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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 56, 2022 01 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622214

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is sparse evidence on the impact on vulnerable populations of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of our study was to explore burden and mental wellbeing (including depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms) in caregivers of people with dementia during the first wave of the pandemic in Italy and southern Switzerland, two bordering regions severely hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted an online cross-sectional survey with family carers of people with dementia between May and June 2020. We registered socio-demographic characteristics, and information about the relationship with the care recipient, dementia subtype, care inputs from others, and the need of care of the person with dementia. We measured caregiver burden with the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), psychological distress with the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and perceived isolation with the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLALS3). RESULTS: Caregivers (N =571) reported moderate to severe care-related burden (mean=54.30; SD=18.33), moderate anxiety symptoms (mean=10.04; SD=6.93), mild depressive symptoms (mean=11.79; SD=6.12) and mild stress (mean=12.95; SD=5.53), and 72.3% of participants reported to feel lonely. All scores were significantly more severe in Swiss compared to Italian caregivers (all p values<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We found that caregivers' burden, anxiety symptoms, depression and perceived loneliness were marked during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, in two severely hit bordering countries. Regional differences in the impact of the epidemic on caregivers could be due to contextual, societal, and cultural circumstances. As the pandemic endures, support to caregivers of people with dementia should be proportionate and tailored to needs and adapted to contextual factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260506, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been a shift in focus of international dementia policies from improving diagnostic rates to enhancing the post-diagnostic support provided to people with dementia and their carers. There is, however, little agreement over what constitutes good post-diagnostic support. This study aimed to identify the components of post-diagnostic dementia support. METHODS: We adopted a qualitative design using interviews, focus groups and observation to explore the perspectives of key stakeholders on the content of post-diagnostic dementia support. Purposive sampling was used to identify sites in England and Wales recognised as delivering good practice. Participants included 17 people with dementia, 31 carers, 68 service managers or funders, and 78 frontline staff. Interviews and focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed for analysis. Forty-eight sessions of observation were completed and recorded in fieldnotes. Components were identified through an inductive, thematic approach and cross-checked against national guidelines and existing frameworks; they were subsequently critically reviewed by a range of experts and our mixed stakeholder panel. RESULTS: Twenty distinct components of post-diagnostic support were identified, related to five themes: timely identification and management of needs; understanding and managing dementia; emotional and psychological wellbeing; practical support; and integrating support. The first and last of these were cross-cutting themes facilitating the delivery of a unique constellation of components of post-diagnostic support to each individual living with dementia or dyad at a particular time. CONCLUSIONS: Our work offers an empirically based framework to inform the development and delivery of holistic, integrated and continuous dementia care from diagnosis to end of life. It highlights the relevance of many components to both people living with dementia and their carers. Since the framework was developed in England and Wales, further research is needed to explore the relevance of our components to other sectors, countries and care systems.


Subject(s)
Caregivers/psychology , Dementia/diagnosis , Social Support , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 583, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, restrictive measures have been taken to manage the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Social distancing and self-isolation have considerably affected the lives of people with dementia and their informal caregivers. The purpose of the study was to explore the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic as experienced by the spouses of home-dwelling people with dementia in Norway. METHODS: The study had a qualitative descriptive design using individual telephone interviews for data collection. A total sample of 17 spouses of people with dementia were included, 14 women and three men ages 52 to 82 years. A qualitative content analysis following six steps inspired by Graneheim and Lundman was used to identify the categories presented. RESULTS: The participants emphasized four main perspectives: 1) Radical changes in available services, 2) Restrictions changed everyday life, 3) Impacts on health and well-being, and 4) Actions that made life easier. The participants also described how positive activities and easily accessible services helped them in this situation. CONCLUSIONS: The governmental restrictions of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in radical changes in available services with severe consequences for the lives and well-being of home-dwelling people with dementia and their spouses. Examples of coping strategies and possible psychosocial interventions compatible with virus precautions were identified. The potential of such interventions should be further explored to meet the needs of vulnerable groups in situations like a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Caregivers , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spouses
5.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 529, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restrictions introduced in response to the COVID-19 pandemic led to increased risk of deconditioning in the general population. No empirical evidence of this effect however has been gathered in people living with dementia. This study aims to identify the causes and effects of COVID-19-related deconditioning in people living with dementia. METHODS: This is a longitudinal phenomenological qualitative study. Participants living with dementia, their caregivers and therapists involved in the Promoting Activity, Independence and Stability in Early Dementia (PrAISED) process evaluation during the COVID-19 pandemic were qualitatively interviewed at two time points: the baseline 2 months after the national lockdown was imposed in England (i.e., May 2020), the follow up 2 months after the first set (i.e. July 2020). The data were analysed through deductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-four participants living with dementia, 19 caregivers and 15 therapists took part in the study. Two themes were identified: Causes of deconditioning in people living with dementia during the COVID-19 pandemic and effects of deconditioning in people living with dementia during the COVID-19 pandemic. A self-reinforcing pattern was common, whereby lockdown made the person apathetic, demotivated, socially disengaged, and frailer. This reduced activity levels, which in turn reinforced the effects of deconditioning over time. Without external supporters, most participants lacked the motivation / cognitive abilities to keep active. Provided the proper infrastructure and support, some participants could use tele-rehabilitation to combat deconditioning. CONCLUSION: The added risks and effects of deconditioning on people with dementia require considerable efforts from policy makers and clinicians to ensure that they initiate and maintain physical activity in prolonged periods of social distancing. Delivering rehabilitation in the same way as before the pandemic might not be feasible or sustainable and innovative approaches must be found. Digital support for this population has shown promising results but remains a challenge. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The PrAISED trial and process evaluation have received ethical approval number 18/YH/0059 from the Bradford/Leeds Ethics Committee. The ISRCTN Registration Number for PrAISED is  15320670 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Communicable Disease Control , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 141, 2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The potential value of expanding the Practice Nurse role to include the recognition and management of dementia has been acknowledged. Practice Nurses are well-positioned to provide comprehensive dementia information and support so that people living with dementia are better equipped to self-manage their health and live well with dementia. The purpose of this review was to systematically examine published literature to identify existing and potential roles of Practice Nurse's in the delivery of care to people affected by dementia and to describe the characteristics and effectiveness of nurse interventions in dementia models of care. METHODS: The PRISMA statement guided the systematic review of the quantitative and qualitative evidence for roles and characteristics of the Practice Nurse in the delivery of dementia care. A comprehensive literature search of seven electronic databases and Google scholar identified relevant original research published in English between January 2000 and January 2019. Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria and were extracted into the Covidence software for analysis. RESULTS: The heterogeneity of the included studies purpose, design and outcomes measures and the diversity in health systems and primary care nurses scope of practice made it difficult to synthesise the findings and draw conclusions. The heterogeneity did, however, provide important insights into the characteristics of roles undertaken by nurses working in the general practice setting, which were potentially beneficial to people living with dementia and their support person. These included patient accessibility to the Practice Nurse, early recognition and management of cognitive changes, care management and collaboration with the General Practitioner. Limitations of the provision of dementia care by Practice Nurses included a lack of definition of the role, inadequate dementia specific training, time constraints and poor communication with General Practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: Embedding an evidence-based model that describes the role of the Practice Nurse in dementia care provision has the potential to increase early recognition of cognitive impairment and more appropriate primary care management of dementia. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018088191.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Evidence-Based Nursing/methods , Nurse's Role , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Cognition , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/nursing , Dementia/psychology , Humans
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323320

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of people diagnosed with dementia. With diminishing public health and social care resources, there is substantial need for assistive technology-based devices that support independent living. However, existing devices may not fully meet these needs due to fears and uncertainties about their use, educational support, and finances. Further challenges have been created by COVID-19 and the need for improved safety and security. We have performed a systematic review by exploring several databases describing assistive technologies for dementia and identifying relevant publications for this review. We found there is significant need for appropriate user testing of such devices and have highlighted certifying bodies for this purpose. Given the safety measures imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, this review identifies the benefits and challenges of existing assistive technologies for people living with dementia and their caregivers. It also provides suggestions for future research in these areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Self-Help Devices , Caregivers , Dementia/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013786, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many millions of people living with dementia around the world are not diagnosed, which has a negative impact both on their access to care and treatment and on rational service planning. Telehealth - the use of information and communication technology (ICT) to provide health services at a distance - may be a way to increase access to specialist assessment for people with suspected dementia, especially those living in remote or rural areas. It has also been much used during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to know whether diagnoses made using telehealth assessment are as accurate as those made in conventional, face-to-face clinical settings. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective: to assess the diagnostic accuracy of telehealth assessment for dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Secondary objectives: to identify the quality and quantity of the relevant research evidence; to identify sources of heterogeneity in the test accuracy data; to identify and synthesise any data on patient or clinician satisfaction, resource use, costs or feasibility of the telehealth assessment models in the included studies. SEARCH METHODS: We searched multiple databases and clinical trial registers on 4 November 2020 for published and 'grey' literature and registered trials. We applied no search filters and no language restrictions. We screened the retrieved citations in duplicate and assessed in duplicate the full texts of papers considered potentially relevant. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included in the review cross-sectional studies with 10 or more participants who had been referred to a specialist service for assessment of a suspected cognitive disorder. Within a period of one month or less, each participant had to undergo two clinical assessments designed to diagnose dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI): a telehealth assessment (the index test) and a conventional face-to-face assessment (the reference standard). The telehealth assessment could be informed by some data collected face-to-face, e.g. by nurses working in primary care, but all contact between the patient and the specialist clinician responsible for synthesising the information and making the diagnosis had to take place remotely using ICT. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data from included studies. Data extracted covered study design, setting, participants, details of index test and reference standard, and results in the form of numbers of participants given diagnoses of dementia or MCI. Data were also sought on dementia subtype diagnoses and on quantitative measures of patient or clinician satisfaction, resource use, costs and feasibility. We assessed risk of bias and applicability of each included study using QUADAS-2. We entered the results into 2x2 tables in order to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of telehealth assessment for the diagnosis of all-cause dementia, MCI, and any cognitive syndrome (combining dementia and MCI). We presented the results of included studies narratively because there were too few studies to derive summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity. MAIN RESULTS: Three studies with 136 participants were eligible for inclusion. Two studies (20 and 100 participants) took place in community settings in Australia and one study (16 participants) was conducted in veterans' homes in the USA. Participants were referred from primary care with undiagnosed cognitive symptoms or were identified as being at high risk of having dementia on a screening test in the care homes. Dementia and MCI were target conditions in the larger study; the other studies targeted dementia diagnosis only. Only one small study used a 'pure' telehealth model, i.e. not involving any elements of face-to-face assessment. The studies were generally well-conducted. We considered two studies to be at high risk of incorporation bias because a substantial amount of information collected face-to-face by nurses was used to inform both index test and reference standard assessments. One study was at unclear risk of selection bias. For the diagnosis of all-cause dementia, sensitivity of telehealth assessment ranged from 0.80 to 1.00 and specificity from 0.80 to 1.00. We considered this to be very low-certainty evidence due to imprecision, inconsistency between studies and risk of bias. For the diagnosis of MCI, data were available from only one study (100 participants) giving a sensitivity of 0.71 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.84) and a specificity of 0.73 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.84). We considered this to be low-certainty evidence due to imprecision and risk of bias. For diagnosis of any cognitive syndrome (dementia or MCI), data from the same study gave a sensitivity of 0.97 (95% CI 0.91 to 0.99) and a specificity of 0.22 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.60). The majority of diagnostic disagreements concerned the distinction between MCI and dementia, occurring approximately equally in either direction. There was also a tendency for patients identified as cognitively healthy at face-to-face assessment to be diagnosed with MCI at telehealth assessment (but numbers were small). There were insufficient data to make any assessment of the accuracy of dementia subtype diagnosis. One study provided a small amount of data indicating a good level of clinician and especially patient satisfaction with the telehealth model. There were no data on resource use, costs or feasibility. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found only very few eligible studies with a small number of participants. An important difference between the studies providing data for the analyses was whether the target condition was dementia only (two studies) or dementia and MCI (one study). The data suggest that telehealth assessment may be highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of all-cause dementia when assessed against a reference standard of conventional face-to-face assessment, but the estimates are imprecise due to small sample sizes and between-study heterogeneity, and may apply mainly to telehealth models which incorporate a considerable amount of face-to-face contact with healthcare professionals other than the doctor responsible for making the diagnosis. For the diagnosis of MCI by telehealth assessment, best estimates of both sensitivity and specificity were somewhat lower, but were based on a single study. Errors occurred at the cognitively healthy/MCI and the MCI/dementia boundaries. However, there is no evidence that diagnostic disagreements were more frequent than would be expected due to the known variation between clinicians' opinions when assigning a dementia diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Dementia/diagnosis , Telemedicine/standards , Bias , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Patient Satisfaction , Reference Standards , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Age Ageing ; 50(6): 1876-1885, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: informal carers provide the majority of the support for persons with dementia living at home. Restrictions imposed due to COVID-19 have had a profound impact on the daily life of the entire population. This study provides insight into the impact of these restrictions on carers of people with dementia living at home. DESIGN: qualitative semi-structured interviews. PARTICIPANTS: purposive sample of carers who provide at least 10 hours of care a week for the person with dementia living at home. SETTING: UK. RESULTS: twenty-three carers were interviewed, and thematic analysis identified three main themes-Changes to daily life, impact on carer health and wellbeing and reduced support from health and social support networks. The results highlight the impact of restrictions imposed on daily life and routines due to the pandemic, wellbeing of carers, reduced social support, lack of access to health and care professionals and respite for carers. The restrictions have had negative consequences on carers' wellbeing, and they have experienced difficulties in accessing formal care services and respite care. CONCLUSION: carers attempt to continue to provide physical, emotional and practical support for persons with dementia in the community throughout the COVID-19 restrictions. To prevent a future carer crisis, carers need better support systems including formal carer services, telecare solutions that work for them and additional support for respite, as the restrictions from this pandemic continue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
10.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2741-2744, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the ongoing D-CARE pragmatic trial of two models of dementia care management needed to transition to all data collection by telephone. METHODS: For the first 1069 D-CARE participants, we determined the feasibility of administering a short 3-item version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to persons with dementia by telephone and examined the correlation with the full 12-item version. RESULTS: The 3-item version could be administered by telephone in approximately 6 min and was highly correlated with the full MoCA (r = 0.78, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This brief version of the MoCA was feasible to collect by telephone and could be used as an alternative to the full MoCA, particularly if the purpose of cognitive assessment is characterization of study participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Patient Care Management , Telemedicine/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/psychology , Dementia/therapy , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Interviews as Topic/methods , Male , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/trends , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 301, 2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 restrictions on people living with dementia and their carers is an emerging focus of recent research determining how we can best support this population. People living with dementia have faced service curtailment, increased risk for COVID-19, as well as potential heightened deterioration. This study reports the experiences of people living with dementia and their family carers during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic in England and the impact on them. METHODS: We recruited and remotely interviewed 30 people living with dementia in their own homes and 31 family carers, via video or telephone call in mid-2020. Data were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: People living with dementia often had a basic understanding of COVID-19 restrictions but could have difficulty translating this into personalised risk-appraisal of their own actions. Managing COVID-19 risks facing people living with dementia at home was largely done by family carers, exemplified by changes to living arrangements, which could strain or sustain caring relationships. Well-established familial caring relationships contributed to the wellbeing of the person living with dementia and their carer, as well as keeping to simple routines that included leaving the home for exercise and stimulation. People living with dementia reported some negative psychological and cognitive effects due to the imposed restrictions, such as increased apathy, irritability, or anxiety, which were fuelled by lack of social engagement. CONCLUSIONS: Structuring routine (remote) social interactions where possible could increase social engagement and improve wellbeing for people living with dementia, especially those with limited familial support in a post-COVID-19 context. As some care relationships had been restructured to manage COVID-19 risks, additional carer strain may emerge as a result of the impact on the independence of the person living with dementia and come to the attention of professionals in health and care services. People living with dementia and their carers highlighted the importance of maintaining or adapting routines which may be useful learning for professionals, although additional support may be necessary for those who are impacted by more severe or worsening symptoms of dementia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Communicable Disease Control , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 80(4): 1705-1712, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The social isolation imposed by COVID-19 pandemic can have a major impact on the mental health of dementia patients and their caregivers. OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate the neurological decline of patients with dementia and the caregivers' burden during the pandemic. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study. Caregivers of dementia patients following in the outpatient clinic were included. A structured telephone interview composed of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q), Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), Beck Depression (BDI) and Anxiety (BAI) Inventories to address cognitive, behavioral, and functional changes associated with social distancing during the Sars-Cov-2 outbreak. Patients were divided in two groups according to caregivers' report: with perceived Altered Cognition (AC) and Stable Cognition (SC). RESULTS: A total of 58 patients (median age: 57 years [21-87], 58.6%females) and caregivers (median age: 76.5 years [55-89], 79.3%females) were included. Cognitive decline was shown by most patients (53.4%), as well as behavioral symptoms (48.3%), especially apathy/depression (24.1%), and functional decline (34.5%). The AC group (n = 31) presented increased behavioral (67.7%versus 25.9%, p = 0.002) and functional (61.3%versus 3.7%, p < 0.001) changes when compared to the SC group. In the AC group, ZBI, BDI, NPI-Q caregiver distress, and NPI-Q patient's severity of symptoms scores were worse than the SC group (p < 0.005 for all). CONCLUSION: Patients' neuropsychiatric worsening and caregiver burden were frequent during the pandemic. Worsening of cognition was associated with increased caregivers' psychological distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Dementia/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Psychological Distress , Social Isolation/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital/trends , Pandemics , Young Adult
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 159, 2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To support the implementation of nurse-led interventions in long-term dementia care, in-depth knowledge of specific supporting factors and barriers is required. Conditions and structures of caring for people with dementia differ widely, depending on the country and the care context. Our study aimed to describe the experiences and opinions of nursing experts and managers with regard to facilitators and barriers to the implementation of nurse-led interventions in long-term dementia care. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using individual interviews based on qualitative vignettes as a useful stimulus to generate narrations allowing to study peoples' perceptions and beliefs. The study took place in nursing homes in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and in the Principality of Liechtenstein using purposive sampling. We intended to conduct the interviews face-to-face in a quiet room according to the participant's choice. However, due to the lockdown of nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020, we performed interviews face-to-face and by video. We analysed data thematically following Braun and Clarke to achieve a detailed, nuanced description. To verify our interpretation and to ensure congruence with participants' perspectives, we conducted member checks. The Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR) served to structure our manuscript. RESULTS: Six dyads of nursing home managers and nursing experts from six nursing homes took part in our study (n = 12). Our thematic analysis yielded seven themes reflecting facilitators and barriers to implementing nurse-led interventions in long-term dementia care: «A common attitude and cohesion within the organization¼, «Commitment on several levels¼, «A needs-oriented implementation¼, «The effect and the public perception of the intervention¼, «A structured and guided implementation process¼, «Supporting knowledge and competencies¼, as well as «Resources for implementing the intervention¼. CONCLUSIONS: To support the implementation of nurse-led interventions in long-term dementia care, active commitment-building seems essential. It is necessary that the value of the intervention is perceptible.Commitment-building is the precondition to reach the persons involved, such as nursing home managers, nursing staff, residents and relatives. Furthermore, nurses should precisely inform about the intervention. It is necessary that the value of the intervention is perceptible. In addition, nurses should adjust the interventions to the situational needs of people with dementia, thus. Therefore, it is important to support dementia-specific competencies in long-term care. Findings indicate that the barrier is determined by the intervention and its implementation - and not by the behaviour of the person with dementia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Communicable Disease Control , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Long-Term Care , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
14.
Pharmacol Res ; 167: 105534, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic medications are frequently prescribed to people with dementia to manage behavioural and psychological symptoms. Using a global federated research network, the objectives were to determine: 1) if COVID-19 is associated with 30-day thromboembolic events and mortality for people with dementia receiving antipsychotic medications; and 2) if the proportion of people with dementia receiving antipsychotics is higher during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to 2019. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using TriNetX, a global federated health research network. The network was searched for people aged ≥ 65 years with dementia, COVID-19 and use of antipsychotics in the 30-days prior to COVID-19 recorded in electronic medical records between 20/01/2020 and 05/12/2020. These individuals were compared to historical controls from 2019 with dementia and use of antipsychotics in the 30-days before a visit to a participating healthcare organisation. Propensity score matching for age, sex, race, co-morbidities and use of antidepressants and anticonvulsants was used to balance cohorts with and without COVID-19. RESULTS: Within the TriNetX network, 8414 individuals with COVID-19, dementia and use of antipsychotics and 31,963 historical controls were identified. After propensity score matching there were 8396 individuals with COVID-19 and 8396 historical controls. The cohorts were well balanced for age, sex, race, co-morbidities and use of antidepressants and anticonvulsants. The odds of 30-day thromboembolic events and all-cause mortality were significantly higher in adults with COVID-19 (Odds Ratios: 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-1.52) and 1.93 (1.71-2.17), respectively). The number of people with dementia with a visit to a participating healthcare organisation was lower between 20/01/2020 and 05/12/2020 (n = 165,447) compared to the same period in 2019 (n = 217,391), but the proportion receiving antipsychotics increased from 14.7% (95%CI: 14.6-14.9%) to 16.4% (95%CI: 16.2-16.5%), P < .0001. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add to the evidence base that during the COVID-19 pandemic there was an increase in the proportion of people with dementia receiving antipsychotics. The negative effects of antipsychotics in patients with dementia may be compounded by concomitant COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dementia/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/mortality , Dementia/psychology , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/mortality , Time Factors
15.
Age Ageing ; 50(3): 657-663, 2021 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044329

ABSTRACT

People with dementia can experience shrinkage of their social worlds, leading to a loss of independence, control and reduced well-being. We used 'the shrinking world' theory to examine how the COVID 19 pandemic has impacted the lives of people with early to middle stage dementia and what longer-term impacts may result. Interviews were conducted with 19 people with dementia and a thematic analysis generated five themes: the forgotten person with dementia, confusion over government guidance, deterioration of cognitive function, loss of meaning and social isolation, safety of the lockdown bubble. The findings suggest that the pandemic has accelerated the 'shrinking world' effect and created tension in how people with dementia perceive the outside world. Participants felt safe and secure in lockdown but also missed the social interaction, cognitive stimulation and meaningful activities that took place outdoors. As time in lockdown continued, these individuals experienced a loss of confidence and were anxious about their ability to re-engage in the everyday practises that allow them to participate in society. We recommend ways in which the government, communities and organisations might counteract some of the harms posed by this shrinking world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Dementia/psychology , Pandemics , Social Inclusion , Social Isolation/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction , Communicable Disease Control , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
16.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 86-93, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014250

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has infected more than 22 million people worldwide. Although much has been learned about COVID-19, we do not know much about its neurological features and their outcome. This observational study was conducted on the patients of Imam Hossein Hospital, and 361 adult patients (214 males) with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 from March 5, 2020 to April 3, 2020, were enrolled. Data was gathered on age, sex, comorbidities, initial symptoms, symptoms during the disease course, neurological symptoms, and outcome. The mean age of the patients was 61.90 ± 16.76 years. The most common initial symptoms were cough, fever, and dyspnea. In 21 patients (5.8%), the initial symptom was neurological. History of dementia was associated with severe COVID-19 disease (odds ratio = 1.28). During the course of the disease, 186 patients (51.52%) had at least one neurological symptom, the most common being headache (109 [30.2%]), followed by anosmia/ageusia (69, [19.1%]), and dizziness (54, [15%]). Also, 31 patients had neurological complications (8.58%). Anosmia, ageusia, dizziness, and headache were associated with favorable outcome (P < 0.001), while altered mental status and hemiparesis were associated with poor outcome. The mortality rate of patients who had neurological complications was more than twice than that of patients without neurological complication (P = 0.008). Almost half of the patients experienced at least one neurological symptom, which may be the initial presentation of COVID-19. Dementia appears to be associated with severe COVID-19. Mortality was higher in patients with neurological complications, and these patients needed more intensive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dementia/complications , Dyspnea/complications , Headache/complications , Paresis/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/complications , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/mortality , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/complications , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/mortality , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cough/complications , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/mortality , Cough/virology , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/mortality , Dementia/virology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/complications , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/mortality , Fever/virology , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/mortality , Headache/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paresis/diagnosis , Paresis/mortality , Paresis/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
17.
Neurodegener Dis Manag ; 11(1): 77-82, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918965

ABSTRACT

Aim: To examine whether two existing cognitive screeners might be adapted for telephone administration by omission of item content requiring visual cues or assessment. Materials & methods: Data from a test accuracy study of Mini-Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (MACE) and Free-Cog were used to derive scores for 'Tele-MACE' and 'Tele-Free-Cog'. Results: As in the index study, both Tele-MACE and Tele-Free-Cog proved sensitive for dementia diagnosis. Tele-MACE had a better balance of sensitivity and specificity than observed with MACE. Tele-MACE was sensitive for mild cognitive impairment diagnosis, whereas Tele-Free-Cog was more specific for mild cognitive impairment. Conclusion: Existing cognitive screeners may be adapted for telephone administration. Such developments may prove necessary in the COVID-19 era as remote rather than face-to-face cognitive assessment increasingly becomes the established norm.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Dementia/diagnosis , Neuropsychological Tests/standards , Telemedicine/standards , Telephone , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Neurodegener Dis Manag ; 11(1): 83-89, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918964

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic forced providers to alter their delivery of care to special populations, including older adults with cognitive impairment. The Montefiore-Einstein Center for the Aging Brain, a specialty multidisciplinary center for the evaluation and management of patients with neurodegenerative disorders, developed a coordinated approach (Coordinated Care At Risk/Remote Elderly program [CCARRE]) to reach our diverse population during the initial Covid-19 crisis in New York City, USA. In the tele-evaluation of the first 85 patients seen with CCARRE, we recognized unique factors that could improve patient care, lessen burden and optimize access to community resources. Lessons learned from the experience are shared.


Subject(s)
Advance Directives , Caregivers/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Dementia/therapy , Patient Safety , Program Development , Telemedicine , Videoconferencing , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Culturally Competent Care , Dementia/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , New York City , Social Determinants of Health , Telephone
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