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2.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(2): 90, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184738
3.
Alzheimers Dement ; 18(4): 790-809, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2172367

ABSTRACT

In tandem with the ever-increasing aging population in low and middle-income countries, the burden of dementia is rising on the African continent. Dementia prevalence varies from 2.3% to 20.0% and incidence rates are 13.3 per 1000 person-years with increasing mortality in parts of rapidly transforming Africa. Differences in nutrition, cardiovascular factors, comorbidities, infections, mortality, and detection likely contribute to lower incidence. Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated neurocognitive disorders are the most common dementia subtypes. Comprehensive longitudinal studies with robust methodology and regional coverage would provide more reliable information. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is most studied but has shown differential effects within African ancestry compared to Caucasian. More candidate gene and genome-wide association studies are needed to relate to dementia phenotypes. Validated culture-sensitive cognitive tools not influenced by education and language differences are critically needed for implementation across multidisciplinary groupings such as the proposed African Dementia Consortium.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Dementia, Vascular , Dementia , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/genetics , Dementia, Vascular/complications , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Humans
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e189, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150941

ABSTRACT

The risk factors specific to the elderly population for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the Omicron variant of concern (VOC) are not yet clear. We performed an exploratory analysis using logistic regression to identify risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness among 4,868 older adults with a positive severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test result who were admitted to a healthcare facility between 1 January 2022 and 16 May 2022. We then conducted one-to-one propensity score (PS) matching for three factors - dementia, admission from a long-term care facility and poor physical activity status - and used Fisher's exact test to compare the proportion of severe COVID-19 cases in the matched data. We also estimated the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) in each PS matching analysis. Of the 4,868 cases analysed, 1,380 were severe. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, male sex, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic lung disease, renal failure and/or dialysis, physician-diagnosed obesity, admission from a long-term care facility and poor physical activity status were risk factors for severe disease. Vaccination and dementia were identified as factors associated with non-severe illness. The ATT for dementia, admission from a long-term care facility and poor physical activity status was -0.04 (95% confidence interval -0.07 to -0.01), 0.09 (0.06 to 0.12) and 0.17 (0.14 to 0.19), respectively. Our results suggest that poor physical activity status and living in a long-term care facility have a substantial association with the risk of severe COVID-19 caused by the Omicron VOC, while dementia may be associated with non-severe illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Male , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Exercise , Dementia/epidemiology
5.
MEDICC Rev ; 24(3-4): 9, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146589
6.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 878, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139163

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Significant mortality amongst vulnerable populations, such as people living with dementia, might go undetected during pandemic conditions due to refocus of care efforts. There is an urgent need to fully evaluate the pandemic impact on mortality amongst people living with dementia in order to facilitate future healthcare reforms and prevent deaths. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any significant difference in mortality amongst people with dementia without COVID-19 during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to previous years. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in 5 databases. The relative risk ratio and confidence interval was used to estimate the change in mortality rates amongst people with dementia during the COVID-19 pandemic. The I2 value was used to assess heterogeneity, publication bias, and sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Pooled analysis of 11 studies showed that mortality amongst people living with dementia was significantly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic for people with dementia without COVID-19. Mortality risk increased by 25% during the time period studied. Subgroup analysis was not performed due the low number of included studies. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that people with dementia had a significant increased mortality during the pandemic even if they did not have COVID-19. People with dementia should participate in efforts that reduce general social spread and pandemic impact on healthcare system such as vaccinations, mask mandates, and testing. These results have clinical implications as preventing direct COVID-19 infection is not enough to adequately protect people living with dementia from increased mortality. Measures to limit social spread of infections and help support patients should also be a focus for clinicians. Further research should focus on the identification of mechanisms and other explanations for increased mortality as well as contributing factors such as living in care homes and differences between countries with various pandemic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Humans , Pandemics , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 852, 2022 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elder abuse is a serious issue with a global prevalence of 15.7% in the community setting. Persons with dementia are at higher risk of elder abuse than the older population in general. With a high and increasing prevalence of dementia this issue cannot be neglected. Hence, the aims of this study were 1) to describe the proportion of abusive episodes among home-dwelling persons with dementia and their informal caregivers, and 2) to explore differences between informal caregivers who have reported committing and not committing abusive acts. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among informal caregivers of home-dwelling persons with dementia in Norway from May to December 2021 with a total of 549 participants. RESULTS: Two-thirds of informal caregivers had committed at least one abusive episode toward the person with dementia in the past year (63.5% psychological abuse, 9.4% physical abuse, 3.9% financial abuse, 2.4% sexual abuse, 6.5% neglect). One-third of informal caregivers had experienced aggression from the person with dementia (33.9% psychological abuse, 7.8% physical abuse, 1.1% financial abuse, 1.4% sexual abuse). Tests for independence showed that the risk of abusive episodes from informal caregivers toward persons with dementia was higher when the informal caregiver was a spouse/partner of the person with dementia and if they experienced aggression from the person with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that a majority of informal caregivers commit some form of abusive episodes, and episodes that fall within the scope of psychological abuse are most frequent. This study expands knowledge about elder abuse among home-dwelling persons with dementia. Increased understanding of the dynamics of abuse is essential to be able to reduce risk and prevent abuse.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Elder Abuse , Humans , Aged , Caregivers/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/psychology , Elder Abuse/psychology , Norway/epidemiology
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1372, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a disease that impacts people with dementia, their families, and the healthcare system. In 2018, the number of people with dementia in the EU, the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and the UK was estimated to be 9.1 million. National dementia strategies and publications by organisations such as Alzheimer Europe outline how dementia-specific care should be designed. This study aims to provide insights into existing formal care structures, models of good practise, and gaps in dementia-specific care for people with dementia in 17 European countries. METHODS: The research is based on guided interviews with country-specific care experts. A mixed-methods approach with a combination of open and closed questions was used. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim based on the transcription rules of Kuckarts (2010). For data evaluation, the qualitative content analysis model of Mayring (2014) was used. RESULTS: In all 17 countries, efforts for dementia-friendly care and models of good care practise exist. However, there are large differences between European countries regarding the spread of dementia-specific services. In nine countries (Bulgaria, Finland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the UK), there are already nationwide structures, while in five countries (Belgium, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Romania), services are only available in certain regions. In three countries (Austria, Denmark, Germany) dementia-specific outpatient services are widespread nationwide, whereas inpatient services are not. Simultaneously, in all countries, areas with major care gaps exist. Several European states have an urgent need for action concerning the expansion of the provision of dementia-specific services, the reduction of regional differences regarding the provision of care, the elimination of barriers to access to care, the dementia-friendliness of services, and the participation of people with dementia and their relatives in care and research. CONCLUSIONS: To reduce the existing structural inequalities in care between and within European countries, and to establish quality-related minimum standards in the care of people with dementia, transnational concepts are needed. The EU, in cooperation with care planners, research institutions, care providers, and patient organisations, should develop European care guidelines or dementia plans that contain concrete measures, schedules, and budgets.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Dementia , Humans , Europe , Italy , Netherlands , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy
9.
WMJ ; 121(3): 226-230, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083714

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: People living with dementia have been particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A survey of dementia care professionals was conducted to assess the use of health care and community-based services by people living with dementia and their caregivers during the first year of the pandemic. RESULTS: The survey indicated that most services were no longer being used or were being used less during the pandemic, with a few key exceptions. DISCUSSION: Many barriers and few facilitators were identified to service use for people living with dementia and their caregivers. The results identify potential gaps in the dementia care service network and may inform efforts to improve dementia care during future large-scale public health emergencies in the state of Wisconsin and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Humans , Caregivers , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Community Health Services , Delivery of Health Care
10.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 89(1): 359-366, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disease modifying treatments (DMTs) currently under development for Alzheimer's disease, have the potential to prevent or postpone institutionalization and more expensive care and might delay institutionalization of persons with dementia. OBJECTIVE: The current study estimates costs of living in a nursing home for persons with dementia in the Netherlands to help inform economic evaluations of future DMTs. METHODS: Data were collected during semi-structured interviews with healthcare professionals and from the financial administration of a healthcare organization with several nursing homes. Personnel costs were calculated using a bottom-up approach by valuing the time estimates. Non-personnel costs were calculated using information from the financial administration of the healthcare organization. RESULTS: Total costs of a person with dementia per 24 hours, including both care staff and other healthcare providers, were € 151 for small-scale living wards and € 147 for independent living wards. Non-personnel costs were € 37 per day. CONCLUSION: This study provides Dutch estimates for total healthcare costs per day for institutionalized persons with dementia. These cost estimates can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses for future DMTs in dementia.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Health Care Costs , Humans , Institutionalization , Netherlands/epidemiology , Nursing Homes
11.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 48(10): 21-25, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055510

ABSTRACT

Homebound older adults with dementia have increased health care use, hospitalization rates, and mortality risk, which are associated with considerable health care costs. A large, unmet need for individuals with dementia is home-based medical care. Although our institution has had a primary care program for homebound patients since 2019, we did not have an analogous program for patients with dementia before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, with increased health risks and challenges associated with the pandemic, we rapidly expanded the program to include facility-based older adults with dementia. We incorporated telemedicine and home-based visits to effectively provide patient-centered care that was aligned with their goals and preferences, and we describe a program example of how we provided care during a COVID-19 outbreak in a large facility. Further research is needed to capture potential cost savings and hospitalization rates for persons with dementia who receive home-based medical care. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 48(10), 21-25.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Homebound Persons , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dementia/epidemiology , House Calls , Humans , Pandemics
12.
Aten Primaria ; 54(10): 102463, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048911

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to analyse the association of demographic, clinical and pharmacological risk factors with the presence of SARS-COV-2 virus infection, as well as to know the variables related to mortality from COVID-19 in nursing home (NH) residents. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. The study variables of those residents who acquired the infection (case) were compared with those of the residents who did not acquire it (control). A subgroup analysis was carried out to study those variables related to mortality. SITE: Nursing homes in the region of Guipúzcoa (Spain). PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: 4 NHs with outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 between March and December 2020 participated in the study. The infectivity and, secondary, mortality was studied, as well as demographic, clinical and pharmacological variables associated with them. Data were collected from the computerised clinical records. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Infection and mortality rate. Risk factors associated with infection and mortality. RESULTS: 436 residents were studied (median age 87 years (IQR 11)), 173 acquired SARS-CoV-2 (39.7%). People with dementia and Global Deterioration Scale ≥6 were less likely to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 virus [OR=0.65 (95% CI 0.43-0.97; p<.05)]. Overall case fatality rate was 10.3% (a mortality of 26% among those who acquired the infection). COVID-19 mortality was significantly associated with a Global Deterioration Scale ≥6 (OR=4.9 (95% CI 1.5-16.1)), COPD diagnosis (OR=7.8 (95% CI 1.9-31.3)) and antipsychotic use (OR=3.1 (95% CI 1.0-9.0)). CONCLUSIONS: Advanced dementia has been associated with less risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection but higher risk of COVID-19 mortality. COPD and chronic use of antipsychotics have also been associated with mortality. These results highlight the importance of determining the stage of diseases such as dementia as well as maintaining some caution in the use of some drugs such as antipsychotics.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Dementia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Nursing Homes , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Dementia (London) ; 21(8): 2536-2552, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Like so many others, persons living with dementia have been greatly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. A Stakeholder Advisory Council set a research priority to learn more about the experiences of families living with dementia during COVID-19. METHODS: This study was conducted using a multi-method design. Online surveys were completed by 27 persons living with dementia to rate the impact of COVID-19 on their health and healthcare. Additionally, interviews (n = 3) and two focus groups were conducted via Zoom with eight participants to explore the experiences of persons living with dementia during COVID-19. RESULTS: Most participants in this study reported that COVID-19 had some to extreme impact on their anxiety, feelings of isolation, and quality of life. Focus groups and interviews provided context and increased understanding of the main survey findings, with participants also describing other concerns and how they were coping with all of the challenges that came with COVID-19. Five themes from the qualitative data were health, isolation, feelings about COVID-19, adapting to COVID-19, and self-refection. DISCUSSION: Although persons living with dementia described the ways that COVID-19 impacted on their quality of life, they also described strategies for coping. For those persons living with dementia who are able to utilize technology, this study highlights the ongoing need to provide virtual opportunities for socialization and support. These findings also emphasize the need to create safe opportunities for socialization such as small socially distanced activities that may allow persons living with dementia to maintain social connections through the COVID-19 pandemic and throughout the progression of their disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Socialization , Dementia/epidemiology
14.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 9(10): 815-827, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with increased risks of neurological and psychiatric sequelae in the weeks and months thereafter. How long these risks remain, whether they affect children and adults similarly, and whether SARS-CoV-2 variants differ in their risk profiles remains unclear. METHODS: In this analysis of 2-year retrospective cohort studies, we extracted data from the TriNetX electronic health records network, an international network of de-identified data from health-care records of approximately 89 million patients collected from hospital, primary care, and specialist providers (mostly from the USA, but also from Australia, the UK, Spain, Bulgaria, India, Malaysia, and Taiwan). A cohort of patients of any age with COVID-19 diagnosed between Jan 20, 2020, and April 13, 2022, was identified and propensity-score matched (1:1) to a contemporaneous cohort of patients with any other respiratory infection. Matching was done on the basis of demographic factors, risk factors for COVID-19 and severe COVID-19 illness, and vaccination status. Analyses were stratified by age group (age <18 years [children], 18-64 years [adults], and ≥65 years [older adults]) and date of diagnosis. We assessed the risks of 14 neurological and psychiatric diagnoses after SARS-CoV-2 infection and compared these risks with the matched comparator cohort. The 2-year risk trajectories were represented by time-varying hazard ratios (HRs) and summarised using the 6-month constant HRs (representing the risks in the earlier phase of follow-up, which have not yet been well characterised in children), the risk horizon for each outcome (ie, the time at which the HR returns to 1), and the time to equal incidence in the two cohorts. We also estimated how many people died after a neurological or psychiatric diagnosis during follow-up in each age group. Finally, we compared matched cohorts of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 directly before and after the emergence of the alpha (B.1.1.7), delta (B.1.617.2), and omicron (B.1.1.529) variants. FINDINGS: We identified 1 487 712 patients with a recorded diagnosis of COVID-19 during the study period, of whom 1 284 437 (185 748 children, 856 588 adults, and 242 101 older adults; overall mean age 42·5 years [SD 21·9]; 741 806 [57·8%] were female and 542 192 [42·2%] were male) were adequately matched with an equal number of patients with another respiratory infection. The risk trajectories of outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection in the whole cohort differed substantially. While most outcomes had HRs significantly greater than 1 after 6 months (with the exception of encephalitis; Guillain-Barré syndrome; nerve, nerve root, and plexus disorder; and parkinsonism), their risk horizons and time to equal incidence varied greatly. Risks of the common psychiatric disorders returned to baseline after 1-2 months (mood disorders at 43 days, anxiety disorders at 58 days) and subsequently reached an equal overall incidence to the matched comparison group (mood disorders at 457 days, anxiety disorders at 417 days). By contrast, risks of cognitive deficit (known as brain fog), dementia, psychotic disorders, and epilepsy or seizures were still increased at the end of the 2-year follow-up period. Post-COVID-19 risk trajectories differed in children compared with adults: in the 6 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, children were not at an increased risk of mood (HR 1·02 [95% CI 0·94-1·10) or anxiety (1·00 [0·94-1·06]) disorders, but did have an increased risk of cognitive deficit, insomnia, intracranial haemorrhage, ischaemic stroke, nerve, nerve root, and plexus disorders, psychotic disorders, and epilepsy or seizures (HRs ranging from 1·20 [1·09-1·33] to 2·16 [1·46-3·19]). Unlike adults, cognitive deficit in children had a finite risk horizon (75 days) and a finite time to equal incidence (491 days). A sizeable proportion of older adults who received a neurological or psychiatric diagnosis, in either cohort, subsequently died, especially those diagnosed with dementia or epilepsy or seizures. Risk profiles were similar just before versus just after the emergence of the alpha variant (n=47 675 in each cohort). Just after (vs just before) the emergence of the delta variant (n=44 835 in each cohort), increased risks of ischaemic stroke, epilepsy or seizures, cognitive deficit, insomnia, and anxiety disorders were observed, compounded by an increased death rate. With omicron (n=39 845 in each cohort), there was a lower death rate than just before emergence of the variant, but the risks of neurological and psychiatric outcomes remained similar. INTERPRETATION: This analysis of 2-year retrospective cohort studies of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 showed that the increased incidence of mood and anxiety disorders was transient, with no overall excess of these diagnoses compared with other respiratory infections. In contrast, the increased risk of psychotic disorder, cognitive deficit, dementia, and epilepsy or seizures persisted throughout. The differing trajectories suggest a different pathogenesis for these outcomes. Children have a more benign overall profile of psychiatric risk than do adults and older adults, but their sustained higher risk of some diagnoses is of concern. The fact that neurological and psychiatric outcomes were similar during the delta and omicron waves indicates that the burden on the health-care system might continue even with variants that are less severe in other respects. Our findings are relevant to understanding individual-level and population-level risks of neurological and psychiatric disorders after SARS-CoV-2 infection and can help inform our responses to them. FUNDING: National Institute for Health and Care Research Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centre, The Wolfson Foundation, and MQ Mental Health Research.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Dementia , Ischemic Stroke , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stroke , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Dementia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures
17.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 37(10)2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research into people with dementia's experiences of the Covid-19 pandemic has tended to focus on vulnerabilities and negative outcomes, with the risk of reproducing a discourse in which people with dementia are positioned as passive. Informed by concepts positioning people with dementia as 'active social agents', we aimed to identify the pandemic-related challenges faced by people recently diagnosed with dementia and examine the ways in which they actively coped with, and adapted to, these challenges. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In-depth interviews with 21 people recently diagnosed with dementia, recruited through an existing national cohort. Data was analysed thematically using Framework. FINDINGS: Key challenges included reduced social contact, loneliness and loss of social routines; difficulties accessing and trusting health services; dementia-unfriendly practices; and disparate experiences of being able to 'get out' into the physical neighbourhood. People with dementia responded to challenges by maintaining and extending their social networks and making the most of 'nodding acquaintances'; learning new skills, for communication and hobbies; supporting others, engaging in reciprocal exchange and valuing connection with peers; seeking help and advocacy and challenging and resisting dementia-unfriendly practices; maintaining and adapting habitual spatial practices and being determined to 'get out'; and employing similar emotional coping strategies for the pandemic and dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Support for people with dementia, especially during public health crises when carers and services are under pressure, should involve utilising existing capacities, appropriately supporting the acquisition of new knowledge and skills, 'safety-netting' through the availability of a named professional, advocacy and support and use of 'check-in calls' and creating supportive social and environmental circumstances for people with dementia to sustain their own well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/psychology , Humans , Pandemics
18.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 697, 2022 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has required restrictions of daily activities, which has been found to impact the lives of persons living with dementia (PLWDs) and their family caregivers, who have multiple care demands. The lack of relevant studies in Taiwan emphasized the need to explore the experiences of family caregivers of older PLWDs faced with the intensified restrictions to control the spread of COVID-19, and the impact of the availability of a smart-clothes home nursing program. METHODS: This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews with family caregivers of older PLWDs. Participants were recruited from dementia clinics of a medical center in northern Taiwan from a subset of a sample from a larger study on smart-clothes assisted home nursing care. A total of 12 family caregivers who participated in the original study were interviewed during the follow-up period; seven family caregivers of a PLWD wearing a smart-vest, which transmitted information to a home care nurse; five caregivers of a PLWD not wearing a smart-vest. Interviews were conducted by telephone because the conditions of the pandemic prevented face-to-face interviews. Recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Interview data showed family caregivers' felt the care recipient's health was compromised and functional conditions intensified as Covid-19-related pandemic restrictions increased. Specific concerns included a lack social interactions, decreased daily activity levels, loss of interest and lack of motivation for activities, increased mood and behavioral problems, a decline in physical function and an increase in health problems. Family caregivers were also impacted by these restrictions, with significant increases in severity of caregiver role strain, including feeling trapped, a lack of in-home support, profound powerlessness, and worries about the PLWD contracting the coronavirus. The smart-clothes assisted home nursing care program offered supplementary support to family caregivers by providing on-time interactions, helping them manage health problems, enhancing predictability of the care recipient's behaviors, and providing caregivers with emotional support. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study support alternative care such as implementation of technology-assisted home health services to meet caregiver needs to facilitate family caregiving of PLWDs during the necessary restrictions in activities implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Record NCT05063045.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers/psychology , Clothing , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Home Nursing , Humans , Pandemics
19.
J Psychiatr Res ; 155: 194-201, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are at-risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes. There is limited and heterogeneous national data in hospital settings evaluating the risks associated with any pre-existing mental disorder, and susceptible subgroups. Our study aimed to investigate the association between pre-existing psychiatric disorders and outcomes of adults hospitalised for COVID-19. METHOD: We used data obtained from the French national hospital database linked to the state-level psychiatric registry. The primary outcome was 30-days in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were to compare the length of hospital stay, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and ICU length. Propensity score matching analysis was used to control for COVID-19 confounding factors between patients with or without mental disorder and stratified by psychiatric subgroups. RESULTS: Among 97 302 adults hospitalised for COVID-19 from March to September 2020, 10 083 (10.3%) had a pre-existing mental disorder, mainly dementia (3581 [35.5%]), mood disorders (1298 [12.9%]), anxiety disorders (995 [9.9%]), psychoactive substance use disorders (960 [9.5%]), and psychotic disorders (866 [8.6%]). In propensity-matched analysis, 30-days in-hospital mortality was increased among those with at least one pre-existing mental disorder (hazard ratio (HR) 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.23), psychotic disorder (1.90, 1.24-2.90), and psychoactive substance disorders (1.53, 1.10-2.14). The odds of ICU admission were consistently decreased for patients with any pre-existing mental disorder (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.76-0.92) and for those with dementia (0.64, 0.53-0.76). CONCLUSION: Pre-existing mental disorders were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. These findings underscore the important need for adequate care and targeted interventions for at-risk individuals with severe mental illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Mental Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Retrospective Studies
20.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 671, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A prolonged COVID-19 pandemic could exacerbate the risk of infection and undesirable effects associated with infection control measures of older people with dementia (PWD), and the care burden of families. In this study, we examined the efficacy of care manager-led information provision and practical support for families of older PWD who need care, regarding appropriate infection prevention, prevention of deterioration of cognitive and physical functions, and preparedness in cases of infection spread or infection during the pandemic. METHODS: Fifty-three family members (aged ≥20 years) who were primary caregivers living with older PWD using public long-term care services were enrolled in an one-month randomized controlled trial. This duration was set based on behavior modification theory and with consideration of ethical issue that the most vulnerable people not benefiting from the intervention. The intervention group (IG) received care manager-led information provision and practical support, and the control group (CG) received usual care. Care burden (primary outcome) was measured using the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, and secondary outcomes were analyzed using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ9), the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and salivary α-amylase activity. Data were collected at baseline and after 1 month. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the efficacy of the intervention. The participants evaluated the care managers' support. RESULTS: The participants were randomly divided into IG (n = 27) and CG (n = 26) groups. After the intervention, compared with the CG, there was a decrease in PHQ-9 (ß = -.202, p = 0.044) and α-amylase activity in saliva (ß = -.265, p = 0.050) in IG. IG also showed an increased fear of COVID-19 after the intervention (ß = .261, p = 0.003). With the care managers' support, 57.2% of the participants felt secure in their daily lives and 53.1% agreed that they were able to practice infection prevention suitable for older PWD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the care manager-led intervention may be useful for families of older PWD to enhance behavioral changes in preventing COVID-19 infection and improve their psychological outcomes in the COVID-19 era. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered on April 2, 2021 (No. UMIN000043820).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/psychology , Dementia/therapy , Family , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life
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