chart reviews for phenotyping cognitive status. METHODS: In this diagnostic study, we developed and evaluated a semiautomated NLP-powered annotation tool (NAT) to facilitate phenotyping of cognitive status. Clinical experts adjudicated the cognitive status of 627 patients at Mass General Brigham (MGB) health care, using NAT or traditional chart reviews. Patient charts contained EHR data from two data sets: (1) records from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2018, for 100 Medicare beneficiaries from the MGB Accountable Care Organization and (2) records from 2 years prior to COVID-19 diagnosis to the date of COVID-19 diagnosis for 527 MGB patients. All EHR data from the relevant period were extracted; diagnosis codes, medications, and laboratory test values were processed and summarized; clinical notes were processed through an NLP pipeline; and a web tool was developed to present an integrated view of all data. Cognitive status was rated as cognitively normal, cognitively impaired, or undetermined. Assessment time and interrater agreement of NAT compared to manual chart reviews for cognitive status phenotyping was evaluated. RESULTS: NAT adjudication provided higher interrater agreement (Cohen κ=0.89 vs κ=0.80) and significant speed up (time difference mean 1.4, SD 1.3 minutes; P<.001; ratio median 2.2, min-max 0.4-20) over manual chart reviews. There was moderate agreement with manual chart reviews (Cohen κ=0.67). In the cases that exhibited disagreement with manual chart reviews, NAT adjudication was able to produce assessments that had broader clinical consensus due to its integrated view of highlighted relevant information and semiautomated NLP features. CONCLUSIONS: NAT adjudication improves the speed and interrater reliability for phenotyping cognitive status compared to manual chart reviews. This study underscores the potential of an NLP-based clinically adjudicated method to build large-scale dementia research cohorts from EHRs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Algorithms , COVID-19 Testing , Cognition , Dementia/diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Medicare , Natural Language Processing , Reproducibility of Results , United States
7.
Age Ageing ; 51(8)2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: falls are common in older people, but associations between falls, dementia and frailty are relatively unknown. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on falls admissions has not been studied. AIM: to investigate the impact of dementia, frailty, deprivation, previous falls and the differences between years for falls resulting in an emergency department (ED) or hospital admission. STUDY DESIGN: longitudinal cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: older people (aged 65+) resident in Wales between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2020. METHODS: we created a binary (yes/no) indicator for a fall resulting in an attendance to an ED, hospital or both, per person, per year. We analysed the outcomes using multilevel logistic and multinomial models. RESULTS: we analysed a total of 5,141,244 person years of data from 781,081 individuals. Fall admission rates were highest in 2012 (4.27%) and lowest in 2020 (4.27%). We found an increased odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval]) of a fall admission for age (1.05 [1.05, 1.05] per year of age), people with dementia (2.03 [2.00, 2.06]) and people who had a previous fall (2.55 [2.51, 2.60]). Compared with fit individuals, those with frailty had ORs of 1.60 [1.58, 1.62], 2.24 [2.21, 2.28] and 2.94 [2.89, 3.00] for mild, moderate and severe frailty respectively. Reduced odds were observed for males (0.73 [0.73, 0.74]) and less deprived areas; most deprived compared with least OR 0.75 [0.74, 0.76]. CONCLUSIONS: falls prevention should be targeted to those at highest risk, and investigations into the reduction in admissions in 2020 is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Frailty , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Pandemics , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Wales/epidemiology
8.
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community-dwelling residents at potential risk of dementia and their families have difficulty detecting symptoms of dementia during an outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). We explored the characteristics of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in community-dwelling persons at the first time of dementia diagnosis and identified their associated variables. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using secondary data of dementia diagnosis tests was conducted. Data were reported by professional nurses and clinicians from 355 persons at the first time of dementia diagnosis in South Korea. BPSD and their associated variables were measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-K) assessment handbook and electronic medical records. RESULTS: The most common symptoms were apathy/indifference (72.1%), followed by irritability/lability (42.8%) and depression/dysphoria (42.0%). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that the strongest factor associated with BPSD was dementia type (ß = -0.18, p = 0.001) mostly severer in frontotemporal dementia, followed by activities of daily living dependency (ß = 0.15, p = 0.033), and number of medications (ß = 0.10, p = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Providing information based on the study findings to families who are caring for persons at potential risk of dementia, may be able to detect dementia symptoms early and manage appropriate care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/complications , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Independent Living
10.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 37(6)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881407
11.
Australas J Ageing ; 41(3): 457-465, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861176

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Centre-based aged care services are a key site of early intervention and support for people with dementia and their carers. This paper examines the impact of new aged care funding structures on centre-based aged care service accessibility and delivery. It also examines the challenges and opportunities for change facing the sector in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted online with 29 managers or supervisors of centre-based aged care services in Greater Sydney. RESULTS: The analysis reinforced the essential role of centre-based aged care services in improving the cognitive, physical and psychological health of older people with dementia and their carers. However, the changing funding context and the COVID-19 pandemic have created challenges in access to centre-based services, particularly for the most vulnerable. The challenges created by the COVID-19 pandemic also opened opportunities for the introduction of new models of service practice to meet the individual needs of older people and their carers. CONCLUSIONS: Greater investment in, and flexibility in the funding for, centre-based aged care services is needed to facilitate access for people with dementia and their carers and improve their health and well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Pandemics
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 365, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817188

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused large disruptions to healthcare systems. Refocus on COVID-19 related care might have contributed to indirect effects on other healthcare areas. Care focused on acute conditions have been negatively affected although research into the effects on chronic and care intensive patient groups such as patients with dementia diseases is lacking. In this study we evaluated dementia diagnosis trends in Sweden during 2015-2020 according to International Classification of Disease version 10 coding of common dementia diseases. METHODS: Regional and national statistics in the form of International Classification of Disease version 10 coding, COVID-19 incidence, mortality data, and population census data were collected from the National Institute of Health and Welfare. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify trends of dementia diagnosis during 2015-2020. Correlation test was performed between COVID-19 incidence, mortality rates, and dementia coding. RESULTS: Dementia diagnosis incidence has been declining since 2015 and further decline was noted in many regions in Sweden during 2020. As COVID-19 incidence increased, fewer cases of dementia were diagnosed, a decrease that differentially impacted women and those who were advanced in age. CONCLUSIONS: Dementia diagnosis incidence in Sweden has been on a decline since 2015. The COVID-19 pandemic caused a further larger decline in dementia diagnosis incidence during 2020. COVID-19 incidence, but not mortality, was associated with decrease in dementia diagnosis incidence. There might be a large number of undiagnosed patients with dementia and healthcare reforms should be enacted to address this. Women and elderly are particularly vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Sweden/epidemiology
14.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 34(5): 1187-1194, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the last two years, COVID-19 affected older people with dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but conflicting and sparse results are still present. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of changes in functional, cognitive and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and caregiver's stress during the period of quarantine in 2020 in patients affected by dementia/MCI living in Palermo, Sicily. METHODS: Outpatients affected by MCI/dementia were evaluated before and after COVID-19 quarantine. Functional status was investigated using basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL); cognitive performance with the mini-mental state examination; BPSD through the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI). All scales were reported as pre/post-COVID-19 quarantine and a logistic regression analysis was performed for investigating the factors associated with worsening in NPI in patients and their caregivers. RESULTS: One hundred patients (mean age 77.1; females = 59%) were evaluated over a median of 10 months. In the sample as whole, a significant decline in functional and cognitive status was observed (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). The NPI significantly increased by 3.56 ± 8.96 points after the COVID-19 quarantine (p < 0.0001), while the caregivers' stress increased by 1.39 ± 3.46 points between the two evaluations (p < 0.0001). The decline was more evident in people with milder dementia. Higher values of instrumental ADL at baseline were associated with a significant lower worsening in NPI and caregiver's stress. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 quarantine negatively affected functional, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric symptoms in older people affected by dementia/MCI, highlighting the impact of COVID-19 quarantine for this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Activities of Daily Living/psychology , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Dementia/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Quarantine/psychology
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 697496, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705724

ABSTRACT

Background: People with dementia (PwD) and their informal caregivers (caregiving dyads) face multiple impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including restricted social support services and social isolation. With limited opportunities for caregiving dyads to participate in social activities during the pandemic, the potential of social technology to support social participation and dyadic relationships should be explored. As a part of an ongoing feasibility trial, this study assesses how COVID-19 has impacted community-dwelling dyads in a dementia caregiving context. The dyads' use of social technology and their motivations to invite technology into social interactions are explored. Methods: A pilot case study employing baseline interview data from three community-dwelling caregiving dyads. Each dyad consisted of a husband with a dementia diagnosis and his wife, who performed most caregiving tasks. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to inductive thematic analysis. Two researchers independently coded the data, and collated the codes and themes collaboratively. Results: Two themes and seven subthemes were identified: (i) living with dementia during COVID-19 (subthemes: social and leisure activities, dyadic interactions, adjusting as caregiver); and (ii) the role of technology in a pandemic (subthemes: facilitating social activities, facilitating dementia care-related activities, barriers and facilitators to using social technology, the underlying motivation to invite technology into interactions). Dyads who were socially active pre-COVID-19, and who managed to make good use of technology to facilitate and maintain their social engagement during COVID-19, reported to have been less negatively impacted by COVID-related social restrictions. Conclusion: The dyads differed in how COVID-19 restrictions impacted their lives and how they coped with dementia, revealing different motivations for wanting to invite technology into their social interactions. During and beyond this pandemic, social technology can be a valuable tool for promoting social participation in this population, especially when in-person social contact is restricted. Successful uptake of social technology is dependent on customizing it to the individual's needs and conditions. Therefore, efforts are needed to tackle barriers that exist for older adults in using such technology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Technology
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e059437, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691303

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of COVID-19 on postdiagnostic dementia care and support provision in England and Wales. DESIGN: Qualitative research using semistructured interviews, via video or telephone conferencing. SETTING: Services providing postdiagnostic support across health, social care and the third sector. PARTICIPANTS: 21 professionals previously recruited to an ongoing research programme on postdiagnostic dementia care (or colleagues, if unavailable). RESULTS: Key themes identified from the data were: challenges caused by COVID-19; responses to those challenges, including a widespread shift to remote working; and effects of COVID-19 on future postdiagnostic support. Challenges included changing and sometimes conflicting guidelines; a lack of access to support; identifying and responding to emerging needs; emotional and physical impact of COVID-19; and balancing COVID-19 risk with other risks such as deterioration. Some dementia services closed, while others adapted and continued to provide support thus potentially widening existing inequalities. There were also some unintended positive outcomes, including improved cross-sector and multidisciplinary working between professionals. CONCLUSION: Delivering postdiagnostic dementia support during COVID-19 required essential adaptations. While some changes were detrimental to service users, others were identified as potentially beneficial and highly likely to become the new 'norm', for example, use of blended approaches, combining virtual and face-to-face work, thus allowing more flexible, integrated care. Our data have implications for policy and practice to improve the response to the lingering effects of COVID-19 as well as creating service provision that is more resilient to future pandemics or other periods of disruption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales/epidemiology
17.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 116, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence shows an impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people living with dementia and informal carers, without any evidence-based global comparison to date. The aim of this international study was to explore and compare the perceived impact of COVID-19 and associated public health restrictions on the lives of people living with dementia and informal carers and access to dementia care across five countries. METHODS: Informal carers and people living with dementia who were residing in the community in the UK, Australia, Italy, India, and Poland were interviewed remotely between April and December 2020. Participants were asked about their experiences of the pandemic and how restrictions have impacted on their lives and care. Transcripts were analysed by researchers in each country using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Fifteen people living with dementia and 111 informal carers participated across the five countries. Four themes emerged: (1) Limited access and support; (2) Technology and issues accessing remote support; (3) Emotional impact; and (4) Decline of cognitive and physical health reported by carers. Whilst variations were noted, the pandemic has indirectly affected people with dementia and carers across all five countries. The pandemic removed access to social support services and thus increased carer burden. Remote services were not always provided and were very limited in benefit and usability for those with dementia. As a result, carers appeared to notice reduced cognitive and physical health in people with dementia. Particular differences were noted between India and Poland vs. the UK, Italy, and Australia, with less impact on care provision in the former due to limited uptake of support services pre-pandemic based on cultural settings. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has amplified dementia as a global public health problem, and people affected by the condition need support to better access vital support services to live well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(2): 678-685, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 infection can cause impairments in many cognitive areas. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive functions of patients who had been infected with COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The demographic and infection-related characteristics of patients who had been infected with COVID-19 were determined. Their cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) findings were recorded. The Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE), clock drawing test, forward and backward digit span tests, visual memory test, and Frontal Assessment Battery were applied to the patients. Finger agnosia and ideomotor apraxia were also determined. RESULTS: The study included 176 patients [100 female (56.8%), 76 male (43.2%), mean age 66.09±13.96 years]. About half of the patients were hospitalized for symptoms of COVID-19 infection (n=82, 46.6%). One third of these patients required intensive care (n=26, 14.8%). While 50 (45.9%) of the 109 patients diagnosed with dementia before infection were hospitalized, 32 (47.8%) of the 67 patients without a diagnosis of dementia required hospitalization (p=0.46). The most common neurological finding during COVID-19 infection was insomnia (n=36, 20.5%). The MMSE and visual memory test scores of the patients who were hospitalized for severe respiratory distress were lower than those whose treatment at home was completed (respectively 17.92±7.69/20.59±7.01, p=0.02; 2.53 ±1.73/3.69±2.80, p=0.01). The patients with moderate to severe cognitive impairment had significantly higher CRP levels at admission than the others (37.52±43.09/20.93±31.74, p=0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive damage in COVID-19 infection may be caused by ACE receptor density in the pial, hippocampal, and amygdala areas. In addition, the reason why people with severe dementia have a milder infection might be explained by the atrophy in these areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Electroencephalography , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology
19.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 37(3)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669410

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia during the step-by-step lifting of restrictions after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands, and to describe psychotropic drug use (PDU) throughout the whole first wave. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study of nursing home residents with dementia. We measured neuropsychiatric symptoms using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire (NPI-Q). From May to August 2020, the NPI-Q was filled in monthly. Psychotropic drug use was retrieved from the electronic prescription system, retrospectively for the months February to April and prospectively for the months May to August. RESULTS: We followed 252 residents with dementia in 19 Dutch nursing homes. Agitation was the most prevalent type of neuropsychiatric symptom at each assessment. Overall, the prevalence and severity of agitation and depression significantly decreased over time. When considering more in detail, we observed that in some residents specific neuropsychiatric symptoms resolved (resolution) while in others specific neuropsychiatric symptoms developed (incidence) during the study period. For the majority of the residents, neuropsychiatric symptoms persisted over time. Psychotropic drug use remained stable over time throughout the whole first wave of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: At group level, lifting the measures appeared to have beneficial effects on the prevalence and severity of agitation and depression in residents with dementia. Nevertheless, on an individual level we observed high heterogeneity in the course of neuropsychiatric symptoms over time. Despite the pressure of the pandemic and the restrictions in social contact imposed, PDU remained stable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Cohort Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/drug therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Psychomotor Agitation/diagnosis , Psychomotor Agitation/drug therapy , Psychomotor Agitation/epidemiology , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 86, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While studies have examined the quality of life (QoL) of family caregivers for people living with dementia, it is not yet clear how these caregivers' quality of life affects their ability to meet the care demands of their loved ones. The purpose of the study was to explore caregivers' perceived quality of life in relation with the care provided to persons with dementia. METHODS: Twenty-three caregivers participated in this study. These caregivers participated in focus groups or one-on-one interviews after completing questionnaires regarding their own quality of life as well as the care provided to their loved ones with dementia. The interview and focus group transcripts were analyzed using qualitative description methodology. RESULTS: Regarding the relationship between caregiver QoL and the care provided to older people with dementia, the following themes were derived: (1) needs of the person with dementia; (2) caregivers' ability to cope with progressing needs of the care recipient; (3) availability and accessibility of support for the caregiver; (4) unmet needs of the caregiver; and (5) ability of the caregiver to meet their own progressing needs as the condition of the care recipient deteriorates. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study suggest that caregiver quality of life is important for the care they provide to their loved ones living with dementia. The study highlights the need for the provision of much needed support for caregivers and older people living with dementia. These issues are particularly important during and post-pandemic.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Quality of Life , Adaptation, Psychological , Aged , Caregivers , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
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