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2.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1054-1063, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living in group situations or with dementia are more vulnerable to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Older people and those with multimorbidity have higher mortality if they become infected than the general population. However, no systematic study exists of COVID-19-related outcomes in older inpatients in psychiatric units, who comprise people from these high-risk groups. We aimed to describe the period prevalence, demographics, symptoms (and asymptomatic cases), management, and survival outcomes of COVID-19 in the older inpatient psychiatric population and people with young-onset dementia in five National Health Service Trusts in London, UK, from March 1 to April 30, 2020. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we collected demographic data, mental health diagnoses, clinical diagnosis of COVID-19, symptoms, management, and COVID-19-related outcome data of inpatients aged 65 years or older or with dementia who were already inpatients or admitted as inpatients to five London mental health Trusts between March 1 and April 30, 2020, and information about available COVID-19-related resources (ie, testing and personal protective equipment). Patients were determined to have COVID-19 if they had a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test, or had relevant symptoms indicative of COVID-19, as determined by their treating physician. We calculated period prevalence of COVID-19 and analysed patients' characteristics, treatments, and outcomes. FINDINGS: Of 344 inpatients, 131 (38%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the study period (period prevalence 38% [95% CI 33-43]). The mean age of patients who had COVID-19 was 75·3 years (SD 8·2); 68 (52%) were women and 47 (36%) from ethnic minority groups. 16 (12%) of 131 patients were asymptomatic and 121 (92%) had one or more disease-related comorbidity. 108 (82%) patients were compulsorily detained. 74 (56%) patients had dementia, of whom 13 (18%) had young-onset dementia. On average, sites received COVID-19 testing kits 4·5 days after the first clinical COVID-19 presentation. 19 (15%) patients diagnosed with COVID-19 died during the study period, and their deaths were determined to be COVID-19 related. INTERPRETATION: Patients in psychiatric inpatient settings who were admitted without known SARS-CoV-2 infection had a high risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 compared with those in the community and had a higher proportion of deaths from COVID-19 than in the community. Implementation of the long-standing policy of parity of esteem for mental health and planning for future COVID-19 waves in psychiatric hospitals is urgent. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatric Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Dementia/physiopathology , Female , Humans , London/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
7.
Neurophysiol Clin ; 50(3): 155-165, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although rare, neurological manifestations in SARS-CoV-2 infection are increasingly being reported. We conducted a retrospective systematic study to describe the electroencephalography (EEG) characteristics in this disease, looking for specific patterns. METHODS: EEGs performed in patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 between 25/03/2020 and 06/05/2020 in the University Hospital of Bicêtre were independently reviewed by two experienced neurologists. We used the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society's terminology for the description of abnormal patterns. EEGs were classified into five categories, from normal to critically altered. Interobserver reliability was calculated using Cohen's kappa coefficient. Medical records were reviewed to extract demographics, clinical, imaging and biological data. RESULTS: Forty EEGs were reviewed in 36 COVID-19 patients, 18 in intensive care units (ICU) and 22 in medicine units. The main indications were confusion or fluctuating alertness for 23 (57.5%) and delayed awakening after stopping sedation in ICU in six (15%). EEGs were normal to mildly altered in 23 (57.5%) contrary to the 42.5% where EEG alterations were moderate in four (10%), severe in eight (20%) and critical in five (12.5%). Generalized periodic discharges (GPDs), multifocal periodic discharges (MPDs) or rhythmic delta activity (RDA) were found in 13 recordings (32.5%). EEG alterations were not stereotyped or specific. They could be related to an underlying morbid status, except for three ICU patients with unexplained encephalopathic features. CONCLUSION: In this first systematic analysis of COVID-19 patients who underwent EEG, over half of them presented a normal recording pattern. EEG alterations were not different from those encountered in other pathological conditions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Confusion/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia/etiology , Electroencephalography , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arousal/physiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Brain Waves/physiology , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Confusion/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Deep Sedation , Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia/physiopathology , Dementia/complications , Dementia/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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