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1.
CMAJ ; 193(49): E1868-E1877, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected health care workers. We sought to estimate SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among hospital health care workers in Quebec, Canada, after the first wave of the pandemic and to explore factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. METHODS: Between July 6 and Sept. 24, 2020, we enrolled health care workers from 10 hospitals, including 8 from a region with a high incidence of COVID-19 (the Montréal area) and 2 from low-incidence regions of Quebec. Eligible health care workers were physicians, nurses, orderlies and cleaning staff working in 4 types of care units (emergency department, intensive care unit, COVID-19 inpatient unit and non-COVID-19 inpatient unit). Participants completed a questionnaire and underwent SARS-CoV-2 serology testing. We identified factors independently associated with higher seroprevalence. RESULTS: Among 2056 enrolled health care workers, 241 (11.7%) had positive SARS-CoV-2 serology. Of these, 171 (71.0%) had been previously diagnosed with COVID-19. Seroprevalence varied among hospitals, from 2.4% to 3.7% in low-incidence regions to 17.9% to 32.0% in hospitals with outbreaks involving 5 or more health care workers. Higher seroprevalence was associated with working in a hospital where outbreaks occurred (adjusted prevalence ratio 4.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.63-6.57), being a nurse or nursing assistant (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.34, 95% CI 1.03-1.74) or an orderly (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.49, 95% CI 1.12-1.97), and Black or Hispanic ethnicity (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.41, 95% CI 1.13-1.76). Lower seroprevalence was associated with working in the intensive care unit (adjusted prevalence ratio 0.47, 95% CI 0.30-0.71) or the emergency department (adjusted prevalence ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.39-0.98). INTERPRETATION: Health care workers in Quebec hospitals were at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly in outbreak settings. More work is needed to better understand SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics in health care settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Incidence , Occupational Diseases/blood , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599165

ABSTRACT

Increasing numbers of people living with dementia (PLWD), and a pressured health and social care system, will exacerbate inequalities in mortality for PLWD. There is a dearth of research examining multiple factors in mortality risk among PLWD, including application of large administrative datasets to investigate these issues. This study explored variation mortality risk variation among people diagnosed with dementia between 2002-2016, based on: age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, geography and general practice (GP) contacts. Data were derived from electronic health records from a cohort of Clinical Practice Research Datalink GP patients in England (n = 142,340). Cox proportional hazards regression modelled mortality risk separately for people with early- and later- onset dementia. Few social inequalities were observed in early-onset dementia; men had greater risk of mortality. For early- and later-onset, higher rates of GP observations-and for later-onset only dementia medications-are associated with increased mortality risk. Social inequalities were evident in later-onset dementia. Accounting for other explanatory factors, Black and Mixed/Other ethnicity groups had lower mortality risk, more deprived areas had greater mortality risk, and higher mortality was observed in North East, South Central and South West GP regions. This study provides novel evidence of the extent of mortality risk inequalities among PLWD. Variance in mortality risk was observed by social, demographic and geographic factors, and frequency of GP contact. Findings illustrate need for greater person-centred care discussions, prioritising tackling inequalities among PLWD. Future research should explore more outcomes for PLWD, and more explanatory factors of health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Cohort Studies , Demography , Geography , Humans , Male , Socioeconomic Factors
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580858

ABSTRACT

Passive immunotherapy with convalescent COVID-19 plasma (CCP) is used as a therapeutic procedure in many countries, including Serbia. In this study, we analyzed the association between demographic factors, COVID-19 severity and the reactivity of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Abs) in Serbian CCP donors. Individuals (n = 468) recovered from confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and who were willing to donate their plasma for passive immunization of COVID-19 patients were enrolled in the study. Plasma samples were tested for the presence of IgG reactive to SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S1) and nucleocapsid antigens. Individuals were characterized according to age, gender, comorbidities, COVID-19 severity, ABO blood type and RhD factor. Total of 420 candidates (420/468; 89.74%) reached the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG that qualified them for inclusion in CCP donation program. Further statistical analysis showed that male individuals (p = 0.034), older age groups (p < 0.001), existence of hypertension (p = 0.008), and severe COVID-19 (p = 0.000) are linked with higher levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs. These findings will guide the selection of CCP donors in Serbia. Further studies need to be conducted to assess the neutralization potency and clinical efficiency of CCP collected from Serbian donors with high anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG reactivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , Demography , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580783

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused many changes in the education sector worldwide, and school curricula have had to adapt to a non-face-to-face modality. However, international studies have concluded that this modality has affected the academic performance of students. The present study aimed to compare the academic performance of a sample of college students from before the start of quarantine with their current performance, and to test whether various demographic factors influenced these changes in conjunction with alcohol consumption. With a non-experimental, comparative and longitudinal design, we applied an ad hoc questionnaire, in conjunction with the AUDIT questionnaire, in a sample of college students (n = 341), and we also obtained data of academic average and failed subjects. The demographic factors that influenced academic performance were sex (p < 0.01), age (p < 0.01) and alcohol consumption (p = 0.001). Most students showed an improvement in their academic average during the quarantine period. Women without failed subjects and low-risk alcohol consumption obtained a better average in this period. In conclusion sex, age and alcohol consumption level were factors associated with academic performance during the quarantine period due to the COVID-19 pandemic; and women had a higher academic average than men did.


Subject(s)
Academic Performance , COVID-19 , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(12)2021 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580588

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the health care system. Front-line health care workers (HCWs) are at a higher risk of mental health adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of the symptoms of depression and anxiety and associated demographic and occupational factors among front-line HCWs in Latvia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative study was performed in a population of HCWs during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Latvia. The participants were interviewed between 28 April 2020 and 2 June 2020. Answers from 864 HCWs were obtained. The participants reported their demographics, work-related information, contacts with COVID-19-positive patients and completed two standardised questionnaires that assessed the symptoms of anxiety (GAD-7) and depression (PHQ-9). The gathered data were analysed by a chi-squared test and binary logistic regression. The data analysis was performed using SPSS v25. Results: A total of 209 (24.8%) participants had depression symptoms and 145 (17.2%) had anxiety symptoms. Health care workers older than 50 had a lower risk of both depression (OR 0.422 (95% CI, 0.262-0.680)) and anxiety (OR 0.468 (95% CI, 0.270-0.813)). General practitioners had more frequent symptoms of depression and anxiety than participants who worked at hospitals (32.8% (n = 63) versus 19.4% (n = 73) and 27.1% (n = 52) versus 10.3% (n = 39), respectively (p = 0.037; p < 0.000)). Working more than 48 h during the week was associated with a higher risk of depression (OR 2.222 (95% CI, 1.315-3.753)) and anxiety (OR 2.416 (95% CI, 1.272-4.586)). Conclusions: The vulnerability of the health care system before the COVID-19 pandemic led to significant mental health adverse outcomes of HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic in Latvia. A further cohort study is needed to evaluate the dynamics of mental health and other predisposing factors of HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Latvia/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247794, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identified in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China, the outbreak of COVID-19 spread throughout the world and its impacts affect different populations differently, where countries with high levels of social and economic inequality such as Brazil gain prominence, for understanding of the vulnerability factors associated with the disease. Given this scenario, in the absence of a vaccine or safe and effective antiviral treatment for COVID-19, nonpharmacological measures are essential for prevention and control of the disease. However, many of these measures are not feasible for millions of individuals who live in territories with increased social vulnerability. The study aims to analyze the spatial distribution of COVID-19 incidence in Brazil's municipalities (counties) and investigate its association with sociodemographic determinants to better understand the social context and the epidemic's spread in the country. METHODS: This is an analytical ecological study using data from various sources. The study period was February 25 to September 26, 2020. Data analysis used global regression models: ordinary least squares (OLS), spatial autoregressive model (SAR), and conditional autoregressive model (CAR) and the local regression model called multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR). FINDINGS: The higher the GINI index, the higher the incidence of the disease at the municipal level. Likewise, the higher the nurse ratio per 1,000 inhabitants in the municipalities, the higher the COVID-19 incidence. Meanwhile, the proportional mortality ratio was inversely associated with incidence of the disease. DISCUSSION: Social inequality increased the risk of COVID-19 in the municipalities. Better social development of the municipalities was associated with lower risk of the disease. Greater access to health services improved the diagnosis and notification of the disease and was associated with more cases in the municipalities. Despite universal susceptibility to COVID-19, populations with increased social vulnerability were more exposed to risk of the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Cities/epidemiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Spatial Analysis , Spatial Regression
7.
Libyan J Med ; 16(1): 1910195, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526148

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 began in Wuhan, China, resulting in respiratory disorders. In January of 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a pandemic owing to its global spread. Because no studies have investigated COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, this study investigated similarities and differences between demographic data during the COVID-19 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective trend analysis was performed to assess demographic data of all laboratory-confirmed MERS and COVID-19 cases. Patients' charts were reviewed for data on demographics, mortality, citizenship, sex ratio, and age groups with descriptive and comparative statistics; the data were analyzed using a non-parametric binomial test and chi-square test. Of all COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia,78%were male patients and 22% were female patients. This proportion of male COVID-19 patients was similar to that of male MERS patients, which also affected male patients more frequently than female patients. The number of COVID-19-positive Saudi cases was lower than that of non-Saudi cases, which were in contrast to that of MERS; COVID-19 appeared to be remarkably similar to MERS with respect to recovered cases. However, the numbers of critical and dead COVID-19 patients have been much lower than those of MERS patients. The largest proportion of COVID-19 and MERS cases (44.05% and 40.8%, respectively) were recorded in the Western region. MERS and COVID-19 exhibited similar threats to the lives of adults and the elderly, despite lower mortality rates during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeted prevention of and interventions against MERS should be allocated populations according to the areas where they inhabit. However, much more information regarding the dynamics and epidemiology of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia is needed.Abbrevation : MERS: Middle East Respiratory syndrome; COVID-19: Corona Virus Disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Young Adult
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 749515, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518574

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents an unprecedented situation in which physical distancing and "stay at home" orders have increased the pressures for social isolation. Critically, certain demographic factors have been linked to increased feelings of isolation and loneliness. These at-risk groups for social isolation may be disproportionately affected by the changes and restrictions that have been implemented to prevent viral spread. In our analysis, we sought to evaluate if perceived feelings of social isolation, during the COVID-19 pandemic, was related to demographic and technology-related psychographic characteristics. Older adults across Canada were surveyed about their demographic background, their feelings concerning confidence and proficiency in technology use, and how frequently they have felt isolated during the pandemic. In total 927 responses from Canadians over 65 years old, of varying demographic characteristics were collected. Our data shows that many older adults are feeling isolated "Often" or "Some of the time" in 2020, regardless of most demographic factors that have been previously associated with increased isolation risk. However, feelings of proficiency in using technology was an important factor affecting feelings of isolation. Given that technology proficiency is a modifiable factor, and remained significant after adjustment for demographic factors, future efforts to reduce social isolation should consider training programs for older adults to improve technology confidence, especially in an increasingly digital world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Isolation , Aged , Canada/epidemiology , Demography , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502429

ABSTRACT

The main objective of the research was to examine the associations between problematic alcohol use, tobacco use and cannabis use among Czech and Slovak university students during the early COVID-19 pandemic. The research sample consisted of 1422 participants from the Czech Republic (CZ) and 1677 from the Slovak Republic (SK). The analyses included university students who drank alcohol in the past year (CZ: 1323 (93%); SK: 1526 (91%)). Regarding the analysed measures, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and its subscales, the Glover-Nilsson Smoking Behavioral Questionnaire (GN-SBQ) and the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) were selected to identify substance-related behaviour. Age, gender and residence were included in the analyses as socio-demographic variables. Correlation and regression analyses were used to achieve the main objective of the research. The main results revealed that the use of tobacco and cannabis were positively associated with alcohol use disorders among Czech and Slovak university students. Additionally, males were more likely to report alcohol use disorders. In the Czech Republic, it was found that students living in dormitories were characterized by a lower AUDIT score. The opposite situation was found in the Slovak Republic. Czech and Slovak policy-makers are encouraged to develop alcohol use prevention programs for university students in line with these findings.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Cannabis , Substance-Related Disorders , Alcohol Drinking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Demography , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Slovakia/epidemiology , Students , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use , Universities
10.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(10): 1367-1374, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bangladesh is a densely populated country with a substandard healthcare system and a mediocre economic framework. Due to the enormous number of people who have been unaware until now, the development of COVID-19's second-wave infection has become a severe threat. The present investigation aimed to characterize the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of COVID-19 in Bangladesh. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out from all the other COVID-19 patients and confirmed by RT-PCR undergoing a specialized COVID-19 hospital. From March 1 to April 15, 2021, a total of 1326 samples were collected. Samples were only obtained from non-critical COVID-19 patients as critically ill patients required emergency intensive care medications. Then, from April 17 to May 03, 2021, SARS-CoV-2 infection and clinical assessment was performed based on interim guidelines from the WHO. The diagnosis was conducted through RT-PCR. Later, identifying the symptomatic and asymptomatic patient based on checking the Clinical Observation Form (COF). The patients filled the COF form. Finally, statistical analyses were done using the SPSS 20 statistical program. RESULTS: In this investigation, a total of 326 patients were diagnosed as COVID-19 positive. Among them, approximately 19.02% (n = 62) were asymptomatic, and 80.98% (n = 264) were symptomatic. Here, the finding shows that the occurrence of this infection was varied depending on age, sex, residence, occupation, smoking habit, comorbidities, etc. However, Males (60.12%) were more affected than females (39.88%), and, surprisingly, this pandemic infected both urban and rural residents almost equally (urban = 50.92%; rural = 49.08%). Approximately 19% of the asymptomatic and 62% of symptomatic cases had at least one comorbid disorder. Interestingly, an unexpected result was exhibited in the case of smokers, where non-smokers were more affected than smokers. The study indicates community transmission of COVID 19, where people were highly infected at their occupations (35.58%), at houses (23.93%) and by traveling (12.88%). Noteworthy, according to this report, a large number (19.33%) of individuals did not know exactly how they were contaminated with SARS-CoV-2. Patients were most commonly treated by an antibiotic 95.09%, followed in second by corticosteroid 46.01%. Anti-viral drugs, remdesivir, and oxygenation are also needed for other patients. Among those, who were being treated, approximately 69.33% were isolated at home, 27.91% were being treated at dedicated COVID-19 hospitals. Finally, 96.63% were discharged without complications, and 0.03% has died. CONCLUSION: This investigation concludes that males became more infected than females. Interestingly, both urban and rural people became nearly equally infected. It noticed community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, where people were highly infected at their workplaces. A higher rate of silent transmission indicates that more caution is needed to identify asymptomatic patients. Most of the infected people were isolated at home whereas nearly one-fourth were treated at hospitals. Clinically, antibiotics were the most widely used treatment. However, the majority of the patients were discharged without complications. The current investigation would be helpful to understand the clinical manifestations and socio-demographic situations during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258540, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496510

ABSTRACT

As of May 2021, over 286 million coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine doses have been administered across the country. This data is promising, however there are still populations that, despite availability, are declining vaccination. We reviewed vaccine likelihood and receptiveness to recommendation from a doctor or nurse survey responses from 101,048 adults (≥18 years old) presenting to 442 primary care clinics in 8 states and the District of Columbia. Occupation was self-reported and demographic information extracted from the medical record, with 58.3% (n = 58,873) responding they were likely to receive the vaccine, 23.6% (n = 23,845) unlikely, and 18.1% (n = 18,330) uncertain. We found that essential workers were 18% less likely to receive the COVID-19 vaccination. Of those who indicated they were not already "very likely" to receive the vaccine, a recommendation from a nurse or doctor resulted in 16% of respondents becoming more likely to receive the vaccine, although certain occupations were less likely than others to be receptive to recommendations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to look at vaccine intent and receptiveness to recommendations from a doctor or nurse across specific essential worker occupations, and may help inform future early phase, vaccine rollouts and public health measure implementations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination/trends , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Demography/methods , Female , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Class , United States , Vaccination/psychology
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21248, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493206

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic was an inevitable outcome of a globalized world in which a highly infective disease is able to reach every country in a matter of weeks. While lockdowns and strong mobility restrictions have proven to be efficient to contain the exponential transmission of the virus, its pervasiveness has made it impossible for economies to maintain this kind of measures in time. Understanding precisely how the spread of the virus occurs from a territorial perspective is crucial not only to prevent further infections but also to help with policy design regarding human mobility. From the large spatial differences in the behavior of the virus spread we can unveil which areas have been more vulnerable to it and why, and with this information try to assess the risk that each community has to suffer a future outbreak of infection. In this work we have analyzed the geographical distribution of the cumulative incidence during the first wave of the pandemic in the region of Galicia (north western part of Spain), and developed a mathematical approach that assigns a risk factor for each of the different municipalities that compose the region. This risk factor is independent of the actual evolution of the pandemic and incorporates geographic and demographic information. The comparison with empirical information from the first pandemic wave demonstrates the validity of the method. Our results can potentially be used to design appropriate preventive policies that help to contain the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/transmission , Computer Simulation , Demography , Humans , Incidence , Linear Models , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259070, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484863

ABSTRACT

Public health surveillance systems likely underestimate the true prevalence and incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection due to limited access to testing and the high proportion of subclinical infections in community-based settings. This ongoing prospective, observational study aimed to generate accurate estimates of the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, SARS-CoV-2 infection among residents of a central North Carolina county. From this cohort, we collected survey data and nasal swabs every two weeks and venous blood specimens every month. Nasal swabs were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus (evidence of active infection), and serum specimens for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies (evidence of prior infection). As of June 23, 2021, we have enrolled a total of 153 participants from a county with an estimated 76,285 total residents. The anticipated study duration is at least 24 months, pending the evolution of the pandemic. Study data are being shared on a monthly basis with North Carolina state health authorities and future analyses aim to compare study data to state-wide metrics over time. Overall, the use of a probability-based sampling design and a well-characterized cohort will enable collection of critical data that can be used in planning and policy decisions for North Carolina and may be informative for other states with similar demographic characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Cohort Studies , Demography/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , North Carolina , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480739

ABSTRACT

This study explores the level and frequency of anxiety about COVID-19 infection in some Middle Eastern countries, and differences in this anxiety by country, gender, workplace, and social status. Another aim was to identify the predictive power of anxiety about COVID-19 infection, daily smartphone use hours, and age in smartphone addiction. The participants were 651 males and females from Jordan, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Egypt. The participants' ages ranged between 18 and 73 years (M 33.36, SD = 10.69). A questionnaire developed by the authors was used to examine anxiety about COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, the Italian Smartphone Addiction Inventory was used after being translated, adapted, and validated for the purposes of the present study. The results revealed that the percentages of participants with high, average, and low anxiety about COVID-19 infection were 10.3%, 37.3%, and 52.4%, respectively. The mean scores of anxiety about COVID-19 infection in the four countries were average: Egypt (M = 2.655), Saudi Arabia (M = 2.458), the United Arab Emirates (M = 2.413), and Jordan (M = 2.336). Significant differences in anxiety about COVID-19 infection were found between Egypt and Jordan, in favor of Egypt. Significant gender differences were found in favor of females in the Jordanian and Egyptian samples, and in favor of males in the Emirati sample. No significant differences were found regarding workplace and social status. The results also revealed a significant positive relationship between anxiety about COVID-19 infection, daily smartphone use hours, and age on the one hand, and smartphone addiction on the other. The strongest predictor of smartphone addiction was anxiety about COVID-19 infection, followed by daily use hours. Age did not significantly contribute to the prediction of smartphone addiction. The study findings shed light on the psychological health and cognitive aspects of anxiety about COVID-19 infection and its relation to smartphone addiction.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Young Adult
15.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(5): 1047-1056, 2021 Sep.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478957

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the new corona-virus infection COVID-19 will be over only when population immunity will be developed. This condition can be achieved by both vaccination and surviving disease in natural way. The WHO recommends the first mode for achieving population immunity, since immune response to vaccine is similar to that one developed while surviving natural infection, but with minimal risks to health and life. The article presents the results of sociological survey organized with purpose of studying the attitude of Russians to vaccination against COVID-19 infection. The results of the survey demonstrated that at present, 22% of respondents are ready to be vaccinated i.e. they responded positively to the corresponding question. The following main factors determining population attitude to vaccination were identified. First, there is statistically significant correlation between vaccination readiness and education level: respondents with higher level of education are more likely to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Secondly, in general, the population is quite positive about the response of the National health care to the corona-virus pandemic. However, the percentage of population that is positive about vaccination can be higher if it would be possible to apply foreign-made vaccines in Russia. Thirdly, still there is large percentage of population believing that vaccination with medications that have not passed long-term clinical trials can result in health negative consequences. Fourthly, the majority of respondents experienced various manifestations of the pandemic on themselves: either they have been ill themselves, or their relatives and friends were ill or died and almost all of them somehow limited their common mobility.The survey results did not established statistically significant differences in distribution of responses among males and females. We assume that in order to develop positive attitude of population to vaccination, and specifically to Russian-made vaccines, more extensive information campaign is needed to be implemented. Also, significant increase of percentage of vaccinated population can be achieved if clearly defined requirements for availability of COVID-19 vaccination would be adopted on the international level. Actually, this is key condition for restoring international mobility and removing restrictions in national economies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Demography , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1403, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wearing a protective face covering can reduce the spread of COVID-19, but Americans' compliance with wearing a mask is uneven. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between health determinants (Health Behaviors, Clinical Care, Social and Economic Conditions, and the Physical Environment) and mask wearing at the county level. METHODS: Data were collected from publicly available sources, including the County Health Rankings and the New York Times. The dependent variable was the percent of county residents who reported frequently or always wearing a mask when in public. County demographics and voting patterns served as controls. Two-levels random effects regression models were used to examine the study hypotheses. RESULTS: Results indicate that, after considering the effects of the controls, Health Behaviors were positively associated with mask wearing, the Physical Environment held a negative association, and Clinical Care and Social and Behavioral Factors were unrelated. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that patterns of healthy behaviors can help predict compliance with public health mandates that can help reduce the spread of COVID-19. From an instutitional theory perspective, the data suggest counties develop collective values and norms around health. Thus, public health officials can seek to alter governance structures and normative behaviors to improve healthy behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Humans , Masks , New York , Politics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19952, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462028

ABSTRACT

The dynamic characterization of the COVID-19 outbreak is critical to implement effective actions for its control and eradication but the information available at a global scale is not sufficiently reliable to be used directly. Here, we develop a quantitative approach to reliably quantify its temporal evolution and controllability through the integration of multiple data sources, including death records, clinical parametrization of the disease, and demographic data, and we explicitly apply it to countries worldwide, covering 97.4% of the human population, and to states within the United States (US). The validation of the approach shows that it can accurately reproduce the available prevalence data and that it can precisely infer the timing of nonpharmaceutical interventions. The results of the analysis identified general patterns of recession, stabilization, and resurgence. The diversity of dynamic behaviors of the outbreak across countries is paralleled by those of states and territories in the US, converging to remarkably similar global states in both cases. Our results offer precise insights into the dynamics of the outbreak and an efficient avenue for the estimation of the prevalence rates over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Basic Reproduction Number , Computer Simulation , Death Certificates , Demography , Disease Outbreaks , Global Health , Humans , Population Dynamics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
18.
Health Place ; 72: 102694, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458642

ABSTRACT

Previous studies observed that most COVID-19 infections were transmitted by a few individuals at a few high-risk places (e.g., bars or social gathering venues). These individuals, often called superspreaders, transmit the virus to an unexpectedly large number of people. Further, a small number of superspreading places (SSPs) where this occurred account for a large number of COVID-19 transmissions. In this study, we propose a spatial network framework for identifying the SSPs that disproportionately spread COVID-19. Using individual-level activity data of the confirmed cases in Hong Kong, we first identify the high-risk places in the first four COVID-19 waves using the space-time kernel density method (STKDE). Then, we identify the SSPs among these high-risk places by constructing spatial networks that integrate the flow intensity of the confirmed cases. We also examine what built-environment and socio-demographic features would make a high-risk place to more likely become an SSP in different waves of COVID-19 by using regression models. The results indicate that some places had very high transmission risk and suffered from repeated COVID-19 outbreaks over the four waves, and some of these high-risk places were SSPs where most (about 80%) of the COVID-19 transmission occurred due to their intense spatial interactions with other places. Further, we find that high-risk places with dense urban renewal buildings and high median monthly household rent-to-income ratio have higher odds of being SSPs. The results also imply that the associations between built-environment and socio-demographic features with the high-risk places and SSPs are dynamic over time. The implications for better policymaking during the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Built Environment , Demography , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438586

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine use increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, but uptake was uneven and future use is uncertain. This study, then, examined the ability of personal and environmental variables to predict telemedicine adoption during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 230 physicians practicing in the U.S. completed questions concerning personal and environmental characteristics, as well as telemedicine use at three time points: pre-pandemic, during the pandemic, and anticipated future use. Associations between use and characteristics were determined to identify factors important for telemedicine use. Physicians reported that telemedicine accounted for 3.72% of clinical work prior to the pandemic, 46.03% during the pandemic, and predicted 25.44% after the pandemic ends. Physicians within hospitals reported less increase in telemedicine use during the pandemic than within group practice (p = 0.016) and less increase in use at hospitals compared to academic medical centers (p = 0.027) and group practice (p = 0.008). Greater telemedicine use was associated with more years in practice (p = 0.009), supportive organizational policies (p = 0.001), organizational encouragement (p = 0.003), expectations of greater patient volume (p = 0.003), and perceived higher quality of patient care (p = 0.032). Characteristics such as gender, number of physicians, and level of telemedicine training were not significant predictors. Organizations interested in supporting physicians to adopt telemedicine should encourage its use and create policies supporting its use. More senior physicians had a greater degree of telemedicine uptake, while training programs did not predict use, suggesting that efforts to develop telemedicine competency in younger physicians may be ineffective and should be re-examined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Telemedicine , Demography , Humans , Organizational Policy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(37): e27281, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434548

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In December 2019, with pneumonia-like clinical manifestations, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 emerged and quickly escalated into a pandemic. Since the first case detected in early March of last year, 8668 have died with an infection mortality rate of 1.52%, as of March 20, 2021. Bangladesh has been struck by the 2nd wave from mid-march 2021. As data on the second wave are sparse, the present study observed the demographic profile, symptoms, and outcomes of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients during this wave.The study was conducted at Sheikh Russel National Gastroliver Institute on 486 admitted cases during the 2nd wave of COVID-19 in Bangladesh (March 24-April 24, 2021) using a cross-sectional study design and a convenient sampling technique.Out of 486 cases, 306 (62.9%) were male, and 180 were female, with a mean age of 53.47 ±â€Š13.86. The majority of patients (32.5%) were between the ages of 51 and 60. While fever and cough being the predominant symptoms (>70% cases), the most common co-morbidities were hypertension (41.4) and diabetes mellitus (39.4). Intensive care unit utilization rate was 25%, and a half of the patients had 51% to 70% tomographic lung involvement with an overall mortality rate of 19.3%. Older age, chronic renal disease, percentage of lung involvement, and intensive care unit necessity were important mortality determinants.The present study gives an insight into the demographic profiles and outcomes of admitted patients with COVID-19 during the second wave at a covid dedicated hospital in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Demography/statistics & numerical data , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Retrospective Studies
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