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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613759

ABSTRACT

Social distancing measures imposed because of the COVID-19 pandemic presented challenges to the health and wellbeing of people with dementia, family carers, and healthcare professionals. This study investigated the impact of these measures on all involved in the care for people with dementia. For this qualitative study, 20 family carers and 20 healthcare professionals from home care and long-term care (LTC) participated in a semi-structured interview. Interviews were analysed using an inductive thematic analysis approach. For people with dementia, the social distancing measures resulted in a deterioration of physical health. The impact on their emotional state and behaviour depended on the stage of dementia. Family carers experienced difficulty coping with visiting restrictions, anxiety regarding safety, and changes in carer burden. Healthcare professionals had an increased workload, and felt guilty about adhering to restrictive measures. Differences between home care and LTC were reported (i.e., societal initiatives focussed on LTC, scarcity of activities for community-dwelling people with dementia, use of personal protective equipment more intrusive for home care). The social distancing measures had a negative impact on persons with dementia, their family carers, and healthcare professionals. More attention is needed for community-dwelling people with dementia and family carers in times of social isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Delivery of Health Care , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 720180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581131

ABSTRACT

Lack of social engagement and the resulting social isolation can have negative impacts on health and well-being, especially in senior care communities and for those living with dementia. Project VITAL leverages technology and community resources to create a network for connection, engagement, education, and support of individuals with dementia and their caregivers, and explores the impact of these interventions in reducing feelings of social isolation and increasing mood among residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Through two phases, 600 personalized Wi-Fi-enabled iN2L tablets were distributed to 300 senior care communities (55% assisted living communities, 37% skilled nursing communities, 6% memory care communities, and 2% adult family-care homes) to connect and engage residents and their families. Different phases also included Project ECHO, a video-based learning platform, Alzheimer's Association virtual and online education and support for family caregivers, evidence-based online professional dementia care staff training and certification, and Virtual Forums designed to explore ways to build sustainable, scalable models to ensure access to support and decrease social isolation in the future. Tablet usage was collected over an 11-month period and an interim survey was designed to assess the effectiveness of the tablets, in preventing social isolation and increasing mood among residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 105 care community staff (whose community used the tablets) completed the survey and overall, these staff showed a high level of agreement to statements indicating that residents struggled with loneliness and mood, and that the tablet was useful in improving loneliness and mood in residents and allowing them to stay in touch with family and friends. Additional positive results were seen through a variety of other responses around the tablets and Project ECHO. Overall, the tablets were shown to be an effective way to engage residents and connect them with friends and family, as well as being a useful tool for staff members. A third phase is currently underway in the homes of people with dementia and their family caregivers, which includes tablets and direct access to Alzheimer's Association virtual and online education and support programs.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Dementia , Adult , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Florida , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Technology
3.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(9): e00028321, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1574301

ABSTRACT

Abstract: We aim to examine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the ethnoracial disparities in hospitalizations due to dementia and its related outcomes, in Brazil. A longitudinal panel study was carried out with data extracted from the Hospital Information Systems of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SIH/SUS). We assessed the number of hospital admission per 100,000 inhabitants, mean inpatient spending, and inpatient mortality rate due to dementia during the first semester of 2019 and 2020. Data were stratified by geographic region and ethnoracial groups (black, mixed, and white) based on skin color. We observed an overall reduction in hospital admissions, mean inpatient spending, and mortality rate between the first semester of 2019 and 2020. However, the reduction of hospitalization rates among black and mixed people was 105.3% and 121.1% greater than in whites, respectively. Mortality rate was decreased by 9% in whites and was increased by 65% and 43% in the black and mixed population, respectively. In the first semester of 2020, black and mixed patients had a higher risk of losing their lives due to dementia than white people. This disparity was not observed in the same period of 2019. In 2020, the inpatient mortality ratio reached the highest values among black individuals in all regions but the North (no data available). Since the beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil, ethnoracial disparity in hospital admissions and mortality rates due to dementia has been heightened. Governmental actions and policies to mitigate this indirect effect of the pandemic on the Brazilian population are urgent.


Resumo: O estudo teve como objetivo examinar o efeito da pandemia da COVID-19 sobre disparidades étnico-raciais nas hospitalizações e desfechos relacionados à demência no Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo de painel longitudinal com dados extraídos do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde (SIH/SUS). Avaliamos o número de internações hospitalares por 100 mil habitantes, média de gastos hospitalares e taxa de mortalidade por demência durante o primeiro semestre de 2019 e de 2020. Os dados foram estratificados por região geográfica e grupo étnico-racial (preto, pardo e branco) com base na cor da pele. Observamos uma redução geral nas internações, média de gastos hospitalares e taxa de mortalidade entre o primeiro semestre de 2019 e o mesmo período em 2020. Entretanto, as reduções nas taxas de hospitalização entre pretos e pardos foram 105,3% e 121,1% maiores que em brancos, respectivamente. A taxa de mortalidade diminuiu em 9% entre brancos e aumentou em 65% e 43% entre pretos e pardos, respectivamente. No primeiro semestre de 2020, pacientes pretos e pardos tiveram um risco mais alto de perder a vida por demência quando comparados aos brancos, disparidade essa não havia sido observada no mesmo período de 2019. Em 2020, a razão de mortalidade hospitalar atingiu os níveis mais altos em indivíduos pretos em todas as regiões exceto a Norte (dados não publicados). Desde o início da epidemia de COVID-19 no Brasil, aumentou a disparidade étnico-racial nas internações e taxas de mortalidade por demência. São necessárias medidas e políticas governamentais para mitigar esse efeito indireto da pandemia sobre a população brasileira.


Resumen: El objetivo fue examinar el efecto de la pandemia de COVID-19 respecto a las disparidades étnico-raciales en hospitalizaciones, así como los resultados informados de las mismas, debido a la demencia en Brasil. Se trata de un estudio longitudinal en panel, realizado con datos extraídos del Sistema de Informaciones Hospitalarias del Sistema Único de Salud (SIH/SUS). Evaluamos el número de admisiones hospitalarias por 100.000 habitantes, la media del gasto hospitalario, además de la tasa de mortalidad hospitalaria, debido a la demencia, durante el primer semestre de 2019 y 2020. Los datos fueron estratificados por región geográfica y grupos étnico-raciales (negros, mestizos, y blancos), basados en su color de piel. Observamos en general una reducción en las admisiones hospitalarias, media del gasto hospitalario, y tasa de mortalidad entre el primer semestre de 2019 y 2020. No obstante, la reducción de las tasas de hospitalización entre negros y mestizos fue 105.3% y 121.1% superior, respecto a la de los blancos, respectivamente. La tasa de mortalidad decreció un 9% en blancos y aumentó en un 65% y un 43% en la población negra y mestiza, comparativamente. En el primer semestre de 2020, los pacientes negros y mestizos tenían un riesgo más alto de fallecer, debido a la demencia que la gente blanca, esta disparidad no se observó en el mismo periodo de 2019. En 2020, la ratio de mortalidad hospitalaria alcanzó los valores más altos entre individuos negros en todas las regiones, salvo en el Norte (no había datos disponibles). Desde el principio de la epidemia de COVID-19 en Brasil, la disparidad étnico-racial en las admisiones hospitalarias y tasas de mortalidad, debido a la demencia, se ha incrementado. Son urgentes acciones gubernamentales y políticas para mitigar este efecto indirecto de la pandemia en la población brasileña.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dementia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26257, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, an initial risk-adapted allocation is crucial for managing medical resources and providing intensive care. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to identify factors that predict the overall survival rate for COVID-19 cases and develop a COVID-19 prognosis score (COPS) system based on these factors. In addition, disease severity and the length of hospital stay for patients with COVID-19 were analyzed. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a nationwide cohort of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases between January and April 2020 in Korea. The cohort was split randomly into a development cohort and a validation cohort with a 2:1 ratio. In the development cohort (n=3729), we tried to identify factors associated with overall survival and develop a scoring system to predict the overall survival rate by using parameters identified by the Cox proportional hazard regression model with bootstrapping methods. In the validation cohort (n=1865), we evaluated the prediction accuracy using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The score of each variable in the COPS system was rounded off following the log-scaled conversion of the adjusted hazard ratio. RESULTS: Among the 5594 patients included in this analysis, 234 (4.2%) died after receiving a COVID-19 diagnosis. In the development cohort, six parameters were significantly related to poor overall survival: older age, dementia, chronic renal failure, dyspnea, mental disturbance, and absolute lymphocyte count <1000/mm3. The following risk groups were formed: low-risk (score 0-2), intermediate-risk (score 3), high-risk (score 4), and very high-risk (score 5-7) groups. The COPS system yielded an area under the curve value of 0.918 for predicting the 14-day survival rate and 0.896 for predicting the 28-day survival rate in the validation cohort. Using the COPS system, 28-day survival rates were discriminatively estimated at 99.8%, 95.4%, 82.3%, and 55.1% in the low-risk, intermediate-risk, high-risk, and very high-risk groups, respectively, of the total cohort (P<.001). The length of hospital stay and disease severity were directly associated with overall survival (P<.001), and the hospital stay duration was significantly longer among survivors (mean 26.1, SD 10.7 days) than among nonsurvivors (mean 15.6, SD 13.3 days). CONCLUSIONS: The newly developed predictive COPS system may assist in making risk-adapted decisions for the allocation of medical resources, including intensive care, during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Dementia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , ROC Curve , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512288

ABSTRACT

Recruiting participants for dementia research takes time. For those who are interested, opportunities to participate can be ad hoc. Delays in finding the right participants can result in studies taking longer to deliver, often requiring funding extensions, and ultimately increasing the cost and limiting the effectiveness of research and evaluation. To address these issues, a digital platform, StepUp for Dementia Research, was developed in 2019 and evaluated through ongoing data analytics, researcher feedback and annual volunteer surveys in 2019 and 2021. Using innovative matching technology, StepUp provides volunteers with an opt-in, secure way of registering interest in dementia studies and allows researchers to access matched volunteers in Australia. As of June 2021, 1070 volunteers registered (78% female), and 25 organizations became 'champions' for StepUp promotion. Of 122 registered researchers, 90 completed training. Forty studies from 17 research/health institutions recruited participants using StepUp. The evaluation demonstrated program feasibility and recruitment efficiency with a high level of satisfaction from users. Evaluation outcomes highlighted disparities in public participation in dementia research (e.g., gender, education and race/ethnicity) and provided valuable insights for further enhancements of StepUp. A concerted and strategic effort is needed by leading registries such as StepUp to ensure narrowing volunteer participation gaps in dementia research.


Subject(s)
Community Participation , Dementia , Australia , Dementia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Registries , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 65, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias currently represent the fifth most common cause of death in the world, according to the World Health Organization, with a projected future increase as the proportion of the elderly in the population is growing. Air pollution has emerged as a plausible risk factor for AD, but studies estimating dementia cases attributable to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and resulting monetary estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used data on average population-weighted exposure to ambient PM2.5 for the entire population of Sweden above 30 years of age. To estimate the annual number of dementia cases attributable to air pollution in the Swedish population above 60 years of age, we used the latest concentration response functions (CRF) between PM2.5 exposure and dementia incidence, based on ten longitudinal cohort studies, for the population above 60 years of age. To estimate the monetary burden of attributable cases, we calculated total costs related to dementia, including direct and indirect lifetime costs and intangible costs by including quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost. Two different monetary valuations of QALYs in Sweden were used to estimate the monetary value of reduced quality-of-life from two different payer perspectives. RESULTS: The annual number of dementia cases attributable to PM2.5 exposure was estimated to be 820, which represents 5% of the annual dementia cases in Sweden. Direct and indirect lifetime average cost per dementia case was estimated to correspond € 213,000. A reduction of PM2.5 by 1 µg/m3 was estimated to yield 101 fewer cases of dementia incidences annually, resulting in an estimated monetary benefit ranging up to 0.01% of the Swedish GDP in 2019. CONCLUSION: This study estimated that 5% of annual dementia cases could be attributed to PM2.5 exposure, and that the resulting monetary burden is substantial. These findings suggest the need to consider airborne toxic pollutants associated with dementia incidence in public health policy decisions.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants , Particulate Matter , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cost of Illness , Dementia/economics , Dementia/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/economics , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/economics , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/economics , Quality of Life , Sweden/epidemiology
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258914, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors of severe COVID-19 have mainly been investigated in the hospital setting. We investigated pre-defined risk factors for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiovascular or pulmonary complications in the outpatient setting. METHODS: The present cohort study makes use of ambulatory claims data of statutory health insurance physicians in Bavaria, Germany, with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test confirmed or excluded SARS-CoV-2 infection in first three quarters of 2020. Statistical modelling and machine learning were used for effect estimation and for hypothesis testing of risk factors, and for prognostic modelling of cardiovascular or pulmonary complications. RESULTS: A cohort of 99 811 participants with PCR test was identified. In a fully adjusted multivariable regression model, dementia (odds ratio (OR) = 1.36), type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.14) and obesity (OR = 1.08) were identified as significantly associated with a positive PCR test result. Significant risk factors for cardiovascular or pulmonary complications were coronary heart disease (CHD) (OR = 2.58), hypertension (OR = 1.65), tobacco consumption (OR = 1.56), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 1.53), previous pneumonia (OR = 1.53), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 1.25) and type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.23). Three simple decision rules derived from prognostic modelling based on age, hypertension, CKD, COPD and CHD were able to identify high risk patients with a sensitivity of 74.8% and a specificity of 80.0%. CONCLUSIONS: The decision rules achieved a high prognostic accuracy non-inferior to complex machine learning methods. They might help to identify patients at risk, who should receive special attention and intensified protection in ambulatory care.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Hypertension , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Germany , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
9.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 583, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, restrictive measures have been taken to manage the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Social distancing and self-isolation have considerably affected the lives of people with dementia and their informal caregivers. The purpose of the study was to explore the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic as experienced by the spouses of home-dwelling people with dementia in Norway. METHODS: The study had a qualitative descriptive design using individual telephone interviews for data collection. A total sample of 17 spouses of people with dementia were included, 14 women and three men ages 52 to 82 years. A qualitative content analysis following six steps inspired by Graneheim and Lundman was used to identify the categories presented. RESULTS: The participants emphasized four main perspectives: 1) Radical changes in available services, 2) Restrictions changed everyday life, 3) Impacts on health and well-being, and 4) Actions that made life easier. The participants also described how positive activities and easily accessible services helped them in this situation. CONCLUSIONS: The governmental restrictions of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in radical changes in available services with severe consequences for the lives and well-being of home-dwelling people with dementia and their spouses. Examples of coping strategies and possible psychosocial interventions compatible with virus precautions were identified. The potential of such interventions should be further explored to meet the needs of vulnerable groups in situations like a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Caregivers , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spouses
10.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 529, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restrictions introduced in response to the COVID-19 pandemic led to increased risk of deconditioning in the general population. No empirical evidence of this effect however has been gathered in people living with dementia. This study aims to identify the causes and effects of COVID-19-related deconditioning in people living with dementia. METHODS: This is a longitudinal phenomenological qualitative study. Participants living with dementia, their caregivers and therapists involved in the Promoting Activity, Independence and Stability in Early Dementia (PrAISED) process evaluation during the COVID-19 pandemic were qualitatively interviewed at two time points: the baseline 2 months after the national lockdown was imposed in England (i.e., May 2020), the follow up 2 months after the first set (i.e. July 2020). The data were analysed through deductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-four participants living with dementia, 19 caregivers and 15 therapists took part in the study. Two themes were identified: Causes of deconditioning in people living with dementia during the COVID-19 pandemic and effects of deconditioning in people living with dementia during the COVID-19 pandemic. A self-reinforcing pattern was common, whereby lockdown made the person apathetic, demotivated, socially disengaged, and frailer. This reduced activity levels, which in turn reinforced the effects of deconditioning over time. Without external supporters, most participants lacked the motivation / cognitive abilities to keep active. Provided the proper infrastructure and support, some participants could use tele-rehabilitation to combat deconditioning. CONCLUSION: The added risks and effects of deconditioning on people with dementia require considerable efforts from policy makers and clinicians to ensure that they initiate and maintain physical activity in prolonged periods of social distancing. Delivering rehabilitation in the same way as before the pandemic might not be feasible or sustainable and innovative approaches must be found. Digital support for this population has shown promising results but remains a challenge. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The PrAISED trial and process evaluation have received ethical approval number 18/YH/0059 from the Bradford/Leeds Ethics Committee. The ISRCTN Registration Number for PrAISED is  15320670 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Communicable Disease Control , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(11): 2258-2262.e1, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440152

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted use of home care services for individuals with dementia across service types and sociodemographic strata. DESIGN: Population-based time series analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults with dementia in Ontario, Canada, from January 2019 to September 2020. METHODS: We used health administrative databases (Ontario Registered Persons Database and Home Care Database) to measure home care services used by participants. Poisson regression models were fit to compare weekly rates of home care services during the pandemic to historical trends with rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) stratified by service type (nursing, personal care, therapy), sex, rurality, and neighborhood income quintile. RESULTS: During the first wave of the pandemic, personal care fell by 16% compared to historical levels (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.84, 0.85) and therapies fell by 50% (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.48, 0.52), whereas nursing did not significantly decline (RR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00, 1.04). All rates had recovered by September 2020, with nursing and therapies higher than historical levels. Changes in services were largely consistent across sociodemographic strata, although the rural population experienced a larger decline in personal care and smaller rebound in nursing. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Personal care and therapies for individuals with dementia were interrupted during the early months of the pandemic, whereas nursing was only minimally impacted. Pandemic responses with the potential to disrupt home care for individuals living with dementia must balance the impacts on individuals with dementia, caregivers, and providers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Home Care Services , Adult , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Independent Living , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1003, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 isolated home-dwelling people with dementia (PwD) from home care services, respite care, and daytime activities. We aimed to investigate the consequences of these restrictions on informal (family, friends) and formal (homecare staff) resource utilization among co-residing (e.g., spouses) and visiting caregivers (e.g., children). METHODS: 105 PwD (≥65 years old) and their caregivers were included in the prospective PANdemic in DEMentia (PAN.DEM) study, which was initiated when the ongoing stepped-wedge, cluster randomized LIVE@Home.Path trial (N = 438) was temporarily halted due to the pandemic. Primary outcome was change in resource utilization assessed by the Resource Utilization in Dementia Care (RUD) instrument in pre- (12 Dec. 2019 to 11 Mar. 2020) and during the lockdown periods (20 April 2020 to 15 May 2020). Degree of cognitive impairment was assessed by Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and physical functioning and independent living skills by Physical Self-Maintenance Scale and Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale. Associations between informal and formal care utilization, socio-demographics, and clinical variables were assessed by descriptive statistics and Ordinary Least Squares models (OLS). RESULTS: Mean age for PwD was 81.8 years; 61% were female; 45.6% lived alone, and the mean MMSE score was 20.8 (SD ± 3.7). PwD with co-residents (44%) were younger (78.4 years) than those who were living alone (84.5 years; P < 0.001). During the first 2 months of lockdown, PwD missed on average 20.5 h of formal care in a month (P < 0.001) leading to an approximately 100% increase in informal care, which was particularly pronounced in personal hygiene (6.9 vs. 11.4 days in a month, P < 0.001) and supervision (9.2 vs. 17.6 days in a month; P < 0.001). Visiting caregivers increased by 1.9 days (SD ± 11.5), but co-residing caregivers increased their number of days providing ADL by approximately 7 days per month (ß = 6.9; CI, 0.39-13.1, P < 0.05) after adjusting for PwD and caregiver demographics and clinical variables. Decrease in home nursing care was particularly visible for PwD living alone (- 6.1 vs. -1.3 h per month, P = 0.005). Higher cognitive function (ß = - 0.64, CI, - 1.26 - 0.02, P = 0.044) was associated with reduction in home nursing service during the lockdown. CONCLUSION: The care situation for PwD changed dramatically in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for those living alone who received less support from homecare services and visiting caregivers. For future crises and the forthcoming post-pandemic period, health authorities must plan better and identify and prioritize those in greatest need. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ; NCT04043364 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Caregivers , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 996, 2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with dementia account for a large proportion of deaths due to COVID-19. Family carers are faced with making significant and emotive decisions during the pandemic, including decisions about end of life. We aimed to explore the challenges faced by family carers of people living with dementia during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in England, as reported by charity telephone support line staff, who were able to objectively discuss a range of different experiences of many different carers who call the helpline. In particular, we focussed on key concerns and areas of decision making at the end of life. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with eight telephone support line staff from two UK based charities who support carers of people living with dementia and those at the end of life. Interviews were conducted in the first wave of the pandemic in England in May-June 2020. RESULTS: An overarching theme of uncertainty and reactivity during a crisis was identified, and within this, five main themes were identified: concerns about care transitions, uncertainty in engaging support and help, pandemic-motivated care planning, maintaining the wellbeing of the person living with dementia, and trust, loss of agency and confusion. CONCLUSIONS: Family carers may be reluctant to seek support because of fear of what may happen to their relative, which may include hospitalisation and becoming ill with COVID-19, care home placement, or not being able to be with a relative at the end of life. In some cases, a lack of trust has developed, and instead carers are seeking support from alternative services they trust such as nationally known charities.This study was used to inform the development of a decision aid to support family carers making decisions about care for their relative with dementia during the pandemic, who the lack the capacity to make their own decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Death , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(1): 43-49, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381382

ABSTRACT

We aimed to explore the awareness and preparedness of dementia caregivers and people with mild cognitive deficits on how to prevent COVID-19 infection and cope with the indirect consequences of the pandemic. A total of 139 patient-caregiver dyads received a telephone survey and 109 completed the survey. The majority of respondents reported having a moderate-to-good knowledge of the typical manifestations of COVID-19. Conversely, only few of them were informed of the atypical presentations and on how to recognize emergency warning signs. Filling the knowledge gaps on COVID-19 in the most vulnerable people may represent a significant resource to tackle the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Dementia/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Literacy , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caregivers/education , Caregivers/psychology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy/methods , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Italy/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment/methods
16.
J Appl Gerontol ; 41(1): 30-35, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341407

ABSTRACT

Social-distancing guidelines from the COVID-19 pandemic have potential to compound morbidity in persons with dementia (PwD) and increase caregiver burden. This qualitative study utilized semi-structured interviews between August-November 2020 to explore the impact of COVID-19 on PwD and caregivers. Conventional qualitative content analysis was used. Inter-coder reliability was confirmed using the kappa coefficient. Twenty-five interviews were completed with four themes emerging: disruption of socialization, fear and risk mitigation, coping strategies, and caregiver burden. Participants described how lack of socialization and confinement led to feelings of loneliness, depression, and worsening memory problems. Caregivers reported increased burden and heightened feelings of responsibility for their loved one. Increased isolation imposed by the pandemic has a detrimental impact on PwD. Further work is needed to develop interventions to support PwD and other cognitive impairments and caregivers during the pandemic and when in-person socialization is not possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(8): 1435, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320311
19.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 89: 90-92, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may be at increased risk of Covid-19 mortality due to the nature of their disease or underlying conditions. METHOD: The information of 12,909 Covid-19 patients who were hospitalized during the last eleven months were collected from the data depository of two referral university hospitals. Eighty-seven of these patients were diagnosed with PD, and thirty-one of these PD patients died because of Covid-19. 2132 other deaths occurred in these centers, related to Covid-19 of non-PD patients. Fisher exact test, Chi-square test, and Principle component analysis were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mortality among PD patients and other hospitalized patients was 35.6% and 19.8%, respectively, and the difference between the mortality of these two groups was found to be statistically significant (p-value<0.01). The mean age of PD patients who passed away was 77.06 ± 7.46, and it was not significantly different from that of alive PD patients (p-value>0.05). Alzheimer's disease as an underlying condition was more frequent in deceased PD patients in comparison to survived PD patients, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (p-value<0.01). CONCLUSION: PD patients possess a higher rate of Covid-19 mortality in comparison with other patients hospitalized for Covid-19. PD pathophysiology, advanced age, underlying conditions, and health systems' efficacy may play an essential role in such an outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Dementia/complications , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Parkinson Disease/mortality , Principal Component Analysis , Survival Analysis
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