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1.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(2): 90, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184738
2.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 878, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139163

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Significant mortality amongst vulnerable populations, such as people living with dementia, might go undetected during pandemic conditions due to refocus of care efforts. There is an urgent need to fully evaluate the pandemic impact on mortality amongst people living with dementia in order to facilitate future healthcare reforms and prevent deaths. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any significant difference in mortality amongst people with dementia without COVID-19 during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to previous years. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in 5 databases. The relative risk ratio and confidence interval was used to estimate the change in mortality rates amongst people with dementia during the COVID-19 pandemic. The I2 value was used to assess heterogeneity, publication bias, and sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Pooled analysis of 11 studies showed that mortality amongst people living with dementia was significantly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic for people with dementia without COVID-19. Mortality risk increased by 25% during the time period studied. Subgroup analysis was not performed due the low number of included studies. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that people with dementia had a significant increased mortality during the pandemic even if they did not have COVID-19. People with dementia should participate in efforts that reduce general social spread and pandemic impact on healthcare system such as vaccinations, mask mandates, and testing. These results have clinical implications as preventing direct COVID-19 infection is not enough to adequately protect people living with dementia from increased mortality. Measures to limit social spread of infections and help support patients should also be a focus for clinicians. Further research should focus on the identification of mechanisms and other explanations for increased mortality as well as contributing factors such as living in care homes and differences between countries with various pandemic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Humans , Pandemics , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1372, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a disease that impacts people with dementia, their families, and the healthcare system. In 2018, the number of people with dementia in the EU, the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and the UK was estimated to be 9.1 million. National dementia strategies and publications by organisations such as Alzheimer Europe outline how dementia-specific care should be designed. This study aims to provide insights into existing formal care structures, models of good practise, and gaps in dementia-specific care for people with dementia in 17 European countries. METHODS: The research is based on guided interviews with country-specific care experts. A mixed-methods approach with a combination of open and closed questions was used. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim based on the transcription rules of Kuckarts (2010). For data evaluation, the qualitative content analysis model of Mayring (2014) was used. RESULTS: In all 17 countries, efforts for dementia-friendly care and models of good care practise exist. However, there are large differences between European countries regarding the spread of dementia-specific services. In nine countries (Bulgaria, Finland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the UK), there are already nationwide structures, while in five countries (Belgium, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Romania), services are only available in certain regions. In three countries (Austria, Denmark, Germany) dementia-specific outpatient services are widespread nationwide, whereas inpatient services are not. Simultaneously, in all countries, areas with major care gaps exist. Several European states have an urgent need for action concerning the expansion of the provision of dementia-specific services, the reduction of regional differences regarding the provision of care, the elimination of barriers to access to care, the dementia-friendliness of services, and the participation of people with dementia and their relatives in care and research. CONCLUSIONS: To reduce the existing structural inequalities in care between and within European countries, and to establish quality-related minimum standards in the care of people with dementia, transnational concepts are needed. The EU, in cooperation with care planners, research institutions, care providers, and patient organisations, should develop European care guidelines or dementia plans that contain concrete measures, schedules, and budgets.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Dementia , Humans , Europe , Italy , Netherlands , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy
4.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 78: 103308, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085887

ABSTRACT

WHO recognized Dementia as public health priority and developed iSupport, a knowledge and skills training program for carers of people living with Dementia. This Mixed-Method study assessed the effectiveness of web-based training sessions among carers at old age homes in and around Puducherry, India, using WHO-iSupport for dementia hardcopy manual as a training tool. We registered the clinical trial protocol with Clinical Trial Registry-India (CTRI), CTRI/2020/11/029154. We determined the change in 35 carer's knowledge and attitude following the training sessions using pre and post-test questionnaires quantitatively. Further, we explored their learning experience by conducting eight descriptive one-to-one telephonic interviews. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted this study online. i.e., obtained virtual consents, pre and post-test using Google forms, and training sessions through a webbased platform. We divided carers into groups where each carer attended two training sessions, and each session lasted for 2 h. Training sessions improved the carer's knowledge from a pre-test score of Median (IQR) 12 (9, 15) to a post-test score of 17 (16, 20) and attitude score from 30 (27.3, 34.8) to 33.5 (30.3, 39) in post-test. They perceived that the training sessions were helpful as they gained knowledge on dementia care, and their attitude has changed optimistically towards people living with Dementia. These findings suggest that web-based training has an effect and indicates the need for training among carers in various old age homes for betterment in providing care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Humans , Caregivers/education , Dementia/therapy , Homes for the Aged , Internet , Pandemics , World Health Organization
5.
WMJ ; 121(3): 226-230, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083714

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: People living with dementia have been particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A survey of dementia care professionals was conducted to assess the use of health care and community-based services by people living with dementia and their caregivers during the first year of the pandemic. RESULTS: The survey indicated that most services were no longer being used or were being used less during the pandemic, with a few key exceptions. DISCUSSION: Many barriers and few facilitators were identified to service use for people living with dementia and their caregivers. The results identify potential gaps in the dementia care service network and may inform efforts to improve dementia care during future large-scale public health emergencies in the state of Wisconsin and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Humans , Caregivers , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Community Health Services , Delivery of Health Care
6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 89(1): 359-366, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disease modifying treatments (DMTs) currently under development for Alzheimer's disease, have the potential to prevent or postpone institutionalization and more expensive care and might delay institutionalization of persons with dementia. OBJECTIVE: The current study estimates costs of living in a nursing home for persons with dementia in the Netherlands to help inform economic evaluations of future DMTs. METHODS: Data were collected during semi-structured interviews with healthcare professionals and from the financial administration of a healthcare organization with several nursing homes. Personnel costs were calculated using a bottom-up approach by valuing the time estimates. Non-personnel costs were calculated using information from the financial administration of the healthcare organization. RESULTS: Total costs of a person with dementia per 24 hours, including both care staff and other healthcare providers, were € 151 for small-scale living wards and € 147 for independent living wards. Non-personnel costs were € 37 per day. CONCLUSION: This study provides Dutch estimates for total healthcare costs per day for institutionalized persons with dementia. These cost estimates can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses for future DMTs in dementia.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Health Care Costs , Humans , Institutionalization , Netherlands/epidemiology , Nursing Homes
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 731, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current study investigated the relationship between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) knowledge and positive aspects of caregiving (PAC), in addition, how caregiving attitude and self-efficacy mediate or moderate this relationship. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-nine formal caregivers (51males and 178females) who has worked in nursing homes for more than a month were recruited.With a cross-sectional, face-to-face survey, structural questionnaires were implemented to evaluate formal caregiver's BPSD knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and PAC.A 13-item self-developed questionnaire was used to assess caregiver's BPSD knowledge about disease characteristics, care and risks, and treatment needs. Dementia attitude, self-efficacy and positive aspects of caregiving were measured by dementia attitude scale, the General self-efficacy scale, and Chinese version of positive aspects of caregiving respectively. Model 5 in the PROCESS micro was employed in order to verify the mediating effect of attitude and the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between BPSD knowledge and PAC. RESULTS: The results showed that greater BPSD knowledge was associated with increased PAC, and this relationship was fully mediated by increased friendly attitude toward people with dementia. Moreover, direct effect was moderated by self-efficacy, and that only among those with high self-efficacy, the direct effect of BPSD knowledge was found on promoting PAC. CONCLUSIONS: By elucidating the knowledge-attitude-practice pathway in handling patient's BPSD, the current study extends existing literature and provides insights for developing psychoeducation programs among formal caregivers.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Dementia , Caregivers/psychology , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Self Efficacy
9.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 323-330, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022602

ABSTRACT

In recent years, thanks to advances in medicine and the role of prevention, life expectancy has experienced rapid growth (from 77.6 to 81.3 years), resulting in an increase in Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) and years lived with disability. One of these is dementia, with about 7 million people currently affected in Europe while the number is set to double by 2050. These patients are complex due to the serious changes in their cognitive sphere, altering perceptions of their physical space. Because of age and multimorbidity, they are the most frequent users of healthcare facilities, but these structures often are not suitable to them. For example, during the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare facilities demonstrated criticalities in structural and social issues. To this end, a rethinking of these spaces is urgent, and the use of Evidence-Based Design (EBD, the design based on findings from scientific research) can be a method to create safe and suitable environments. This study aims to develop an evaluation framework to assess the design quality of healthcare facilities for people with dementia. A systematic literature review was conducted to define a set of requirements that the space must have to be prosthetic for the patient. The framework consists of three macro areas (i.e., physical, social, and cognitive aspects), seven criteria, and 24 sub criteria. The proposed framework is a starting point for the development of inclusive projects for people with dementia and cognitive disabilities. Architecture has recently begun to approach the topic of dementia, especially in Italy. Therefore, it is urgent to investigate which are the main aspects to be considered in the design and renovations of facilities to make them as therapeutic and prosthetic as possible, creating places where the wellbeing of patients is the priority, both physical and psychological. To this end, EBD needs to become a habit for designers to create facilities suitable for people with both cognitive impairments and for every user, in line with the principles of Universal Design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Delivery of Health Care , Dementia/psychology , Dementia/therapy , Health Facilities , Humans , Pandemics
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(8): e37434, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New research fields to design social robots for older people are emerging. By providing support with communication and social interaction, these robots aim to increase quality of life. Because of the decline in functioning due to cognitive impairment in older people, social robots are regarded as promising, especially for people with dementia. Although study outcomes are hopeful, the quality of studies on the effectiveness of social robots for the elderly is still low due to many methodological limitations. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to review the methodologies used thus far in studies evaluating the feasibility, usability, efficacy, and effectiveness of social robots in clinical and social settings for elderly people, including persons with dementia. METHODS: Dedicated search strings were developed. Searches in MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, PsycInfo, and CINAHL were performed on August 13, 2020. RESULTS: In the 33 included papers, 23 different social robots were investigated for their feasibility, usability, efficacy, and effectiveness. A total of 8 (24.2%) studies included elderly persons in the community, 9 (27.3%) included long-term care facility residents, and 16 (48.5%) included people with dementia. Most of the studies had a single aim, of which 7 (21.2%) focused on efficacy and 7 (21.2%) focused on effectiveness. Moreover, forms of randomized controlled trials were the most applied designs. Feasibility and usability were often studied together in mixed methods or experimental designs and were most often studied in individual interventions. Feasibility was often assessed with the Unified Theory of the Acceptance and Use of Technology model. Efficacy and effectiveness studies used a range of psychosocial and cognitive outcome measures. However, the included studies failed to find significant improvements in quality of life, depression, and cognition. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified several shortcomings in methodologies used to evaluate social robots, resulting in ambivalent study findings. To improve the quality of these types of studies, efficacy/effectiveness studies will benefit from appropriate randomized controlled trial designs with large sample sizes and individual intervention sessions. Experimental designs might work best for feasibility and usability studies. For each of the 3 goals (efficacy/effectiveness, feasibility, and usability) we also recommend a mixed method of data collection. Multiple interaction sessions running for at least 1 month might aid researchers in drawing significant results and prove the real long-term impact of social robots.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Robotics , Adult , Aged , Dementia/psychology , Dementia/therapy , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Quality of Life , Social Interaction
11.
Neurodegener Dis Manag ; 12(4): 171-184, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009821

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment related to dementia is under-diagnosed in primary care despite availability of numerous cognitive assessment tools; under-diagnosis is more prevalent for members of racial and ethnic minority groups. Clinical decision-support systems may improve rates of primary care providers responding to positive cognitive assessments with appropriate follow-up. The 5-Cog study is a randomized controlled trial in 1200 predominantly Black and Hispanic older adults from an urban underserved community who are presenting to primary care with cognitive concerns. The study will validate a novel 5-minute cognitive assessment coupled with an electronic medical record-embedded decision tree to overcome the barriers of current cognitive assessment paradigms in primary care and facilitate improved dementia care.


Dementia is common, though under-recognized, in older adults (OAs). Primary care providers (PCPs) miss opportunities to help patients and their families manage the disease because of failure to, or delay to, make an appropriate diagnosis. Black and Hispanic OAs are more likely than White OAs to experience delayed diagnosis. Most available memory tests are too long for practical use by PCPs, and are ill suited to patients of diverse language, cultural and educational backgrounds. Studies have shown that even when patients test positive for dementia in primary care, PCPs often do not take follow-up action. Our improved memory test, the 5-Cog, is brief (5 min), not biased by language issues (uses pictures and symbols instead of words), and simple (doesn't require expensive technology and complex staff training). The 5-Cog is paired with a clinical decision support tool, providing tailored recommendations directly into the patient's medical record, and making it easier for PCPs to take appropriate action. This study will evaluate whether the 5-Cog paradigm results in improved dementia care.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy , Ethnicity , Humans , Minority Groups , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
12.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 697, 2022 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has required restrictions of daily activities, which has been found to impact the lives of persons living with dementia (PLWDs) and their family caregivers, who have multiple care demands. The lack of relevant studies in Taiwan emphasized the need to explore the experiences of family caregivers of older PLWDs faced with the intensified restrictions to control the spread of COVID-19, and the impact of the availability of a smart-clothes home nursing program. METHODS: This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews with family caregivers of older PLWDs. Participants were recruited from dementia clinics of a medical center in northern Taiwan from a subset of a sample from a larger study on smart-clothes assisted home nursing care. A total of 12 family caregivers who participated in the original study were interviewed during the follow-up period; seven family caregivers of a PLWD wearing a smart-vest, which transmitted information to a home care nurse; five caregivers of a PLWD not wearing a smart-vest. Interviews were conducted by telephone because the conditions of the pandemic prevented face-to-face interviews. Recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Interview data showed family caregivers' felt the care recipient's health was compromised and functional conditions intensified as Covid-19-related pandemic restrictions increased. Specific concerns included a lack social interactions, decreased daily activity levels, loss of interest and lack of motivation for activities, increased mood and behavioral problems, a decline in physical function and an increase in health problems. Family caregivers were also impacted by these restrictions, with significant increases in severity of caregiver role strain, including feeling trapped, a lack of in-home support, profound powerlessness, and worries about the PLWD contracting the coronavirus. The smart-clothes assisted home nursing care program offered supplementary support to family caregivers by providing on-time interactions, helping them manage health problems, enhancing predictability of the care recipient's behaviors, and providing caregivers with emotional support. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study support alternative care such as implementation of technology-assisted home health services to meet caregiver needs to facilitate family caregiving of PLWDs during the necessary restrictions in activities implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Record NCT05063045.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers/psychology , Clothing , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Home Nursing , Humans , Pandemics
13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 155: 194-201, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are at-risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes. There is limited and heterogeneous national data in hospital settings evaluating the risks associated with any pre-existing mental disorder, and susceptible subgroups. Our study aimed to investigate the association between pre-existing psychiatric disorders and outcomes of adults hospitalised for COVID-19. METHOD: We used data obtained from the French national hospital database linked to the state-level psychiatric registry. The primary outcome was 30-days in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were to compare the length of hospital stay, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and ICU length. Propensity score matching analysis was used to control for COVID-19 confounding factors between patients with or without mental disorder and stratified by psychiatric subgroups. RESULTS: Among 97 302 adults hospitalised for COVID-19 from March to September 2020, 10 083 (10.3%) had a pre-existing mental disorder, mainly dementia (3581 [35.5%]), mood disorders (1298 [12.9%]), anxiety disorders (995 [9.9%]), psychoactive substance use disorders (960 [9.5%]), and psychotic disorders (866 [8.6%]). In propensity-matched analysis, 30-days in-hospital mortality was increased among those with at least one pre-existing mental disorder (hazard ratio (HR) 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.23), psychotic disorder (1.90, 1.24-2.90), and psychoactive substance disorders (1.53, 1.10-2.14). The odds of ICU admission were consistently decreased for patients with any pre-existing mental disorder (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.76-0.92) and for those with dementia (0.64, 0.53-0.76). CONCLUSION: Pre-existing mental disorders were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. These findings underscore the important need for adequate care and targeted interventions for at-risk individuals with severe mental illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Mental Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Retrospective Studies
14.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 671, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A prolonged COVID-19 pandemic could exacerbate the risk of infection and undesirable effects associated with infection control measures of older people with dementia (PWD), and the care burden of families. In this study, we examined the efficacy of care manager-led information provision and practical support for families of older PWD who need care, regarding appropriate infection prevention, prevention of deterioration of cognitive and physical functions, and preparedness in cases of infection spread or infection during the pandemic. METHODS: Fifty-three family members (aged ≥20 years) who were primary caregivers living with older PWD using public long-term care services were enrolled in an one-month randomized controlled trial. This duration was set based on behavior modification theory and with consideration of ethical issue that the most vulnerable people not benefiting from the intervention. The intervention group (IG) received care manager-led information provision and practical support, and the control group (CG) received usual care. Care burden (primary outcome) was measured using the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, and secondary outcomes were analyzed using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ9), the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and salivary α-amylase activity. Data were collected at baseline and after 1 month. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the efficacy of the intervention. The participants evaluated the care managers' support. RESULTS: The participants were randomly divided into IG (n = 27) and CG (n = 26) groups. After the intervention, compared with the CG, there was a decrease in PHQ-9 (ß = -.202, p = 0.044) and α-amylase activity in saliva (ß = -.265, p = 0.050) in IG. IG also showed an increased fear of COVID-19 after the intervention (ß = .261, p = 0.003). With the care managers' support, 57.2% of the participants felt secure in their daily lives and 53.1% agreed that they were able to practice infection prevention suitable for older PWD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the care manager-led intervention may be useful for families of older PWD to enhance behavioral changes in preventing COVID-19 infection and improve their psychological outcomes in the COVID-19 era. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered on April 2, 2021 (No. UMIN000043820).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/psychology , Dementia/therapy , Family , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(7): e36727, 2022 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dementia is increasing, and there are many associated problems that family members face as informal carers, including emotional, physical, and financial difficulties. There are benefits for a person with dementia to live at home for as long as possible, and therefore, supporting their informal carers is crucial. The growing interest in supporting carers through internet-based interventions is evidenced by the volume of systematic reviews on this topic. It is now appropriate to systematically examine this body of work and provide an overview of the literature. OBJECTIVE: This umbrella review aimed to identify the most effective internet-based intervention content and delivery method to support those caring for someone with dementia living in the community. METHODS: PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and PubMed were searched for systematic reviews examining the effectiveness of web-based interventions for informal carers of people with dementia. A total of 3 reviewers extracted data and evaluated the quality of the papers. To ascertain the extent to which the systematic reviews reported on the same evidence, the proportion of overlap between their included studies was calculated. Qualitative research findings were extracted and reported. RESULTS: A total of 21 papers were included in the study. The quality of the review papers was mainly rated as low to moderate, and 10% (2/21) of papers were of high quality. The findings suggest that multicomponent interventions were the most effective in supporting carers. These included combinations of cognitive behavioral therapy and relaxation strategies, educational resources, and online support groups. Interventions that were delivered on the web but included sessions with a personal element, such as telephone contact, showed the best results. When comparing the studies reviewed in all the review papers, a moderate overlap was noted. However, when comparing individual reviews with each other, they showed a high overlap of the included studies. CONCLUSIONS: Mixed delivery methods and intervention content showed the most effective results in supporting those caring for people with dementia. However, many papers do not separate the results for differing intervention contents or delivery; this needs to be considered when drawing conclusions. There was an overlap among the studies included in the reviews. This suggests a lack of current research on the effectiveness of web-based interventions for people caring for a person with dementia. There was also a lack of consistency in the outcome measures across all papers. Future studies can involve updating research on the effectiveness of these interventions while distinguishing between different intervention types, thus creating guidelines for the use of standardized measures to enable comparisons of intervention effects and improve the scientific quality of the overall research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021241559; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=241559.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Internet-Based Intervention , Telemedicine , Caregivers/psychology , Dementia/psychology , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Systematic Reviews as Topic
16.
Geriatr Nurs ; 47: 125-134, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to translate and culturally adapt Virtual Individual Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (V-iCST) for the Hong Kong (HK) Chinese population, and to evaluate its feasibility and acceptability. METHODS: A mixed methods case series (N=8) was used to assess the feasibility of V-iCST and changes in cognition, quality of life (QoL), mood, and communication pre and post-test. Data were analyzed with the reliable change index. Thematic analysis of post-therapy interviews and content analysis of session rating forms were used to evaluate the acceptability. RESULTS: V-iCST was feasible with low attrition (0%) and high attendance (100%). Participants had reliable improvements in all outcomes. Six had improved and stable cognition; four had clinically significant changes in depression. There were no reliable changes in QoL. Qualitative analyses indicated V-iCST as acceptable but required assistance. CONCLUSIONS: V-iCST can be adapted for HK Chinese with dementia and potentially improve cognition, QoL, mood, and communication.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Quality of Life , Caregivers/psychology , Cognition/physiology , Dementia/psychology , Dementia/therapy , Feasibility Studies , Hong Kong , Humans
17.
BMC Palliat Care ; 21(1): 91, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951173

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report the experiences of End of Life (EoL) care in UK care homes during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: UK care home staff and family carers of residents in care home took part in remote, semi-structured interviews from October to November 2020, with 20 participants followed-up in March 2021. Interviews were conducted via telephone or online platforms and qualitatively analysed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Forty-two participants (26 family carers and 16 care home staff) were included in a wider qualitative study exploring the impact on dementia care homes during the pandemic. Of these, 11 family carers and 9 care home staff participated in a follow-up interview. Following descriptive thematic analysis, three central themes concerning EoL care during the pandemic specifically, were conceptualised and redefined through research team discussions: 1) Wasting or losing time; 2) Maintaining control, plans and routine; and 3) Coping with loss and lack of support. Lack of suitable, meaningful visits with people with dementia in care homes resulted in negative feelings of guilt and abandonment with both family carers and care home staff. Where families experienced positive EoL visits, these appeared to breach public health restrictions at that time. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that care homes receive clear guidance from the government offering equitable contact with relatives at EoL to all family members, to support their grieving and avoid subsequent negative impacts to emotional wellbeing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Terminal Care , Dementia/psychology , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , United Kingdom
18.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 178, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based intervention (MBI), an emotion-focused approach, has been shown promising and sustainable effects on enhancing the well-being of caregivers of patients with dementia (PWD). However, the conventional MBI was quite demanding, had high rates of attrition and inconsistent long-term effect. The social distancing measures introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic also restricted face-to-face psychosocial intervention. The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a 6-week hybrid MBI in caregivers of PWD over a 6-month follow up. METHODS: This is a single-blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT). Eligible participants from three local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) will be randomly divided into intervention groups and control groups in a ratio of 1:1. The participants in the intervention group will receive 6 weekly 90-min group-based sessions delivered through a face-to-face and online approach. The participants in the control group will receive brief education on dementia care with the same group size, duration, and frequency as the sessions in the intervention group. Immediately after the intervention and at the 6-month follow-up, caring stress and other outcomes will be assessed. Besides, a focus group interview will be conducted to identify the strengths, limitations, and therapeutic components of the intervention from their perspectives. For quantitative data, intention-to-treat analysis and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) will be used. For qualitative data, content analysis will be used. DISCUSSION: This proposed hybrid model of MBI has several advantages, such as lower duration, longer follow-up period and easier access by family caregivers. Also, physiological indicators (e.g., heart rate viability and neuropsychiatric symptoms) will be measured in this study to show the body change after MBI. The quantitative and qualitative data of this research can also benefit the development of online or hybrid MBI for caregivers of PWD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite these strengths, it does have practical challenges and limitations. However, this proposed intervention has the potential to benefit not only the participants, but also the researcher as well as public health providers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05242614. Registered on 2022-02-16, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05242614.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Mindfulness , Caregivers/psychology , Dementia/therapy , Emotions , Humans , Mindfulness/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
19.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 605, 2022 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The potential decrease in daily physical activity associated with the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns may have a negative impact on people living with dementia. Given the limited literature around the effects of home confinement in people living with dementia, this study investigated changes in physical exercise levels of participants in the intervention arm of the Promoting Activity, Independence and Stability in Early Dementia (PrAISED) Randomised Controlled Trial during the first COVID-19 national lockdown. It hypothesised that participants would maintain physical exercise levels. METHODS: A repeated measure (three time points) study involving 30 participants (mean age = 78.0 years, 15 male and 15 female, 22 (73.0%) living with their primary caregiver), from four regions in England receiving the PrAISED intervention. PrAISED is an individually tailored intervention of physical exercises and functional activities. Trained therapists deliver therapy sessions over a period of 52 weeks. Study participants received therapy sessions via phone or video calling during the COVID-19 lockdown. This study investigated self-reported minutes of physical exercise recorded on study calendars for the months of February (i.e., baseline - pre-lockdown), May (i.e., T1 - during lockdown), and August (i.e., T2-post-lockdown) 2020. RESULTS: Participants reported a statistically significant increase in activity levels between February and May (Wilcoxon Z = -2.013, p = 0.044) and a statistically significant decrease between May and August (Wilcoxon Z = -2.726, p = 0.004). No significant difference was found in the physical activity levels from pre- to post-lockdown (Wilcoxon Z = 0.485, p = 0.620). CONCLUSION: Despite concerns that the restrictions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic might lead to reductions in physical exercise, participants in receipt of the PrAISED intervention increased their amount of physical exercise during lockdown. Our findings support the potential of remote support for people living with dementia to help them maintain physical exercise levels in circumstances where face-to-face service provision is not possible. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The PrAISED trial and process evaluation have received ethical approval number 18/YH/0059 from the Bradford/Leeds Ethics Committee. The Clinical Trial Identifier for PrAISED is: ISRCTN15320670 ( https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN15320670 ). Registration was made on 04/09/2018.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics
20.
Dementia (London) ; 21(7): 2117-2127, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938219

ABSTRACT

Support for informal dementia care at a local community level is not working for most carers today. Carers looking after a person with dementia have long lamented the absence of an empowered named support and an effectively actioned care plan. Drawing on literary writing and social research, we argue in this article that these challenges have existed since dementia emerged as a major condition in the West during the 1980s. Based on this historical context, we ask: Why has this issue persisted over the last four decades? How have healthcare politics and policy initiatives responded to these requests? And what can we learn from this for the current, COVID-19 exacerbated crisis of care? This article focuses on the English context, to discuss these ongoing challenges in the light of a series of policy papers, and to ask what is hampering the implementation of such policy initiatives. In England, local authorities are responsible for dementia support. This article focuses on the situation in a county in the Midlands where one of us (AB) has been lobbying local government for over a decade. The discussion contextualises the lived experience of dementia care within the situation exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, ensuing politics of crises and persistent emphasis on cure over care. We find that the absence on two points centrally challenges care: a joined-up approach between health and social care and adequate information on available care support services, accessible through an empowered named contact. To enhance the lived experience of dementia care, consistent provision of individual named support and professional care support, as and when required, should become essential to local implementation of the care policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pandemics , Policy
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